Fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of spray dried designer egg powder

Lipids in Health and Disease, Dec 2018

Designer eggs (DEs) have gained positive importance in maintaining cholesterol level, triglyceride profile and protection towards cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids. However, extreme heat conditions effect the quality as well as quantity of EFAs during the production of designer egg dried powder (DEDP). Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of DEDP and determination of spray drying conditions impact on fatty acids composition of DEDP samples. The DEs were produced, collected, de-shelled, homogenized and diluted before spray drying to get fine powder. The spray drying of DEs was carried out using a laboratory spray drier. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used. The DEDP was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored after packaging for consecutive 2 months at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively. The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus. The oxidative stability of DEDP samples was estimated by following standard procedure of peroxide value. The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs sample. The decreasing trend in moisture content (4.4 ± 0.16% towards 4.0 ± 0.09%) and total fat content (45 ± 0.65 g/100 g towards 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g) in DEDP samples was observed with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed. In this study, loss of PUFAs in DEDP samples was followed due to their active role regarding to human health. For alpha-linolenic (ALA) fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days storage, respectively. The significant decrease trend for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids values from 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray dried conditions of inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period was noted. The docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP during storage intervals was found as 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C). The peroxide value (PV) levels obtained in DEDP samples after 60 days were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings at 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2). The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order showed that lipid oxidation increased with storage. However, the overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit. Extreme hot conditions (> 180 °C) of spray dryer reduce the quality of designer egg dry powder. Extreme conditions assist PUFAs loss and decrease in storage stability due to high lipid oxidation.

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Fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of spray dried designer egg powder

Research Open Access Fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of spray dried designer egg powder Amna Javed1, Muhammad Imran2Email author, Nazir Ahmad2 and Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3 Lipids in Health and Disease201817:282 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-018-0931-1 ©  The Author(s). 2018 Received: 4 October 2018Accepted: 26 November 2018Published: 13 December 2018 Abstract Background Designer eggs (DEs) have gained positive importance in maintaining cholesterol level, triglyceride profile and protection towards cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids. However, extreme heat conditions effect the quality as well as quantity of EFAs during the production of designer egg dried powder (DEDP). Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of DEDP and determination of spray drying conditions impact on fatty acids composition of DEDP samples. Methods The DEs were produced, collected, de-shelled, homogenized and diluted before spray drying to get fine powder. The spray drying of DEs was carried out using a laboratory spray drier. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used. The DEDP was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored after packaging for consecutive 2 months at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively. The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus. The oxidative stability of DEDP samples was estimated by following standard procedure of peroxide value. Results The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs sample. The decreasing trend in moisture content (4.4 ± 0.16% towards 4.0 ± 0.09%) and total fat content (45 ± 0.65 g/100 g towards 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g) in DEDP samples was observed with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed. In this study, loss of PUFAs in DEDP samples was followed due to their active role regarding to human health. For alpha-linolenic (ALA) fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days storage, respectively. The significant decrease trend for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids values from 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray dried conditions of inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period was noted. The docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP during storage intervals was found as 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C). The peroxide value (PV) levels obtained in DEDP samples after 60 days were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings at 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2). The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order showed that lipid oxidation increased with storage. However, the overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit. Conclusions Extreme hot conditions (> 180 °C) of spray dryer reduce the quality of designer egg dry powder. Extreme conditions assist PUFAs loss and decrease in storage stability due to high lipid oxidation. Keywords Lipid oxidationStorage stabilityFatty acids profileOmega eggsSpray drying Background Lipids are considered an important component of food as well as most biological systems. Mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids biosynthesized in the body, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) must be provided through the diet or other sources for maintenance of health [1, 2]. PUFAs poses biological and medicinal interest due to multiple beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anticancer activities etc. [3–5]. The designer eggs (DEs) are widely used regarding to human health in providing various essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids; Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA): C18:3n-3, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):C20:5n-3 and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA):C22:6n-3. DEs show beneficial effects regarding to improve the blood concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and high-density lipoproteins [6]. However, lipid oxidation negatively affects the integrity of biological systems and causes quality deterioration in food. The oxidative instability possesses objectionable off-flavors, loss of nutrients and bioactives that leads to formation of potentially toxic compounds, thus making the lipid or lipid containing foods unsuitable for human health [7]. Destructive irreversible cellular and tissue effects, pathophysiology of numerous diseases and variety of health conditions including inflammation, mutagenesis, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis and aging process are associated with fatty acid oxidation products in human foods [8–10]. Spray drying is a suspended-particle technology which has a wide range of applications in mostly food, pharmaceutical and biotech industry. In spray drying process, a liquid droplet is rapidly dried, when it comes into contact with a stream of hot air (temperature range from 100 to 300 °C) and convert it into powder form [11]. Spray drying produces powder with good handling, easiness in transportation and highly functional in nature [12–16]. Moreover, dried egg and egg products drive the product manufacture’s attention for ready to use in baked, soups and meat products. The spray dried egg powder has been suggested to be the easily digestible and good source of nutrients from egg products [17]. A comprehensive literature search reported that no significant research has been done on the optimization of the spray drying parameters to produce highest quality designer egg dried powder (DEDP). The present study was undertaken to optimize the spray drying process under different ranges of inlet air temperature, feed flow rate, atomization speed and outlet air temperature to have maximum retention of PUFAs at the different storage periods and temperatures. Methods Raw materials The raw materials such as chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and other cereal grains were procured from grains commercial market, Punjab, Pakistan. The seeds were cleaned to remove any debris or field dirt and any other extraneous matters. The menhaden fish oil was obtained from commercial fish processing industry, Punjab, Pakistan. Diet composition and feeding trial The feeding trial was conducted on medium-heavy Leghorn layers (20 weeks old; uniform weight) in wire-mesh pens of commercial poultry house, Punjab, Pakistan. The birds were used to keep in 17 h light and 7 h dark day. All hens were fed on control diet from 20th week of their age before the trial which was helpful for baseline data. The temperature 25 ± 2 °C and humidity 70 ± 5% remained constant throughout the eight experimental weeks. The Leghorn layers were randomly distributed into control and designer feed treatments of 40 layers each. Each bird activity was observed on daily basis. Routine vaccination and medication were conducted as management suggested. The feed ingredient profile for control and designer eggs production has been presented in Table 1. The mixed crumble feed was produced weekly and packed in air tight feed bins to avoid oxidation and moisture build up and placed in dark cooled room to minimize the exposure to environment. The DEs were produced and collected after 8 weeks of feeding trial. Table 1 Feed ingredient profile for control and designer eggs production Treatment Feed Ingredients (g/100 g)b Corn Wheat Rice polishing Canola meal Flaxseed Chia seed Fish oil Gluten (60%) Soybean meal Vegetablea oil Dicalcium phosphate Lime stone (ground) Vitamin/mineral premix Control feedc 35 5 15 15 – – – 5 8 8 1.5 7 0.5 Designer feedc 35 10 8 9 5 10 1 3 8 2 1.5 7 0.5 aCottonseed oil bCrumble form of feed cIsocaloric feeds Sample preparation The DEs (n = 600) were cautiously de-shelled and whole egg liquid (n = 20) for each treatment was collected in a graduated cylinder. Water was added to the whole egg liquid (60% protein: 40% yolk) and mixed well to make a fine dilution. The concentration of this continuous dilution was 1:1 ratio. Thereafter, homogenization of egg sample was carried out using a homogenizer. A sifting was conducted to eliminate the chalazas and the suspended matter. The whole egg sample was diluted before spray drying to get fine powder [18]. Spray drying procedure A laboratory spray drier No. 1 (Anhydro A/S, Ostmarken 8, DK-2860 Soborg, Copenhagen, Denmark) was used in this study. The schematic diagram of the lab-scale spray dryer is demonstrated in Fig. 1. The internal diameter of representative spray dryer was 1.0 m and 2.6 m were height. The upper cylindrical portion of the unit is 1.3 m in height, and the lower conical section has a height of 1.3 m. The maximum inlet and outlet temperatures are 300 and 90 °C, respectively. Maximum atomizer speed is 50,000 rpm which is obtained by the power supply 0.736 kW electric motor. Air is heated by air heater using a power of 9 kW with compressed air consumption of 120 l/min and compressed air pressure of 4 kg/cm2 [19]. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used which is presented in Table 2. The designer egg dried powder (DEDP) from each treatment (500 mL) was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively after packaging for consecutive 2 months. Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of the lab-scale spray dryer Table 2 Coded and actual levels of independent variables for optimization of response factors as determined by Box-Behnken design Independent variables Units Coded levels –1 0 + 1 Inlet air temperature °C 160 180 200 Feed flow rate mL/hr 200 300 400 Atomization speed rpm 16,000 20,000 24,000 Outlet air temperature °C 60 70 80 Powder yield, total fat and fatty acids composition of DEDP The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically according to the AOAC [20] Method No. 923.07. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus equipped with an auto sampler, flame-ionization detector (FID) and supelco wax column (30 m × 0.25 μm film coating) according to AOCS [21]. Briefly, transferred 1 g DEDP sample to the screw capped tube (16 X 150 mm). Added 10 mL hexane containing 0.1% BHT (an antioxidant to help prevent the peroxidation of fatty acid containing double bonds). Caped the tube tightly and shaked vigorously for 1 min. Then put in ultrasonic water bath for 5 min. Centrifuged the tube at 1500 X g for 5 min. Put up the experimental tubes into a heating block heated to 60 °C and a stream of nitrogen gas was blown into the tube to facilitate evaporation of the hexane. Toluene (1 mL) was added to 50 mg of sample in a screw top test tube. Subsequently, 2 mL of boron trichloride–methanol solution was added and the mixture was flushed with nitrogen gas for 10 s and heated in a water bath at 60 °C for 10 min. Once cooled, water (2 mL) and hexane (2 mL) were added into the test tube and shaken lightly to extract the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Anhydrous sodium sulfate was added to the hexane extracts to remove moisture then the anhydrous hexane extracts were transferred into a 10 mL volumetric flask and filled to volume with hexane. The moisture removal step was carried out twice to ensure maximum extraction of FAMEs from the oil. FAMEs were then analyzed by gas chromatography. The FAMEs samples (1 μL) were injected with Helium (1 mL/min) as a carrier gas onto the column, which was programmed for operating conditions such as column oven temperature 160 °C @ 0 min with subsequent increase of 3 °C/min until 180 °C. The column oven temperature was increased from 180 °C to 220 °C @ 1 °C/min and was held for 7.5 min at 220 °C. Split ratio was 50% with injector 240 °C and detector 250 °C temperatures. The peak areas and total fatty acids composition were calculated for each sample by retention time using Varian Chem Station software. Peroxide value of DEDP The peroxide value of DEDP samples was estimated by following the AOCS standard procedure (Method No. Cd 8–53) [21]. Statistical analysis The analysis of experiments was carried out according to Montgomery [22]. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and the average values were taken as response. The significance of all terms was analyzed statistically by computing mean square at probability (p) of 0.05 using MATLAB® (Ver. 7.9.0) software (Mathworks, Inc., Natick, USA). Results and discussion The fatty acids analysis of poultry control and designer feed has been documented in Table 3. In this study, the effects of spray-drying conditions were majorly investigated (Inlet and outlet air temperatures, feed flow rate and atomization pressure) on powder yield along with retention of PUFAs. The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs samples (Fig. 2). The inlet temperature, outlet temperature and the atomization speed were the most major factors affecting the powder yield of DEDP. The results showed that the powder yield decreased with increasing inlet temperature, outlet temperature and the atomization speed. The optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (198–199 °C), feed flow rate (398–399 mL/hr), atomization speed (16000–16,010 rpm) and outlet air temperature (76–77 °C) were found for maximum yield of DEDP samples (66.20 ± 0.20 g/500 mL). Table 3 Fatty acids analysis of poultry control and designer feed Treatment Fatty acids (% of TFAa) Palmitic Stearic Oleic Linoleic Linolenic Arachidonic Eicosapentaenoic Docosahexaenoic Control feed 12.76 15.48 28.33 37.57 2.41 0.5 0.34 0.06 Designer feed 8.33 10.89 23.12 39.45 10.64 0.25 1.44 0.72 aTotal fatty acids Fig. 2 Impact of Spray drying conditions on powder yield in designer egg dried powder The spray drying variables caused substantial changes in the whole egg powder yield shown by the previous studies. Same results concluded by Bahnasawy et al. [19] that the powder yield decreased slightly with increasing both atomization speed and drying temperature for all blends under study. These results may be due to production of DEDP with fine particles structure at higher temperature and speed conditions and these conditions force the very fine particles to go out with exhaust air. Atomizer is the heart of spray drying process that disperses material into precise particles so that surface area of the liquid material is increased. In this way, material is dispersed well within the dryer chamber. After atomization, the droplets produced should not be very huge as that condition developed partially dried powder and even nor so tiny in size or structure as that leads to difficulty in recovery of DEDP samples. The final shape and kind of dried powder product depends on the chemical and physical properties of the liquid material, dryer design and operative parameters [11, 23]. The trend in decrease of moisture content was observed with increase in conditions. The decreasing trend in moisture content was found from 4.4 ± 0.16% (highest value) towards 4.0 ± 0.09% (lowest value) in DEDP samples with changes in operating conditions especially inlet and outlet temperature. At the same time increased moisture content was detected at high feed flow rate. The data trend also showed that moisture content was inversely proportional to atomization speed of spray dryer. In a similar way, the total fat content decreased from 45 ± 0.65 g/100 g (highest value) to 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g (lowest value) in DEDP samples with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed. The normal eggs possessed the ALA (0.78 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg), EPA (0.11 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg), DHA (0.14 ± 0.07 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.324 meq/kg O2), respectively. Whereas, the designer eggs before spray drying process contained ALA (130.23 ± 0.28 mg/50 g egg), EPA (15.10 ± 0.37 mg/50 g egg), DHA (20.17 ± 0.67 mg/50 g egg), total omega-3 fatty acids (165.50 ± 2.21 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.418 meq/kg O2), respectively. In this study, loss of PUFAs was followed due to their active role regarding to human health. To check the reliability of fatty acid retention in DEDP, it was determined in 29 DEDP samples for 30 and 60 storage days at two different temperatures likewise 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The results demonstrated that the contents of alpha-linolenic fatty acids were not stable under variable storage intervals at different conditions (Table 4). The inlet air temperature and outlet air temperature were seen to be as major factors affecting the essential fatty acids content in samples. The alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids contents decreased significantly on storage at higher temperature as compared to lower temperature under different conditions. For alpha-linolenic fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg (spray drying run 22) while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days, respectively. The changes calculated for ALA was 21.98% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 24.32% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 24.01% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 27.80% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively. Table 4 Impact of Spray drying conditions on alpha-linolenic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals Spray dryer process run Independent variables ALA (mg/50 g egg) Inlet air temperature (°C) Feed flow rate (mL/hr) Atomization speed (rpm) Outlet temperature (°C) 0 Day Storage at Temperature 4 °C Storage at Temperature 25 °C 30 Days 60 Days 30 Days 60 Days 1 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 127.57 ± 0.46ab 126.22 ± 0.41b 123.05 ± 0.44cd 123.12 ± 0.42cd 118.52 ± 0.41ef 2 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 118.81 ± 0.70ef 117.34 ± 0.62f 114.33 ± 0.61gh 114.25 ± 0.62gh 109.55 ± 0.67j 3 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 80 (+ 1) 116.58 ± 0.47fg 117.19 ± 0.44f 114.14 ± 0.47gh 112.37 ± 0.41hi 107.53 ± 0.44k 4 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 125.67 ± 0.54bc 124.05 ± 0.44c 121.76 ± 0.62d 121.53 ± 0.42d 116.43 ± 0.31fg 5 180 (0) 200 (−1) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 118.30 ± 0.19ef 117.04 ± 0.13f 114.75 ± 0.15gh 114.21 ± 0.14gh 109.51 ± 0.16j 6 160 (−1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 114.75 ± 0.61gh 113.66 ± 0.51h 110.45 ± 0.34ij 110.55 ± 0.43ij 105.87 ± 0.75l 7(C1) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 114.82 ± 0.70gh 113.55 ± 0.45h 110.76 ± 0.61ij 110.72 ± 0.67ij 105.01 ± 0.52l 8(C2) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 114.68 ± 0.54gh 113.35 ± 0.24h 110.41 ± 0.32ij 110.42 ± 0.31ij 105.42 ± 0.34l 9 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 60 (−1) 115.97 ± 0.87g 114.72 ± 0.61gh 111.95 ± 0.82i 111.32 ± 0.24i 106.45 ± 0.35kl 10 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 101.19 ± 0.12n 100.15 ± 0.09no 97.15 ± 0.06p 97.55 ± 0.08p 92.68 ± 0.13s 11(C3) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 114.76 ± 0.69gh 113.65 ± 0.53h 110.22 ± 0.54ij 110.01 ± 0.51ij 105.03 ± 0.42l 12(C4) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 114.75 ± 0.63gh 113.64 ± 0.57h 110.33 ± 0.64ij 110.43 ± 0.37ij 105.56 ± 0.46l 13 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 106.03 ± 0.31kl 105.44 ± 0.32l 102.55 ± 0.40mn 102.21 ± 0.22mn 97.56 ± 0.42p 14 200 (+ 1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 111.19 ± 0.49i 110.05 ± 0.43ij 107.61 ± 0.53k 107.31 ± 0.28k 102.61 ± 0.52mn 15 160 (−1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 124.61 ± 0.54c 123.55 ± 0.41cd 120.75 ± 0.65de 120.62 ± 0.56de 115.45 ± 0.38g 16 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 113.95 ± 0.84h 112.65 ± 0.54hi 109.74 ± 0.61j 109.32 ± 0.57j 104.33 ± 0.67lm 17 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 115.57 ± 0.43g 114.12 ± 0.35gh 111.32 ± 0.28i 111.46 ± 0.37i 106.78 ± 0.63kl 18 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 102.68 ± 0.63mn 101.62 ± 0.52n 98.33 ± 0.29op 98.63 ± 0.50op 93.98 ± 0.47r 19 160 (−1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 117.87 ± 0.71f 116.11 ± 0.64fg 113.55 ± 0.42h 113.15 ± 0.38h 108.09 ± 0.42jk 20 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 125.70 ± 0.62bc 124.62 ± 0.51c 121.32 ± 0.46d 121.43 ± 0.32d 116.35 ± 0.27fg 21 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 80 (+ 1) 103.92 ± 0.74m 102.01 ± 0.61mn 99.73 ± 0.66o 99.59 ± 0.46o 94.67 ± 0.54qr 22 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 60 (− 1) 128.37 ± 0.28a 127.32 ± 0.27ab 124.43 ± 0.32c 124.43 ± 0.31c 119.87 ± 0.41e 23 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 112.25 ± 0.72hi 111.95 ± 0.84i 108.11 ± 0.65jk 108.55 ± 0.47jk 103.34 ± 0.59m 24 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 127.47 ± 0.38ab 126.33 ± 0.24b 123.64 ± 0.45cd 123.78 ± 0.33cd 118.75 ± 0.42ef 25(C5) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 114.13 ± 0.20gh 113.01 ± 0.24h 110.01 ± 0.23ij 110.54 ± 0.37ij 105.34 ± 0.29l 26 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 114.88 ± 0.51gh 113.22 ± 0.44h 110.21 ± 0.33ij 110.43 ± 0.36ij 105.33 ± 0.21l 27 180 (0) 200 (−1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 105.01 ± 0.22l 104.00 ± 0.21lm 101.04 ± 0.32n 101.34 ± 0.29n 96.34 ± 0.23pq 28 200 (+ 1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 104.82 ± 0.56lm 103.54 ± 0.47m 100.23 ± 0.51no 100.32 ± 0.57no 95.96 ± 0.63q 29 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 114.19 ± 0.12gh 113.12 ± 0.15h 110.21 ± 0.16ij 110.65 ± 0.25ij 105.33 ± 0.29l C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points Experimental model = Box-Behnken design Total number of spray drying treatments = 29 No of replicates = 03 a-svalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05) The trend for effects of various storage time intervals for eicosapentaenoic fatty acids is shown in Table 5. The minimum value for EPA observed was 10.02 ± 0.21 mg/50 g egg under four factors of spray drier i.e. inlet air temperature (200 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (20,000 rpm), outlet air temperature (80 °C) stored at 4 °C after 30 days of storage. The EPA trend showed that significant decrease 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray drier factors inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period. The EPA changes were 31.13% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 61.64% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 51.89% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 85.01% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively. Table 5 Impact of Spray drying conditions on eicosapentaenoic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals Spray dryer process run Independent variables EPA (mg/50 g egg) Inlet air temperature (°C) Feed flow rate (mL/hr) Atomization speed (rpm) Outlet temperature (°C) 0 Day Storage at Temperature 4 °C Storage at Temperature 25 °C 30 Days 60 Days 30 Days 60 Days 1 160 (−1) 300 (0) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 14.51 ± 0.46a 13.22 ± 0.41ab 9.76 ± 0.41cd 10.92 ± 0.41c 5.14 ± 0.44ef 2 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 13.55 ± 0.38ab 12.15 ± 0.35b 8.81 ± 0.35d 9.91 ± 0.35cd 4.75 ± 0.32f 3 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 80 (+ 1) 13.22 ± 0.34ab 12.11 ± 0.32b 8.40 ± 0.32d 9.84 ± 0.32cd 4.72 ± 0.31f 4 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 14.25 ± 0.41a 13.05 ± 0.40ab 9.42 ± 0.40cd 10.89 ± 0.40c 5.69 ± 0.34ef 5 180 (0) 200 (−1) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 13.45 ± 0.39ab 12.19 ± 0.35b 5.58 ± 0.35ef 9.86 ± 0.35cd 4.88 ± 0.32f 6 160 (−1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 13.05 ± 0.33ab 12.00 ± 0.31b 8.82 ± 0.31d 9.00 ± 0.31cd 4.75 ± 0.29f 7(C1) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.09 ± 0.34ab 12.03 ± 0.32b 8.86 ± 0.32d 9.74 ± 0.32cd 4.65 ± 0.30f 8(C2) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.10 ± 0.38ab 12.15 ± 0.37b 8.87 ± 0.37d 9.72 ± 0.37cd 4.61 ± 0.31f 9 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 60 (−1) 13.05 ± 0.39ab 12.11 ± 0.35b 8.83 ± 0.35d 9.82 ± 0.35cd 4.67 ± 0.38f 10 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 11.53 ± 0.29bc 10.05 ± 0.21c 6.90 ± 0.21e 7.99 ± 0.21de 2.91 ± 0.27g 11(C3) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.11 ± 0.33ab 12.18 ± 0.30b 8.81 ± 0.30d 9.91 ± 0.30cd 4.62 ± 0.29f 12(C4) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.12 ± 0.38ab 12.11 ± 0.33b 8.82 ± 0.33d 9.92 ± 0.33cd 4.63 ± 0.31f 13 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 12.15 ± 0.28b 11.09 ± 0.22bc 7.11 ± 0.22de 8.00 ± 0.22d 3.89 ± 0.18fg 14 200 (+ 1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 12.72 ± 0.26b 11.18 ± 0.20bc 7.71 ± 0.20de 8.82 ± 0.20d 3.35 ± 0.23fg 15 160 (−1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 14.25 ± 0.45a 13.03 ± 0.41ab 9.15 ± 0.41cd 10.45 ± 0.41c 5.88 ± 0.28ef 16 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 12.93 ± 0.29b 11.53 ± 0.21bc 7.35 ± 0.21de 8.83 ± 0.21d 3.37 ± 0.32fg 17 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 13.24 ± 0.35ab 12.06 ± 0.33b 8.34 ± 0.33d 9.91 ± 0.33cd 4.67 ± 0.39f 18 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 11.75 ± 0.27bc 10.02 ± 0.21c 6.98 ± 0.21e 7.11 ± 0.21de 2.29 ± 0.15g 19 160 (−1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.45 ± 0.39ab 12.19 ± 0.31b 8.31 ± 0.31d 9.91 ± 0.31cd 4.22 ± 0.21f 20 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 14.26 ± 0.42a 13.10 ± 0.40ab 9.34 ± 0.40cd 10.13 ± 0.40c 5.67 ± 0.23ef 21 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 80 (+ 1) 11.78 ± 0.31bc 10.35 ± 0.28c 6.70 ± 0.28e 7.00 ± 0.28de 2.18 ± 0.14g 22 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 60 (− 1) 14.55 ± 0.46a 13.10 ± 0.37ab 9.59 ± 0.37cd 10.33 ± 0.37c 5.91 ± 0.27ef 23 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 12.72 ± 0.34b 11.31 ± 0.32bc 7.93 ± 0.32de 8.82 ± 0.32d 3.89 ± 0.30fg 24 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 14.55 ± 0.41a 13.13 ± 0.38ab 9.83 ± 0.38cd 10.81 ± 0.38c 5.86 ± 0.25ef 25(C5) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 13.08 ± 0.33ab 12.14 ± 0.30b 8.85 ± 0.30d 9.71 ± 0.30cd 4.51 ± 0.21f 26 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 13.05 ± 0.37ab 12.31 ± 0.31b 8.01 ± 0.31d 9.09 ± 0.31cd 4.42 ± 0.28f 27 180 (0) 200 (−1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 11.95 ± 0.29bc 10.72 ± 0.22c 6.02 ± 0.22e 7.22 ± 0.22de 2.39 ± 0.11g 28 200 (+ 1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 11.94 ± 0.32bc 10.70 ± 0.29c 6.00 ± 0.29e 7.73 ± 0.29de 2.26 ± 0.19g 29 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 13.05 ± 0.36ab 12.10 ± 0.31b 8.11 ± 0.31d 9.71 ± 0.31cd 4.54 ± 0.36f C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points Experimental model = Box-Behnken design Total number of spray drying treatments = 29 No of replicates = 03 a-gvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05) The minimum values for DEDP samples regarding to retention of docosahexaenoic fatty acids stored at two different storage temperatures 4 °C and 25 °C observed at the same spray drier conditions (0, 30 and 60 days) as shown in Table 6. The DHA value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The trend in percent changes calculated for EPA was 8.26% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 34.79% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 27.88% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 61.20% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP obtained by keeping spray drier factors (i.e. inlet air temperature and feed flow rate at medium level whereas atomization and outlet air temperature at minimum level) during storage intervals was found 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C) (Table 7). Table 6 Impact of Spray drying conditions on docosahexaenoic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals Spray dryer process run Independent variables DHA (mg/50 g egg) Inlet air temperature (°C) Feed flow rate (mL/hr) Atomization speed (rpm) Outlet temperature (°C) 0 Day Storage at Temperature 4 °C Storage at Temperature 25 °C 30 Days 60 Days 30 Days 60 Days 1 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 19.46 ± 0.88a 18.21 ± 0.81ab 14.15 ± 0.79cd 15.15 ± 0.79c 10.45 ± 0.73ef 2 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 60 (− 1) 18.07 ± 0.85ab 17.85 ± 0.71b 13.65 ± 0.70d 14.65 ± 0.70cd 9.63 ± 0.71f 3 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 80 (+ 1) 17.62 ± 0.79b 16.40 ± 0.74bc 12.35 ± 0.71de 13.55 ± 0.71d 8.55 ± 0.67fg 4 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 19.32 ± 0.72a 18.20 ± 0.69ab 14.11 ± 0.63cd 15.22 ± 0.63c 10.76 ± 0.64ef 5 180 (0) 200 (−1) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 18.45 ± 0.73ab 17.21 ± 0.68b 13.18 ± 0.61d 14.00 ± 0.61cd 9.67 ± 0.65f 6 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 17.42 ± 0.81b 16.12 ± 0.78bc 12.02 ± 0.75de 13.51 ± 0.75d 8.45 ± 0.71fg 7(C1) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.44 ± 0.80b 16.11 ± 0.71bc 12.01 ± 0.70de 13.59 ± 0.70d 8.41 ± 0.63fg 8(C2) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.46 ± 0.78b 16.13 ± 0.72bc 12.03 ± 0.71de 13.58 ± 0.71d 8.66 ± 0.71fg 9 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 60 (−1) 17.48 ± 0.82b 16.18 ± 0.74bc 12.09 ± 0.75de 13.52 ± 0.75d 8.72 ± 0.72fg 10 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 15.49 ± 0.79c 14.21 ± 0.69cd 10.10 ± 0.64ef 11.17 ± 0.64e 6.01 ± 0.63h 11(C3) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.41 ± 0.83b 16.15 ± 0.81bc 12.04 ± 0.88de 13.49 ± 0.88d 8.58 ± 0.81fg 12(C4) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.43 ± 0.77b 16.19 ± 0.70bc 12.11 ± 0.73de 13.33 ± 0.73d 8.49 ± 0.73fg 13 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 16.27 ± 0.84bc 15.00 ± 0.72c 11.85 ± 0.81e 12.89 ± 0.81de 7.54 ± 0.82g 14 200 (+ 1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.08 ± 0.76b 16.22 ± 0.71bc 12.66 ± 0.73de 13.77 ± 0.73d 8.09 ± 0.71fg 15 160 (−1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 19.11 ± 0.72a 18.35 ± 0.70ab 14.63 ± 0.71cd 15.79 ± 0.71c 10.00 ± 0.72ef 16 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 17.23 ± 0.85b 16.01 ± 0.88bc 12.89 ± 0.83de 13.91 ± 0.83d 8.55 ± 0.83fg 17 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 17.65 ± 0.78b 16.39 ± 0.72bc 12.21 ± 0.76de 13.41 ± 0.76d 8.68 ± 0.75fg 18 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 15.62 ± 0.86c 14.39 ± 0.82cd 10.23 ± 0.85ef 11.81 ± 0.85e 6.58 ± 0.84h 19 160 (−1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 18.10 ± 0.89ab 17.90 ± 0.83b 13.59 ± 0.84d 14.73 ± 0.84cd 9.55 ± 0.82f 20 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 19.03 ± 0.91a 18.79 ± 0.93ab 14.61 ± 0.92cd 15.69 ± 0.92c 10.80 ± 0.91ef 21 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 80 (+ 1) 15.62 ± 0.69c 14.33 ± 0.63cd 10.11 ± 0.65ef 11.21 ± 0.65e 6.78 ± 0.65h 22 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 60 (−1) 19.41 ± 0.92a 18.19 ± 0.96ab 14.01 ± 0.93cd 15.31 ± 0.93c 10.11 ± 0.89ef 23 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 17.02 ± 0.75b 16.60 ± 0.71bc 12.49 ± 0.72de 13.69 ± 0.72d 8.41 ± 0.74fg 24 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 19.43 ± 0.88a 18.40 ± 0.82ab 14.23 ± 0.85cd 15.99 ± 0.85c 10.21 ± 0.85ef 25(C5) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 17.40 ± 0.72b 16.22 ± 0.76bc 12.09 ± 0.79de 13.40 ± 0.79d 8.55 ± 0.75fg 26 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 17.45 ± 0.82b 16.25 ± 0.79bc 12.10 ± 0.80de 13.05 ± 0.80d 8.59 ± 0.84fg 27 180 (0) 200 (−1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 16.04 ± 0.77bc 15.30 ± 0.71c 11.63 ± 0.75e 12.91 ± 0.75de 7.98 ± 0.73g 28 200 (+ 1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 16.09 ± 0.79bc 15.30 ± 0.74c 11.51 ± 0.76e 12.72 ± 0.76de 7.94 ± 0.72g 29 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 17.46 ± 0.83b 16.22 ± 0.81bc 12.00 ± 0.82de 13.20 ± 0.82d 8.12 ± 0.82fg C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points Experimental model = Box-Behnken design Total number of spray drying treatments = 29 No of replicates = 03 a-hvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05) Table 7 Impact of Spray drying conditions on total omega-3 fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals Spray dryer process run Independent variables Total omega-3 fatty acids (mg/50 g egg) Inlet air temperature (°C) Feed flow rate (mL/hr) Atomization speed (rpm) Outlet temperature (°C) 0 Day Storage at Temperature 4 °C Storage at Temperature 25 °C 30 Days 60 Days 30 Days 60 Days 1 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 161.54 ± 2.15ab 157.65 ± 2.21c 146.96 ± 2.28gh 149.19 ± 2.14f 134.11 ± 2.11m 2 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 150.43 ± 2.14ef 147.34 ± 2.22g 136.79 ± 2.07l 138.81 ± 2.01k 123.93 ± 2.02r 3 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 80 (+ 1) 147.40 ± 2.47g 145.7 ± 2.33h 134.89 ± 2.12m 135.76 ± 1.80lm 120.08 ± 1.93st 4 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 159.34 ± 1.88b 155.3 ± 1.84d 145.29 ± 1.91h 147.64 ± 1.65g 132.88 ± 1.44n 5 180 (0) 200 (−1) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 150.20 ± 2.11ef 146.44 ± 1.94gh 133.51 ± 1.72mn 138.07 ± 1.76k 124.06 ± 1.95qr 6 160 (−1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 145.22 ± 1.88h 141.78 ± 1.53ij 131.29 ± 1.61no 133.06 ± 1.57mn 119.07 ± 1.44t 7(C1) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 145.35 ± 1.52h 141.69 ± 1.88ij 131.63 ± 1.85no 134.75 ± 1.82m 118.77 ± 1.98tu 8(C2) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 145.24 ± 1.57h 141.52 ± 1.85ij 131.31 ± 1.96no 134.72 ± 1.74m 118.85 ± 1.96tu 9 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 60 (−1) 146.5 ± 1.78gh 142.91 ± 1.84i 132.87 ± 1.81n 134.16 ± 1.65m 119.84 ± 1.74t 10 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 128.21 ± 1.55p 124.41 ± 1.15qr 114.16 ± 1.32vw 116.71 ± 1.46uv 101.60 ± 1.65y 11(C3) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 145.28 ± 1.69h 141.78 ± 1.58ij 131.46 ± 1.75no 134.81 ± 1.84m 118.63 ± 1.78tu 12(C4) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 145.30 ± 1.63h 141.81 ± 1.52ij 131.56 ± 1.89no 134.68 ± 1.62m 118.78 ± 1.68tu 13 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 134.38 ± 1.81m 131.53 ± 1.61no 121.51 ± 1.72s 123.1 ± 1.74r 108.99 ± 1.83w 14 200 (+ 1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 140.97 ± 1.95j 137.45 ± 1.84kl 127.98 ± 1.81pq 129.9 ± 1.96op 114.05 ± 1.75vw 15 160 (−1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 157.92 ± 1.74c 154.93 ± 1.65de 144.53 ± 1.62hi 146.86 ± 1.56gh 131.33 ± 1.55no 16 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 154.08 ± 1.61de 140.19 ± 1.57j 129.98 ± 1.54op 132.06 ± 1.56n 116.25 ± 1.57uv 17 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 146.42 ± 1.84gh 142.57 ± 1.75i 131.85 ± 1.87no 134.78 ± 1.71m 120.13 ± 1.76st 18 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 130.0 ± 1.34o 126.03 ± 1.23q 115.54 ± 1.26v 117.55 ± 1.21u 102.85 ± 1.32xy 19 160 (− 1) 200 (− 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 149.42 ± 1.55f 146.2 ± 1.44gh 135.49 ± 1.48lm 137.79 ± 1.58kl 121.86 ± 1.41s 20 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 158.93 ± 1.72bc 156.51 ± 1.61cd 145.27 ± 1.85h 147.25 ± 1.74g 132.82 ± 1.68n 21 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 80 (+ 1) 131.24 ± 1.91no 126.69 ± 1.82q 116.54 ± 1.64uv 117.8 ± 1.88u 103.63 ± 1.77x 22 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 60 (−1) 162.33 ± 1.64a 158.61 ± 1.53bc 148.03 ± 1.57fg 151.56 ± 1.54e 135.89 ± 1.62lm 23 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 141.97 ± 1.46ij 139.86 ± 1.45jk 128.53 ± 1.46p 131.54 ± 1.53no 115.64 ± 1.32v 24 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 161.45 ± 1.51ab 157.86 ± 1.42c 147.7 ± 1.55g 150.81 ± 1.48ef 134.82 ± 1.37m 25(C5) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 145.45 ± 1.42h 141.67 ± 1.81ij 131.55 ± 1.72no 134.55 ± 1.93m 118.95 ± 1.58tu 26 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 145.38 ± 1.45h 141.78 ± 1.44ij 130.32 ± 1.33o 132.57 ± 1.32n 118.34 ± 1.41tu 27 180 (0) 200 (−1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 133.00 ± 1.32mn 130.02 ± 1.21o 118.69 ± 1.22tu 122.1 ± 1.34rs 106.71 ± 1.28wx 28 200 (+ 1) 200 (− 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 132.85 ± 1.25n 129.54 ± 1.24op 117.74 ± 1.28u 121.01 ± 1.22s 106.16 ± 1.31wx 29 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 144.7 ± 1.44hi 141.44 ± 1.32ij 130.32 ± 1.44o 133.58 ± 1.28mn 117.99 ± 1.33u C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points Experimental model = Box-Behnken design Total number of spray drying treatments = 29 No of replicates = 03 a-yvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05) The effects of various spray drier conditions and storage on peroxide value in DEDP have been shown in Table 8. The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order shows that lipid oxidation increased with storage. The peroxides are considered as early oxidation products with relatively short induction periods during which they form, accumulate and dissipate. It seems true that the DEDP samples stored for 30 days at lower temperature were relatively stable than stored at higher temperature for 60 days. The overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit. The PV levels obtained from 60 days in DEDP samples were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2). Table 8 Impact of spray drying conditions on peroxide value in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals Spray dryer process run Independent variables Peroxide value (meq/kg O2) Inlet air temperature (°C) Feed flow rate (mL/hr) Atomization speed (rpm) Outlet temperature (°C) 0 Day Storage at Temperature 4 °C Storage at Temperature 25 °C 30 Days 60 Days 30 Days 60 Days 1 160 (− 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 0.46 ± 0.05pq 0.52 ± 0.01n 0.59 ± 0.08jk 0.53 ± 0.04mn 0.62 ± 0.01i 2 180 (0) 200 (− 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 0.45 ± 0.04q 0.51 ± 0.02no 0.58 ± 0.07k 0.52 ± 0.01n 0.61 ± 0.02ij 3 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 80 (+ 1) 0.58 ± 0.07k 0.64 ± 0.03h 0.71 ± 0.02de 0.65 ± 0.02gh 0.74 ± 0.03c 4 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 0.49 ± 0.08op 0.56 ± 0.04l 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.58 ± 0.05k 0.65 ± 0.04gh 5 180 (0) 200 (−1) 16,000 (− 1) 70 (0) 0.50 ± 0.01o 0.56 ± 0.05l 0.63 ± 0.02hi 0.57 ± 0.06kl 0.67 ± 0.05fg 6 160 (−1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 0.51 ± 0.02no 0.55 ± 0.03lm 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.58 ± 0.07k 0.68 ± 0.04f 7(C1) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.02mn 0.59 ± 0.08jk 0.66 ± 0.05g 0.60 ± 0.05j 0.69 ± 0.08ef 8(C2) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.04mn 0.59 ± 0.05jk 0.66 ± 0.06g 0.60 ± 0.04j 0.69 ± 0.06ef 9 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 60 (−1) 0.49 ± 0.08op 0.55 ± 0.04lm 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.56 ± 0.05l 0.65 ± 0.04gh 10 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 0.60 ± 0.05j 0.66 ± 0.05g 0.73 ± 0.02cd 0.67 ± 0.06fg 0.76 ± 0.05b 11(C3) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.09mn 0.59 ± 0.07jk 0.66 ± 0.04g 0.60 ± 0.03j 0.69 ± 0.07ef 12(C4) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.03mn 0.59 ± 0.02jk 0.66 ± 0.07g 0.60 ± 0.02j 0.69 ± 0.05ef 13 180 (0) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 0.58 ± 0.01k 0.64 ± 0.01h 0.71 ± 0.02de 0.65 ± 0.04gh 0.75 ± 0.03bc 14 200 (+ 1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.60 ± 0.05j 0.65 ± 0.04gh 0.72 ± 0.01d 0.67 ± 0.06fg 0.76 ± 0.05b 15 160 (−1) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.50 ± 0.04o 0.56 ± 0.05l 0.63 ± 0.02hi 0.57 ± 0.06kl 0.66 ± 0.05g 16 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.68 ± 0.07f 0.75 ± 0.04bc 0.67 ± 0.06fg 0.78 ± 0.07ab 17 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 0.55 ± 0.04lm 0.61 ± 0.05ij 0.68 ± 0.07f 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.71 ± 0.06de 18 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 80 (+ 1) 0.65 ± 0.04gh 0.71 ± 0.03de 0.78 ± 0.06ab 0.72 ± 0.01d 0.81 ± 0.02a 19 160 (−1) 200 (− 1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.46 ± 0.05pq 0.52 ± 0.04n 0.59 ± 0.08jk 0.54 ± 0.08m 0.63 ± 0.01hi 20 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.02mn 0.59 ± 0.01jk 0.66 ± 0.05g 0.60 ± 0.04j 0.69 ± 0.08ef 21 180 (0) 300 (0) 24,000 (+ 1) 80 (+ 1) 0.62 ± 0.01i 0.68 ± 0.02f 0.75 ± 0.04bc 0.69 ± 0.08ef 0.78 ± 0.07ab 22 180 (0) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 60 (− 1) 0.45 ± 0.04q 0.51 ± 0.03no 0.58 ± 0.07k 0.52 ± 0.04n 0.61 ± 0.02ij 23 180 (0) 400 (+ 1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 0.57 ± 0.06kl 0.63 ± 0.05hi 0.70 ± 0.06e 0.54 ± 0.03m 0.63 ± 0.02hi 24 160 (−1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 0.42 ± 0.01r 0.48 ± 0.02p 0.55 ± 0.01lm 0.50 ± 0.08o 0.59 ± 0.07jk 25(C5) 180 (0) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.02mn 0.59 ± 0.04jk 0.66 ± 0.02g 0.60 ± 0.01j 0.69 ± 0.04ef 26 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 16,000 (−1) 70 (0) 0.56 ± 0.05l 0.62 ± 0.04i 0.69 ± 0.03ef 0.63 ± 0.02hi 0.72 ± 0.01d 27 180 (0) 200 (−1) 24,000 (+ 1) 70 (0) 0.53 ± 0.02mn 0.59 ± 0.01jk 0.67 ± 0.02fg 0.60 ± 0.04j 0.69 ± 0.08ef 28 200 (+ 1) 200 (−1) 20,000 (0) 70 (0) 0.56 ± 0.05l 0.62 ± 0.04i 0.69 ± 0.08ef 0.63 ± 0.02hi 0.72 ± 0.01d 29 200 (+ 1) 300 (0) 20,000 (0) 60 (−1) 0.52 ± 0.01n 0.58 ± 0.02k 0.65 ± 0.04gh 0.69 ± 0.08ef 0.74 ± 0.03c C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points Experimental model = Box-Behnken design Total number of spray drying treatments = 29 No of replicates = 03 a-rvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05) The regression equations regarding the response factors at different days and storage intervals after spray drying process have been summarized in the Table 9. The optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (161–162 °C), feed flow rate (310–320 mL/hr), atomization speed (16550–16,600 rpm) and outlet air temperature (61–62 °C) were found for maximum retention of fatty acids at 25 °C after 60 days as ALA (123–124 mg/50 g egg), EPA (6.3–6.4 mg/50 g egg), DHA (11.6–11.8 mg/50 g egg), total omega-3 fatty acids (141–142 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.60–0.61 meq/kg O2) of DEDP samples, respectively. Table 9 Regression equations for response factors at different days and storage intervals after spray drying process Response factor Storage conditions Regression equation Powder Yield at O day Y = +  46.10 + 7.96X1 + 6.01X2 + 4.04X3 + 6.02X4 + 0.0250X1X2–0.0450X1X3 + 0.0253X1X4 + 0.0256X2X3 + 0.0251X2X4–6.10X3X4 + 0.9350X12 + 2.92X22 - 0.0525X32 - 2.02X42 ALA at O day Y = +  114.63–6.57X1 + 3.54X2–6.53X3–5.98X4–0.0925X1X2–0.2175X1X3 + 0.0975X1X4–0.04X2X3 + 0.2650X2X4–0.0650X3X4–0.5215X12 + 0.4060X22 + 0.4410X32 + 1.03X42 after 3O days at 4 °C Y = +  113.44–6.52X1 + 3.62X2–6.59X3–5.82X4–0.2325X1X2–0.1275X1X3 + 0.1775X1X4 + 0.0925X2X3 + 0.1250X2X4–0.6450X3X4–0.6762X12 + 0.4050X22 + 0.6250X32 + 1.10X42 after 6O days at 4 °C Y = +  110.35–6.59X1 + 3.57X2–6.62X3–5.88X4 + 0.0450X1X2–0.1150X1X3 + 0.1100X1X4 + 0.1250X2X3− 0.0600X2X4–0.4825X3X4–0.6251X12 + 0.5299X22 + 0.6037X32 + 1.33X42 after 3O days at 25 °C Y = +  110.42–6.48X1 + 3.61X2–6.42X3–6.03X4–0.1200X1X2–0.0775X1X3 + 0.0750X1X4–0.0025X2X3− 0.0425X2X4 + 0.0825X3X4–0.4374X12 + 0.3963X22 + 0.4776X32 + 1.06X42 after 6O days at 25 °C Y = +  105.27–6.46X1 + 3.46X2–6.48X3–5.96X4–0.1775X1X2 + 0.0002X1X3 + 0.1550X1X4 + 0.0400X2X3− 0.0275X2X4 + 0.1400X3X4–0.2706X12 + 0.5007X22 + 0.6182X32 + 1.21X42 EPA at O day Y = +  13.10–0.7508X1 + 0.3867X2–0.7467X3–0.6608X4–0.0050X1X2–0.0150X1X3 + 0.0025X1X4–0.0100X2X3 + 0.0200X2X4 + 0.0150X3X4–0.0367X12 + 0.0296X22 - 0.0329X32 + 0.0858X42 after 3O days at 4 °C Y = +  12.12–0.7725X1 + 0.3467X2–0.7908X3–0.7067X4–0.0900X1X2–0.2600X1X3–0.2525X1X4–0.0800X2X3− 0.1150X2X4–0.1925X3X4–0.1789X12–0.1477X22 - 0.1064X32 – 0.0777X42 after 6O days at 4 °C Y = +  8.84–0.8750X1 + 0.7558X2–0.4567X3–0.8092X4 + 0.2175X1X2–0.0425X1X3 + 0.0900X1X4–0.4625X2X3− 0.0925X2X4–0.2350X3X4–0.2227X12–0.8714X22 - 0.4777X32 – 0.0289X42 after 3O days at 25 °C Y = +  9.80–0.8792X1 + 0.4425X2–0.8600X3–0.8983X4 + 0.1375X1X2 + 0.2050X1X3–0.4250X1X4 + 0.3325X2X3− 0.0375X2X4–0.5825X3X4–0.2229X12–0.3329X22 - 0.4017X32 – 0.1342X42 after 6O days at 25 °C Y = +  4.60–0.8958X1 + 0.4550X2–0.8292X3–0.8583X4–0.1425X1X2 + 0.2800X1X3–0.2650X1X4 + 0.1775X2X3− 0.3650X2X4–0.3250X3X4–0.2782X12–0.2845X22 - 0.1232X32 + 0.0030X42 DHA at O day Y = +  17.43–0.9983X1 + 0.4808X2–1.03X3–0.9300X4–0.0050X1X2 + 0.0200X1X3–0.0150X1X + 0.1000X2X3− 0.0725X2X4–0.0175X3X4 + 0.0010X12 + 0.1823X22 + 0.0172X32 + 0.1035X42 after 3O days at 4 °C Y = +  16.16–1.07X1 + 0.4675X2–1.03X3–0.1.04X4 + 0.1175X1X2 + 0.0125X1X3 + 0.0450X1X - 0.0700X2X3 + 0.1650X2X4–0.0150X3X4 + 0.0808X12 + 0.6771X22 + 0.0596X32 + 0.0308X42 after 6O days at 4 °C Y = +  12.06–1.02X1 + 0.4983X2–0.9958X3–0.8708X4 + 0.0275X1X2 + 0.0350X1X3 + 0.0625X1X - 0.1425X2X3 + 0.1450X2X4–0.0800X3X4 + 0.0516X12 + 0.9716X22 - 0.0222X32 + 0.0878X42 after 3O days at 25 °C Y = +  13.48–1.07X1 + 0.5142X2–0.8950X3–0.9258X4–0.0025X1X2–0.0600X1X3 + 0.2975X1X - 0.2275X2X3 + 0.1125X2X4–0.1375X3X4 + 0.0131X12 + 0.7218X22 - 0.1794X32 + 0.0593X42 after 6O days at 25 °C Y = +  8.54–1.00X1 + 0.3583X2–0.9850X3–0.9058X4–0.0750X1X2–0.1450X1X3–0.0025X1X - 0.1750X2X3− 0.0300X2X4–0.0950X3X4 + 0.1923X12 + 0.5889X22 + 0.0389X32 + 0.0027X42 TOFA at O day Y = +  145.32–8.32X1 + 5.24X2–8.30X3–6.77X4–0.0950X1X2 + 0.2125X1X3 + 0.0825X1X + 0.0600X2X3 + 2.70X2X4–0.0825X3X4–1.06X12 + 1.36X22 - 0.0837X32 + 1.96X42 after 3O days at 4 °C Y = +  141.69–8.36X1 + 4.43X2–8.42X3–7.56X4–0.2050X1X2 + 0.3750X1X3–0.0300X1X - 0.0575X2X3 + 0.1750X2X4–0.8275X3X4–0.7562X12 + 0.9526X22 + 0.5838X32 + 1.06X42 after 6O days at 4 °C Y = +  131.50–8.48X1 + 4.82X2–8.08X3–7.57X4 + 0.3000X1X2–0.1225X1X3 + 0.2675X1X - 0.4800X2X3− 0.0075X2X4–0.7975X3X4–0.9235X12 + 0.5053X22 - 0.0260X32 + 1.26X42 after 3O days at 25 °C Y = +  134.70–8.43X1 + 4.53X2–8.25X3–7.96X4–0.0450X1X2 + 0.0675X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0650X2X3 + 0.0325X2X4–0.1400X3X4–1.19X12 + 0.3461X22 - 0.4489X32 + 0.5311X42 after 6O days at 25 °C Y = +  118.80–8.37X1 + 4.27X2–8.23X3–7.79X4–0.3950X1X2–0.4250X1X3–0.1125X1X + 0.0425X2X3 - 4225X2X4–0.1000X3X4–0.9022X12 + 0.6441X22 + 0.2828X32 + 0.9691X42 PV at O day Y = +  0.5300 + 0.0492X1 + 0.0192X2 + 0.0200X3 + 0.0650X4 + 0.0001X1X2–0.0025X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0025X2X3 + 0.0001X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4 + 0.0004X12 + 0.0003X22 + 0.0017X32 + 0.0042X42 after 3O days at 4 °C Y = +  0.5900 + 0.0500X1 + 0.0192X2 + 0.0183X3 + 0.0642X4–0.0025X1X2 + 0.0026X1X3 + 0.0002X1X + 0.0027X2X3− 0.0028X2X4 + 0.0003X3X4–0.0025X12 + 0.0013X22 + 0.0001X32 + 0.0062X42 after 6O days at 4 °C Y = +  0.6600 + 0.0501X1 + 0.0175X2 + 0.0192X3 + 0.0650X4–0.0023X1X2 + 0.0025X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0002X2X3 + 0.0003X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4–0.0022X12 + 0.0012X22 + 0.0012X32 + 0.0050X42 after 3O days at 25 °C Y = +  0.6000 + 0.0558X1 + 0.0100X2 + 0.0117X3 + 0.0525X4 + 0.0025X1X2–0.0024X1X3–0.0225X1X - 0.0226X2X3− 0.0100X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4 + 0.0146X12–0.0117X22 - 0.0116X32 + 0.0171X42 after 6O days at 25 °C Y = +  0.6900 + 0.0517X1 + 0.0083X2 + 0.0116X3 + 0.0600X4 + 0.0024X1X2–0.0050X1X3–0.0125X1X - 0.0200X2X3− 0.0025X2X4 + 0.0002X3X4 + 0.0113X12–0.0087X22 - 0.0088X32 + 0.0137X42 X1 = Inlet air temperature; X2 = Feed flow rate; X3 = Atomization speed; X4 = Outlet air temperature ALA Alpha-linolenic fatty acids, EPA Eicosapentaenoic fatty acids, DHA Docosahexaenoic fatty acids, TOFA Total omega-3 fatty acids, PV Peroxide value Several authors, in accordance with our results, report the effect of storage temperature on egg powder fatty acids composition. Deslypere et al. [24] results also conclude that storage at lower temperatures for several months yielded no perceptible changes in n-3 PUFAs of fat tissue aspirates which is compatible with our results. This study showed that PUFAs loses increases with storage which is in accordance with observation of Terao et al. [25] that egg lipids underwent high oxidation during spray-drying; moreover, they observed that this oxidation significantly increases during storage (1 and 3 months). Furthermore, several previous research studies described monounsaturated fatty acid and PUFAs losses during extensive heat processing [26–28]. In addition, some studies have been focused only on n-3 PUFAs losses because of their high nutritional relevance [29]. In the case of DEDP, the loss of essential fatty acids was already predicted because the PUFAS content were high in DEDP samples and the heat treatment applied was severe. The thermal effects could be clearly observed at high outlet air temperatures, in accordance with other published reports. With increase of temperature, retention of PUFAs decreases and browning of powder increased, but lower temperature cause retention of moisture and low-quality powder with increased drying time [30, 31]. High temperature treatment causes protein denaturation and modifies lipoprotein structure. This change leads to decreased oxidative stability of egg lipids [32]. Higher temperature conditions in spray dryer causes higher losses of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs and also less favorable to omega-6/omega-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios. Mostly C20:4n-6 and C22:6n-3 PUFAs are destroyed at high temperature [33]. The safety and quality of powdered eggs depend on at least two critical steps as the drying process itself and the storage conditions such as length and temperature. The drying process uses high temperatures that can accelerate reactions between lipids and molecular oxygen, resulting in losses of nutritional and sensory properties of egg products. At the same time, there is an increasing interest on the consumption of food that have a higher content of omega-3 PUFAs than conventional foods. However, this increase in the unsaturation of fatty acid can lead to an increase of lipid oxidation, especially during the drying process or the storage. Unsaturated fatty acid losses have been widely reported as an indicator of lipid oxidation. As a rule, in foods, susceptibility to oxidation of phospholipids increases with the unsaturation [34]. The spray-dried eggs are highly oxidized and very susceptible to oxidation in comparison with raw eggs [35]. This fact is related to the structure of phospholipids in the raw yolk that protect against oxidation. Phospholipids are interwoven in the exterior structure of low-density lipoprotein and this compact surface prevents the contact of oxygen with the lipid core of the particle [36]. Egg powder was produced under high temperature scales, which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in lower retention of PUFAs in DEDP samples during storage. Food industries of using spray dried omega food materials are facing the problem of oxidation as these possessed unstable PUFAs during processing and storage. Several appropriate methods have been applied to reduce or prevent lipid oxidation of spray dried powders in order to improve final functional food quality. The most commonly used method is the addition of antioxidants. A combination of antioxidants with inert gas packaging can strongly stabilize the spray dried omega food products. Major finding supports that spray drying of whole egg at moderate conditions of air inlet temperature, feed flow rate, atomization speed and outlet air temperature resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the retention of PUFAs and good quality powder that could further be used for development of functional food products. Thereby, it could be concluded that slight lipid oxidation mostly occurs during spray-drying but this oxidation rate may be enhanced during storage. So, care should be taken during storage of DEDP samples. Conclusion The results of present study demonstrated the optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (198–199 °C), feed flow rate (398–399 mL/hr), atomization speed (16000–16,010 rpm) and outlet air temperature (76–77 °C) for maximum yield of designer egg dried powder samples (66.20 ± 0.20 g/500 mL). The inlet and outlet air temperature were seen to be as major factors affecting the essential fatty acids content in spray dried samples. Furthermore, the results from this work will aid in the formulation of healthy food products supplemented with designer egg dried powder and may address a critical industrial demand in terms of formulation options. Additional studies should be undertaken to enhance the shelf life of omega food products by supplementation of antioxidants and gradual reduction of oxidation process. Furthermore, future studies should focus on treatment of nutritional disorders through the functional foods and their absorption, metabolism and distribution pattern into biological tissues. Declarations Acknowledgements The authors are highly obliged to the Library Department, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF) and IT Department, Higher Education Commission (HEC, Islamabad) for access to journals, books and valuable database. Funding The authors are highly obliged to the Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home Economics for providing chemicals to carried out the analysis of the samples. Availability of data and materials The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article. Authors’ contributions AJ conceptualized, performed, analyzed and MI provided the technical assistance while NA and AIH guided for drafting the manuscript. “It’s also confirmed that all the authors read and approved the final manuscript”. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not Applicable. Consent for publication Not Applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 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Amna Javed, Muhammad Imran, Nazir Ahmad, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain. Fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of spray dried designer egg powder, Lipids in Health and Disease, 2018, 282, DOI: 10.1186/s12944-018-0931-1