Insulin secretory responses of a clonal cell line of simian virus 40-transformed B cells

Diabetologia, Oct 1986

We have evaluated the potential of the clonal insulin-secretory cell line HIT-T15 as a model system for investigating stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic B cells. In contrast to other cell lines, HIT cell insulin secretion was consistently stimulated 2- to 3-fold by D-glucose. The maximally effective concentration of glucose was 10 mmol/1; between 2 and 10 mmol/l glucose the increase in insulin release was paralleled by an increased rate of glucose oxidation. The main characteristics of glucose-stimulated insulin release by HIT cells were essentially similar to those of normal islets. Thus, the response was (1) specific for metabolizable sugars (D-mannose and D-glyceraldehyde stimulated insulin release but L-glucose and D-galactose were ineffective); (2) markedly dependent on extracellular Ca2+ concentration; (3) potentiated by forskolin, glucagon, acetylcholine and 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate; (4) inhibited by adrenaline or somatostatin; (5) showed a biphasic pattern of release in perifusion experiments, with both phases being potentiated by forskolin. The secretory response of the HIT cells to amino acids was also similar to that of normal islets. Thus, L-leucine and its deamination product 2-ketoisocaproate were effective stimuli, whereas L-isoleucine and L-glutamine were ineffective. Insulin release from HIT cells could also be evoked by the sulphonylureas glibenclamide and tolbutamide and by an increase in concentration of extracellular K+ to 40 mmol/1. The content of cyclic AMP in HIT cells was increased modestly by glucose but not by an increase in extracellular K+. Forskolin elicited a 4-fold increase in cyclic AMP content. We conclude that HIT cells retain the essential features of the insulin secretory response of normal B cells and represent an important tool for further biochemical characterisation of the secretory system.

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Insulin secretory responses of a clonal cell line of simian virus 40-transformed B cells

Diabetologia Insulin secretory responses o f a clonal cell line o f simian virus 40-transformed B cells S. J. H. Ashcroft 0 P. H a m m o n d s a n d D. E. Harrison 0 1 0 Nuffield Department of Clinical Biochemistry , John RadcliffeHospital, Headington,Oxford , UK 1 Present address: CRC Medical OncologyUnit, SouthamptonGeneral Hospital , Southampton , UK Summary. We have evaluated the potential of the clonal insulin-secretory cell line HIT-T15 as a model system for investigating stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic B cells. In contrast to other cell lines, HIT cell insulin secretion was consistently stimulated 2- to 3-fold by D-glucose. The maximally effective concentration of glucose was 10 mmol/1; between 2 and 10 mmol/1 glucose the increase in insulin release was paralleled by an increased rate of glucose oxidation. The main characteristics of glucose-stimulated insulin release by HIT cells were essentially similar to those of normal islets. Thus, the response was (1) specific for metabolizable sugars (Dmannose and D-glyceraldehyde stimulated insulin release but L-glucose and D-galactose were ineffective); (2) markedly dependent on extracellular Ca2+ concentration; (3)potentiated by forskolin, glucagon, acetylcholine and 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate; (4)inhibited by adrenaline or somatostatin; (5) showed a biphasic pattern of release in perifusion Cell line; insulin secretion; HIT cells; B cells - Biochemical characterisation o f normal and pathological B cell function has been restricted by the limited availability and heterogeneity o f isolated islets o f Langerhans. The recent development o f proliferative cell lines [ 1, 2 ] that can be grown in tissue culture to yield essentially unlimited amounts of tissue is therefore an important advance. The clonal insulin-secreting cell line R I N - m 5 F [ 1 ] was developed from a transplantable rat insulinoma [ 3 ]. However, although R I N cells respond positively to certain insulin secretagogues, they fail to respond to glucose, the major physiological regulator o f insulin secretion [4]. This lack o f secretory response to glucose has been attributed to abnormal glucose metabolism in R I N cells [ 5 ]. In contrast, by transforming hamster islets with Simian virus 40, Santerre et al. [ 2 ] developed a glucoseexperiments, with both phases being potentiated by forskolin. The secretory response of the HIT cells to amino acids was also similar to that of normal islets. Thus, L-leucine and its deamination product 2-ketoisocaproate were effective stimuli, whereas L-isoleucine and L-glutamine were ineffective. Insulin release from HIT cells could also be evoked by the sulphonylureas glibenclamide and tolbutamide and by an increase in concentration of extracellular K + to 40 mmol/1. The content of cyclic AMP in HIT cells was increased modestly by glucose but not by an increase in extracellular K +. Forskolin elicited a 4-fold increase in cyclic AMP content. We conclude that HIT cells retain the essential features of the insulin secretory response of normal B cells and represent an important tool for further biochemical characterisation of the secretory system. responsive cell line ( H I T cells). Preliminary characterisation o f the H I T cell insulin secretory response also demonstrated stimulation by glucagon and 3-isobutyl1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and inhibition by somatostatin and dexamethasone [ 2 ]. Hill and Boyd [ 6 ] have characterised the dynamics of H I T cell insulin release stimulated by glucose, g l u c o s e + I B M X and K + ; the same authors have recently shown [ 7 ] that the release o f insulin evoked b y glucose or by high K + is d e p e n d e n t on the presence o f extracellular Ca z+. In addition, Swope and Schonbrunn [ 8 ] reported stimulation o f basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release in H I T cells by bombesin, a gastrointestinal tetradecapeptide. Despite these encouraging results, there has been no detailed survey o f the secretory properties o f H I T cells. Since this is essential for evaluation o f the potential of H I T cells as a model for investigating the molecular basis o f secretion, we have carried out a comprehensive study o f the response o f H I T cells to a range o f hormones, nutrients a n d drugs k n o w n to modulate insulin s e c r e t i o n f r o m n o r m a l islets. T h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n s u l i n s e c r e t o r y r e s p o n s e t o g l u c o s e a n d g l u c o s e m e t a b o l i s m a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n t r a c e l l u l a r c A M P c o n t e n t a n d i n s u l i n r e l e a s e w e r e a l s o s t u d i e d . Materials and methods Cell culture HIT cells (clone T15) were generously provided by Dr. A. E. Boyd III (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA) and Dr. R. F. Santerre (Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Ind, USA). For routine culture, 1.2 x 107 cells were seeded in 75 cme Costar tissue culture flasks (Horwell, London, UK) containing 40 ml RPM11640 (Gibco Europe, Paisley, UK) supplemented with glucose (11 mmol/1) penicillin (0.1 mg/ml), streptomycin (0.1 mg/ml) and 10% (v/v) heatinactivated foetal calf serum (Gibco). Cells were grown at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of air: CO2 (95%:5%). Culture medium was replaced every 48 h and cells were passaged at weekly intervals following detachment using Trypsin-EDTA (Gibco). Insulin secretion: static incubation HIT cells were passaged 2 days prior to each experiment and seeded at a density of 4 x 105 cells per well in 24-well Costar Multiwell plates. On the day of the experiment, culture medium was aspirated and cells were incubated at 37 °C in 1 ml of a modified Krebs bicarbonate medium [ 9 ] containing 20 mmol/1 Hepes, 5 mg/ml bovine serum albumin.(fraction V, Boehringer, Sussex, UK) and additions as listed in the Results section. At timed intervals, 150 ~tl of incubation medium was removed, centrifuged briefly to sediment any detached cells, diluted in phosphate buffer (40 retool/l) containing albumin (1 g/l) and merthiolate (6 retool/l) and stored at - 2 0 ° prior to assay. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay [ 10 ]. The maximum period of incubation was I h, during which time the release of insulin was linear. Insulin secretion: perifusion The dynamics of HIT-T15 cell insulin secretion were investigated using a perifusion system similar to that described by Hill and Boyd [ 6 ]. 4 x 105 cells were seeded into individual wells in a 24-weU Costar Multiwell plate containing an 18ram ThermanoxTM tissue culture cover slip (Flow Laboratories, Irvine, Ayrshire, UK). On reaching confluence (72-96 h), coverslips were transferred to 25 mm Swinnex Chambers, Millipore (Harrow, Middlesex, UK) and inserted into a perifusion chamber maintained at 37°C. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min using a peristaltic pump (Anachem, Luton, Bedfordshire, UK). The dead space of the perifusion system is 2 ml, with a corresponding lag time of 2 min. Two-minute fractions were collected for analysis by radioimmunoassay. Swinnex chambers plus cells were preperifused for 1 h without glucose prior to receiving a 30-min stimulation period. Sample collection was started 50-rain into the preincubation period. Glucose oxidation Aliquots of 5 x 105 HIT cells were incubated for 1 h in a total volume of 50 lxlmedium containing albumin (5 mg/ml) and D-[U14C]glucose, specific radioactivity 3.5 dpm/pmol (Alnersham International, Amersham, Bucks, UK) at concentrations from 2 to 20 mmol/l. Glucose oxidation rates were determined by measuring 14CO2production as previously described [ 10 ]. s. J. H.Ashcroft et al.: Insulin release from HIT cells c A M P content Metabolism was arrested and cyclic AMP (cAMP) extracted by addition of 0.5 ml hot acetate buffer (50 mmol/1). Samples were sonicated (50 W, t0 s) with a Soniprobe (Dawe Instruments, London, UK) and stored at - 20 °C prior to assay, cAMP content was determined with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit (Amersham International) using an acetylation protocol. Reagents Tolbutamide and glibenclamide were a gift from Smith, Kline and French, Welwyn Garden City, Hefts, UK. The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) was purchased from PL Biochemicals, Northampton, UK. Forskolin and somatostatin were purchased from Calbiochem, Cambridge, UK. All other reagents were from British Drug House Chemicals, Poole, Dorset, UK or Sigma, Poole, Dorset, UK. Statistical analysis In order to combine and compare data from several experiments the following protocol was adopted for insulin secretion measurements. Every Multiwell plate always included 8 control wells containing cells incubated both in the absence (4wells) and in the presence of 10 mmol/1 glucose (4wells). Release rates for test conditions were then expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the appropriate control rates in the same Multiwell plate and are given throughout as mean + SEM. For each test condition, duplicate or triplicate experiments were performed with 4 replicates per experiment. The mean absolute control values of insulin release over each series of experiments are also given. The significance of the effects of individual agents on HIT cell insulin release was assessed using Student's t-test. The significance of the dependence on glucose concentration of rates of insulin release was determined using analysis of variance. Data are presented graphically as mean + 95% confidence limits for the number of observations recorded. Results Insulin secretory response to glucose in static incubations T h e a m o u n t o f i n s u l i n s e c r e t e d b y H I T - T 1 5 cells in c u l t u r e v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h t i m e . T a b l e 1 s h o w s r a t e s o f i n s u l i n r e l e a s e i n t h e a b s e n c e a n d p r e s e n c e o f g l u c o s e (10 m m o l / 1 ) b e t w e e n p a s s a g e s 70 a n d 77. T h e a b s o l u t e l e v e l s o f i n s u l i n s e c r e t e d d e c r e a s e d s o m e w h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t i m e i n c u l t u r e ( c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h d e c r e a s i n g i n s u l i n c o n t e n t ) a l t h o u g h g l u c o s e c o n s i s t e n t l y d o u b l e d t h e b a s a l s e c r e t o r y r a t e . F i g u r e I d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d o s e - r e s p o n s e o f g l u c o s e s t i m u l a t e d i n s u l i n r e l e a s e f r o m H I T c e l l s , w h i c h w a s s h o w n b y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < 0.001). A t h r e s h o l d g l u c o s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b e t w e e n 2 a n d 5 m m o l / 1 w a s r e q u i r e d f o r s t i m u l a t i o n o f i n s u l i n r e l e a s e . M a x i m a l s t i m u l a t i o n w a s o b s e r v e d a t 10 m m o l / 1 g l u c o s e , w i t h a 2 - f o l d s t i m u l a t i o n b e t w e e n 5 a n d 1 0 m m o l / 1 g l u c o s e . H o w e v e r , f r o m 1 0 - 2 0 m m o l / 1 g l u c o s e , t h e r a t e o f i n s u l i n r e l e a s e f e l l t o a l e v e l s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d at 5 m m o l / 1 g l u c o s e . T h e r a t e o f g l u c o s e o x i d a t i o n w a s a l s o i n c r e a s e d b e t w e e n 2 a n d 1 0 m m o l / 1 g l u c o s e . G l u c o s e o x i d a t i o n Calcium dependencyof basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release HIT cells (4 x 105-106 cells per well) were incubated at 37 °C for i h in Hepes-buffered bicarbonate medium containing albumin (5 g/l) in the absence or presence of glucose (10 mmol/1).The absolute rates of insulin release are given as mean +_SEM for the number of observations in parentheses. The ratio of stimulated to basal insulin release is also given as mean+_SEM and was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than 1 at every passage number. For assay of cellular insulin content cells were disrupted by sonication and extracted in 0.1 mol/l Na-borate pH8 containing albumin (2 g/l) and 0.5 tool/1 NaC1 Ratio 1.74+_0.19 3.31+_0.37 2.12+ 0.16 2.16+ 0.37 1.74+-0.09 2.05+_0.16 2.74+-0.37 (p<O.Oa) e n h a n c e m e n t o f glucose-stimulated insulin release. Initiation of insulin release The ability o f various agents to initiate insulin release f r o m H I T cells in the a b s e n c e o f other additions is summ a r i s e d in Table 3. I n cells i n c u b a t e d with 10 m m o l / 1 glucose the rate o f insulin release was significantly greater (p < 0.001) t h a n that seen in the absence o f additions (2.5-fold) or in the p r e s e n c e o f 2 m m o l / 1 glucose (1.75-fold). The addition o f either L-glucose (10 m m o l / 1 ) or D-galactose (10 m m o l / 1 ) failed to cause any e n h a n c e m e n t o f insulin release a b o v e that seen in the a b s e n c e o f additions. However, b o t h D - m a n n o s e (10 m m o l / 1 ) a n d D-glycera l d e h y d e (10 m m o l / 1 ) elicited insulin release to an extent not significantly different f r o m that seen in the p r e s e n c e o f 10 m m o l / 1 glucose. Stimulation o f insulin release was also f o u n d in the p r e s e n c e o f leucine (20 m m o l / 1 ) or 2 - k e t o i s o c a p r o a t e acid (10 mmol/1). H o w e v e r , b o t h g l u t a m i n e (20 mmol/1) a n d isoleucine (20 m m o l / 1 ) p r o v e d ineffective. The lowered insulin secretory rate seen in the absence o f a d d e d nutrient was not attributable simply to an i m p a i r m e n t o f energy m e t a b o l i s m , since several nonnutrient secretagogues p r o v e d effective stimuli in the a b s e n c e o f glucose. Thus, raising the extracellular K + level f r o m 4.75 to 40 m m o l / 1 p r o v o k e d a m a r k e d stimulation o f insulin release to a greater extent t h a n seen with 10 m m o l / 1 glucose. T h e a d e n y l a t e cyclase activator forskolin (10 ~tmol/1) was also a p o t e n t initiator o f insulin release in the a b s e n c e o f glucose. Finally, the h y p o glycaemic s u l p h o n y l u r e a s t o l b u t a m i d e (1 m m o l / 1 ) and glibenclamide (20 ~tg/ml) caused a m a r k e d stimulation o f insulin release to levels in excess o f that elicited b y 10 m m o l / 1 glucose. Modulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release Table 4 shows the effect o f various agents o n insulin release in the p r e s e n c e o f 10 m m o l / l glucose. Forskolin Insulin release (%) 100 30+ 2 (20)a 37-+ 6 (8)a 3 0 ± 4 (8)a 53 _+10 (8)a'd 64-+ 6 (12)~'d 16l _ 17 (7) 8 HIT cells were incubated in Multiwells in 1 ml Hepes-buffered bicarbonate medium containing albumin (5 g/l) and glucose and Ca 2+ at the concentrations given. Medium containing zero Ca2+ also contained 10 ~mol/1 EGTA. After 1 h a sample of medium was briefly centrifuged to sediment any free floating cells and the insulin in the supematant was measured by radioimmunoassay. In order to combine data from the complete series of experiments, every Muir±well plate included cells incubated under control conditions (10 mmol/1 glucose and 2.5 mmol/1 Ca2+); release rates for each test condition were then calculated as a percentage of the mean release rate for the control wells in the same Multiwell plate, i. e. for cells of identical passage number and seeding density. Results are given as mean ± SEM for the number of observations in parentheses. Over these experiments the mean absolute value of insulin release in control wells was 1.46 + 0.21 mU/well (n = 23). Statistical significances of the observed differences in insulin release are: ap < 0.001 vs 1; bp < 0.01 vs 1 ; Cp < 0.001 VS8; dp < 0.05 VS2 1 (10~mol/1) potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin release almost 4-fold. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was also potentiated 4-fold by the phorbol ester TPA, by 10 gmol/1 acetylcholine (1.3-fold) and b y 5 jxg/ml glucagon (1.7-fold). In contrast both adrenaline (5 ]xmol/1) and somatostatin (5 ~g/ml) caused marked inhibition o f glucose-stimulated insulin release. Effect o f various secretagogues on intracellular c A M P levels Table 5 shows the effect o f various secretagogues on intracellular c A M P levels. Raising the glucose concentration to 10retool/1 caused a significant ( p < 0 . 0 1 ) rise in c A M P from 6.4 __.0.5 to 9.8 + 0.6 pmol/106 cells, concomitant with a 2-fold stimulation o f insulin release (Table 1). Forskolin (10 ~mol/1 induced a marked elevation o f c A M P levels both in the absence o f glucose and also at 10 mmol/1 glucose. In contrast, the stimulation o f insulin release b y increased extracellular K + (Table 3) did not significantly alter intracellular c A M P levels. 10 ¢1. ¢/) _z TIME (MIN} Effect of glucose and glucose plus forskolin on the dynamics o f H I T cell insulin release Figure 2 demonstrates the dynamics of glucose-stimulated insulin release and its potentiation by forskolin. Preincubation for 1 h without glucose resulted in a steady baseline which was maintained in the absence of stimulation (data not shown). Stimulation by glucose (10mmol/1) induced a biphasic secretory response. Taking into account a lag time of 2 min for the perifusion system, a first-phase peak insulin secretory rate of 24.5 ~tU/min was achieved 6 min after stimulation. During the next four min, the rate of secretion decreased rapidly but was followed by a second phase of secretion characterised by a lower insulin secretory rate (approximately 15 ~tU/min) that was maintained (but did not continue to increase) for the duration of the glucose challenge. On removal of glucose, the insulin secretory rate returned to basal levels. A combination of glucose (10 mmol/1) and forskolin (10 ]xmol/1) provoked a 4-fold potentiation of glucosestimulated insulin release in HIT cells in static incubations. Figure 2 shows that this was characterised by potentiation of both phases of insulin secretion. Again, removal of the stimulus was characterised by a rapid return to basal secretion levels. The data shown are representative of three similar experiments. Discussion The development of proliferative B-cell lines that retain the functional characteristics of normal islets would represent a significant advance in the study of the molecular basis of insulin secretion. Previous studies [ 2, 6-8 ] have suggested a considerable potential for HIT cells as a model system for investigating stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic B cells. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate this potential by comprehensively surveying the secretory response of HIT cells to a range of nutrients, hormones and drugs known to modulate insulin release in normal islets. In static incubations, 2- to 3-fold stimulation of HIT cell insulin release by glucose was consistently observed with a dose response curve similar to that for HIT cell glucose oxidation. The magnitude of the secretory response to glucose was lower than that of islets of Langerhans but was similar to that reported for dispersed islet cells [ 12 ]. The specificity of the secretory response to nutrients was essentially similar to that of normal islets; thus mannose, glyceraldehyde, leucine and 2-ketosocaproate elicited stimulation of insulin release whereas L-glucose, galactose, isoleucine and glutamine were ineffective. In contrast to Hill and Boyd [ 6, 7 ], who demonstrated a monophasic insulin response to glucose, we observed a biphasic secretory response to glucose in HIT cells that is typical of that found in normal islets. Stimulation of insulin release by glucose depends on the presence of extracellular calcium ions. Glucose failed to stimulate insulin secretion from HIT cells when extracellular Ca 2+ was less than 0.5 mmol/1. Using a different protocol, in which HIT cells were preincubated for 1 h in the absence of glucose and in the presence of varying Ca 2+ concentrations and then stimulated with 19.7 mmol/1 glucose at the same Ca 2+ concentration, Boyd et al. [71 also demonstrated a similar dependency on the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration of glucose-stimulated insulin release from HIT cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased over the range 0.5 to 2.5 mmol/1 Ca 2+ but glucose did not stimulate insulin release above basal rates (equivalent Ca 2+ concentrations and no glucose) when glucose was added to zero or 0.1 retool/1 Ca 2+ [ 7 ]. We find, in addition, that an elevation of extracellular Ca 2+ from the normal 2.5 to 5 mmol/1 caused an increased rate of glucose-induced insulin release. These data are consistent with the calcium dependency of islets, which show a threshold requirement of 0.1 mmol/1 and maximum response between 5 and 10 retool/1 Ca 2+ [ 13 ]. B-cell insulin release may be triggered by increasing the cytoplasmic C a 2+ concentration [ 14 ]. One method of achieving this is to depolarise cells by increasing the extracellular potassium concentration, which causes influx of calcium through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Raising K + from 4.75 to 40 mmol/1 resulted in a 6-fold stimulation of basal H I T cell insulin release in static incubations. Hill and Boyd [6] demonstrated a monophasic secretory response to K + in a perifusion system. Sulphonylureas with insulin-releasing effects also promote the entry of Ca 2+ into B cells [ 15 ]. H I T cell insulin release was markedly stimulated by tolbutamide and glibenclamide. These findings suggest that the interaction between calcium and insulin release in H I T cells resembles that of normal islets. Moreover, the ability o f such non-nutrient secretagogues to initiate insulin release in the absence of glucose suggests that the lower insulin release seen in HIT cells incubated without additions is not attributable solely to a lack of exogenous nutrient. Glucose-stimulated insulin release from HIT cells was inhibited by somatostatin or adrenaline as for islets o f Langerhans [ 16 ]. Marked potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release was elicited by forskolin or glucagon, which may act by activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase [ 9 ]; by acetylcholine which may enhance turnover of inositol phospholipids [ 17 ]; and by a phorbol ester which has been shown to activate Ca2+-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase in B-cells [ 18 ] as in other cells [ 19 ]. These data suggest that HIT cells possess the full range of pathways for modulating insulin secretion previously demonstrated in islets of Langerhans. The potent enhancement of insulin secretion seen in the combined presence of glucose and forskolin was further studied. In perifusion experiments the effect of forskolin was shown to involve potentiation of both phases o f glucose-stimulated insulin release, and forskolin was shown to augment markedly the level of cyclic A M P in HIT cells. Elevation of cyclic A M P was not a necessary condition for insulin release since stimulation of insulin release by high K + concentration did not lead to any increase in HIT cell cyclic A M E It is noteworthy that, as in islets of Langerhans [ 20 ], glucose itself, in the absence of forskolin, was able to elevate HIT cell cyclic AMP. When cyclic A M P was increased by forskolin, however, the simultaneous presence of glucose resulted in no detectable further increase in cyclic A M P but caused a 2-fold increase in insulin secretion (compare Table3, line13 with Table4, line2). Moreover, although forskolin was able to initiate insulin release in the absence of glucose, the magnitude of this response was only 50% greater than that of glucose despite the fact that cyclic AMP was increased 4-fold by forskolin but only 50% by glucose. These findings suggest that in HIT cells, as in islets of Langerhans [ 20 ], cyclic A M P plays a predominantly modulatory rather than initiatory role in the regulation of insulin release. We conclude from these studies that HIT cells possess an insulin secretory response that retains the essential features of the normal differentiated B cell. The HIT cell line should therefore serve as an important source of material for further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating insulin secretion. Acknowledgements.These studies were supported by grants from the British Diabetic Association and the Medical Research Council. We thank Ms. M. Milewski, J. Chatterjee and H. Reed for expert technical assistance, Ms. G.Bates for typing this manuscript and Drs. A. E. Boyd III and R. F. Santerre for providing samples of HIT cells. 1. Gazdar AF , Chick WL , Oie HK , Sims HL , King DL , Weir GC , Lauris V ( 1980 ) Continuous, clonal insulin- and somatostatin-secreting cell lines established from a transplantable rat islet cell tumor . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77 : 3519 - 3523 2. Santerre RF , Cook RA , Crisel RMD , Sharp JD , Schmidt RJ , Williams DC , Wilson CP ( 1981 ) Insulin synthesis in a clonal cell line of Simian virus 40-transformed hamster pancreatic beta cells . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78 : 4339 - 4343 3. Chick WL , Warren S , Chute RN , Like AA , Lauris V , Kitchen KC ( 1977 ) A transplantable insulinoma in the rat . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74 : 628 - 632 4. Praz GA , Halban PA , Wollheim CB , Blondel B , Strauss AJ , Renold AE ( 1983 ) Regulation of immunoreactive-insulin release from a rat cell line (RINm5F) . Biochem J 210 : 345 - 352 5. Halban PA , Praz GA , Wollheim CB ( 1983 ) Abnormal glucose metabolism accompanies failure of glucose to stimulate insulin release from a rat pancreatic cell line (RINm5F) . Biochem J 212 : 439 - 443 6. Hill RS , Boyd III AE ( 1985 ) Perifusion of a clonal cell line of Simian virus 40-transformed beta cells. Insulin secretory dynamics in response to glucose, 3-isobutylmethylxanthine and potassium . Diabetes 34 : 115 - 120 7. Boyd III AE , Hill RS , Oberwetter AM , Berg M ( 1986 ) Calcium dependency and free calcium concentrations during insulin secretion in a hamster beta cell line . J Clin Invest 77 : 774 - 781 8. Swope SL , Schonhrunn A ( 1984 ) Bombesin stimulates insulin secretion by a pancreatic islet cell line . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81 : 1822 - 1866 9. Christie MR , Ashcroft SJH ( 1985 ) Substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in islets of Langerhans. Studies with forskolin and catalytic subunit . Biochem J 227 : 727 - 736 10. Ashcroft SJH , Crossley JR ( 1975 ) Effects of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, glyceraldehyde and other sugars on insulin release in vivo . Diabetologia 11 : 274 - 279 11. Ashcroft SJH , Hedeskov CJ , Randle PJ ( 1970 ) Glucose metabolism in mouse pancreatic islets . Biochem J 118 : 143 - 154 12. Pipeleers D ( 1984 ) Islet cell interactions with pancreatic B-cells . Experientia 40 : 1114 - 1126 13. Hellman B ( 1975 ) The significance of calcium for glucose stimulation of insulin release . Endocrinology 97 : 392 - 398 14. Wollheim CB , Sharp GWA ( 1981 ) Regulation of insulinrelease by calcium . Physiol Rev 61 : 914 - 973 15. Gylfe E , Hellman B , Sehlin J , Taljedal IB ( 1984 ) Interactionof sulphonylureas with the pancreatic B-cell . Experientia 40 : 1126 - 1134 16. Smith PH , Porte JRD , Robertson RP ( 1979 ) Neural regulation of the endocrine pancreas . In: Pierlussi J (ed) Endocrine pancreas and diabetes . Excerpta Medica , Amsterdam, pp 64 - 95 17. Best L , Dunlop M , Malaisse WJ ( 1984 ) Phospholipid metabolism in pancreatic islets . Experientia 40 : 1075 - 1084 18. Harrison DE , Ashcroft SJH , Christie MR , Lord JM ( 1984 ) Protein phosphorylation in the pancreatic B-cell . Experientia 40 : 1075 - 1084 19. Castagna M , Takai Y , Kaibuchi K , Sano K , Kikkawa U , Nishizuka Y ( 1982 ) Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipiddependent protein kinase by tumour-promoting phorbol esters . J Biol Chem 257 : 7847 - 7851 20. Christie MR , Ashcroft SJH ( 1984 ) Cyclic AMP-dependentprotein phosphorylation and insulin secretion in intact islets of Langerhans . Biochem J 218 : 87 - 99 Received: 14 March 1986 and in revised form: 28 August 1986 Oxford OX3 9DU


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Dr. S. J. H. Ashcroft, P. Hammonds, D. E. Harrison. Insulin secretory responses of a clonal cell line of simian virus 40-transformed B cells, Diabetologia, 1986, 727-733, DOI: 10.1007/BF00870283