Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia
Martin J Barron 1
Sinead T McDonnell 0
Iain MacKie 0
Michael J Dixon 0 1
0 Dental School, University of Manchester , Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT , UK
1 Faculty of Life Sciences and Dental School , Michael Smith Building , University of Manchester , Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT , UK
The hereditary dentine disorders, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentine dysplasia (DD), comprise a group of autosomal dominant genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary dentitions. DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas that of DD type 1 is 1 in 100,000. Clinically, the teeth are discoloured and show structural defects such as bulbous crowns and small pulp chambers radiographically. The underlying defect of mineralisation often results in shearing of the overlying enamel leaving exposed weakened dentine which is prone to wear. Currently, three sub-types of DGI and two sub-types of DD are recognised but this categorisation may change when other causative mutations are found. DGI type I is inherited with osteogenesis imperfecta and recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the genes encoding collagen type 1, COL1A1 and COL1A2, underlie this condition. All other forms of DGI and DD, except DD1, appear to result from mutations in the gene encoding dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), suggesting that these conditions are allelic. Diagnosis is based on family history, pedigree construction and detailed clinical examination, while genetic diagnosis may become useful in the future once sufficient disease-causing mutations have been discovered. Differential diagnoses include hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, conditions leading to early tooth loss (Kostmann's disease, cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome), permanent teeth discolouration due to tetracyclines, Vitamin D-dependent and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Treatment involves removal of sources of infection or pain, improvement of aesthetics and protection of the posterior teeth from wear. Beginning in infancy, treatment usually continues into adulthood with a number of options including the use of crowns, over-dentures and dental implants depending on the age of the patient and the condition of the dentition. Where diagnosis occurs early in life and treatment follows the outlined recommendations, good aesthetics and function can be obtained.
Disease name and synonyms
Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI)
Synonyms: Hereditary opalescent dentine; DGI type I;
DGI type II; DGI type III; Osteogenesis imperfecta type I
with DGI (OI type IA); Osteogenesis imperfecta with
opalescent teeth; Brandywine Type DGI; Syndromic DGI,
Non-syndromic DGI; DGI without OI, Opalescent teeth
without OI; DGI Shields' type II, DGI-I; DGI-II; DGI-III;
Definition and diagnostic criteria
DGI and DD comprise a group of autosomal dominant
genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine
structure affecting either the primary or both the primary
and secondary dentitions. The teeth appear amber,
brown/blue or opalescent brown while radiographically
the crowns may appear bulbous, pulp chambers are often
small or obliterated and the roots are often narrow with
small or obliterated root canals [1,2] (Figure 1).
Non-syndromic DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1
in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas the incidence of DD type
I is 1 in 100,000 [1,3].
Classification and clinical description
The classification of hereditary dentine disorders is
currently complicated. The most familiar classification
system is that formulated by Shields in 1973 . This
categorisation discriminates three types of dentinogenesis
imperfecta (types I, II and III) and two types of dentine
dysplasia (types I and II).
The Shields' system is increasingly out of date as it does
not account for the molecular aetiologies of the hereditary
dentine defects elucidated so far, for example, those
underlying osteogenesis imperfecta and other syndromes
manifesting defective dentine formation (see the excellent
review by Kim and Simmer 2007 for information on the
aetiologies of such syndromes ). Unfortunately, the
genetic defects that have been discovered to date are
insufficient to allow the construction of a comprehensive
classification based on our knowledge of the underlying
The Shields' classification is summarised below:
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type I
Individuals with DGI-I also have osteogenesis imperfecta.
The teeth of both dentitions are typically amber and
transFCilginuicrael f1eatures of the inherited dentine disorders
Clinical features of the inherited dentine disorders. A.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta: The teeth are translucent and
often roughened with severe amber discolouration. B.
Dentine dysplasia: The primary teeth are translucent and amber
in colour whereas the erupting secondary central incisors are
of normal appearance. C. Dentine dysplasia: Radiograph
showing the thistle-shaped pulp chambers of the secondary
lucent and show significant attrition. Radiographically,
the teeth have short, constricted roots and dentine
hypertrophy leading to pulpal obliteration either before or just
after eruption. Expressivity is variable even within an
individual, with some teeth showing total pulpal obliteration
while in others the dentine appears normal.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II
The dental features of DGI-II are similar to those of DGI-I
but penetrance is virtually complete and osteogenesis
imperfecta is not a feature. Bulbous crowns are a typical
feature with marked cervical constriction. Normal teeth
are never found in DGI-II. Sensorineural hearing loss has
also been reported as a rare feature of the condition .
will be followed in this review, as it is currently the more
familiar and useful system.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type III
This is a form of DGI found in a tri-racial population from
Maryland and Washington DC known as the Brandywine
isolate. The clinical features are variable and resemble
those seen in DGI-I and -II but the primary teeth show
multiple pulp exposures and radiographically, they often
manifest "shell" teeth i.e. teeth which appear hollow due
to hypotrophy of the dentine.
Dentine dysplasia type I
The teeth in DD-I appear generally unremarkable
clinically with normal shape, form and consistency.
Radiographically, the roots are sharp with conical, apical
constrictions. Pre-eruptive pulpal obliteration occurs
leading to a crescent-shaped pulpal remnant parallel to
the cemento-enamel junction in the permanent dentition
and total pulpal obliteration in the deciduous teeth.
Numerous periapical radiolucencies are often seen in
Dentine dysplasia type II
The features seen in the deciduous dentition resemble
those observed in DGI-II; however, the permanent
dentition is either unaffected or shows mild radiographic
abnormalities such as thistle-tube deformity of the pulp
chamber and frequent pulp stones.
The clinical categories described above do not account for
the full range of variation seen in DGI and DD. Thus,
bulbous crowns with cervical constriction are not always
confined to DGI-II, thistle-tube deformity does not always
define DD-II and multiple pulp exposures have been seen
in heritable dentine defects other than DGI-III [6,7]. To
complicate matters further, the clinical features
characteristic of various forms of DGI and DD can be seen in
different individuals of the same kindred [8,9]. This variability
has led to the suggestion that DD-II, DGI-II and DGI-III
are allelic and therefore represent varying degrees of
severity of the same disease .
In view of the shortcomings of the original Shields'
scheme and the lack of sufficient molecular genetic
information of the underlying causes of the heritable dentine
disorders, a new classification is not yet possible. The
most current classification adopted by the Mendelian
Inheritance in Man (MIM) database is based on that of
Shields  but excludes DGI with osteogenesis
imperfecta. Thus, the entity once termed DGI-II has now
become DGI-I (MIM 125490), while the classification of
DGI-III (MIM 125500), DD-I (MIM 125400) and DD-II
(MIM 125420) is unchanged. In general, unless otherwise
indicated, the Shields' classification, although imprecise,
Dentine is that component of the tooth which encloses
the dental pulp and is itself enclosed, above the gingival
margin, by the enamel. Structurally, dentine is composed
of a mineral phase of hydroxyapatite (70%), an organic
phase (20%) and water (10%) . The organic phase is
composed primarily of type I collagen (85%) and the
remaining, non-collagenous protein is dominated by
dentine phosphoprotein (50%) .
Dentinogenesis is a highly ordered process in which the
organic predentine matrix is progressively mineralised by
ectomesenchymally-derived cells called odontoblasts
. The odontoblasts differentiate at the bell stage of
tooth development forming a single layer of cells lining
the pulp cavity where they secrete the organic predentine
matrix into the underlying space . The predentine
(1040 m thickness) is an unmineralised region
containing type I collagen which separates the odontoblast
cell bodies from the mineralisation front. At the
mineralisation front, the collagenous component of the matrix is
thought to provide the correct three-dimensional
structure into which the mineral component of dentine is
deposited while dentine phosphoprotein, which is
secreted from cellular processes extending from the
odontoblasts , is thought to act as a nucleator of
hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralisation process . As
dentinogenesis continues, the odontoblasts continue to
migrate deeper into the pulp cavity, extending their
processes as they go, while secreting new dentine matrix .
The rate of matrix formation exceeds that of
mineralisation such that a layer of predentine is always present
[12,13]. The first-formed, or mantle, dentine of the tooth
crown is approximately 1520 m thick and is built upon
a dentine matrix containing thick collagen type III fibrils
arranged at right angles to the dentine-enamel junction
. As the odontoblasts migrate further, the matrix they
secrete becomes dominated by finely textured collagen
type I fibrils orientated parallel to the dentine-enamel
junction, resulting in a denser mineralised dentine known
as primary, or circumpulpal, dentine . There are two
other types of dentine produced; secondary dentine is
formed once root formation has occurred while tertiary
dentine forms in response to decay or trauma .
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type I
DGI-I is a syndromic form of DGI associated with, and
now classified by the MIM database as, osteogenesis
imperfecta (MIM 166240). Osteogenesis imperfecta is an
autosomal dominant condition usually resulting from
mis-sense mutations affecting either of the two genes
encoding type I collagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2) .
DGI is occasionally the most penetrant feature in this
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II, dentinogenesis
imperfecta type III and dentine dysplasia type II
DGI-II is now known as DGI-I (MIM 125490) according
to the MIM database, whereas DGI-III (MIM 125500),
DD-I (MIM 125400) and DD-II (MIM 125420) retain
their original classification .
The only mutations causative of DGI and DD, with the
exception of DD-I for which the underlying mutation(s)
has been elucidated, are found in the dentine
sialophosphoprotein gene (DSPP), suggesting that these conditions
are indeed allelic (Table 1). DSPP is located within human
chromosome 4q22.1 and consists of 5 exons spanning
approximately 8343 bp ; however, see below for
recent information regarding DSPP length
polymorphisms affecting DPP. DSPP is expressed in a number of
tissues including bone, kidney, salivary gland and lung
but its expression in dentine is hundreds of times higher
than in other tissues [5,18-22]. Three distinct protein
products are formed from the initially translated
polypeptide: dentine sialoprotein (DSP) results from the cleavage
of amino acids 16 374 of the nascent polypeptide,
dentine glycoprotein (DGP) is constituted from amino acids
375 462 and dentine phosphoprotein (DPP) is
composed of the remaining amino acids of the nascent
polypeptide [23-25]. Recent reports suggest that the DPP
peptide length varies considerably as the result of in-frame
insertion/deletions and single nucleotide length
polymorphisms within the highly repetitive, and redundant, DPP
portion of the DSPP gene [26-28]. Indeed, analysis of DPP
from pigs has revealed four distinct porcine alleles that
give rise to DPP domains of 551, 575, 589 or 594 amino
acids; these length variants are polymorphisms and are
not associated with dentine defects .
DPP is a very repetitive protein that is highly
phosphorylated and thought to be involved in the nucleation of
hydroxyapatite crystallites and the control of their growth
. DPP contains multiple repeats of aspartic acid and
phosphoserine mainly as Asp-pSer-pSer and Asp-pSer
motifs . Following cleavage, DPP rapidly moves to the
mineralisation front where it associates with type I
collagen . DSP is a heavily glycosylated protein which
forms dimers via intermolecular disulphide bridges ;
however, its function is unknown. DGP contains four
phosphorylated serines and one N-glycosylated
asparagNucleotide numbering follows that adopted in , which assumes position 1 is the A of the ATG start codon using the reference sequence
ine . The function of this protein is also currently
unknown but it seems likely that it too is involved in the
initiation and control of dentine mineralisation.
have a normal dentition, while their homozygous null
littermates exhibit a phenotype similar to that observed in
humans affected by DGI-II .
As a consequence of the repetitive nature of that region of
DSPP which encodes DPP (exon 5), all of the DGI- and
DD-causing mutations that were initially detected were
located in the DSP coding region and were composed of
mis-sense, non-sense and splicing mutations (Table 1).
This observation seems somewhat surprising given that
the structure of DSP does not suggest any direct role in
mineralisation [2,5,31-39]. Recently, comprehensive
analyses of DSPP have demonstrated that both DD-II and
DGI-II can result from mutations in that region of the
gene which encodes DPP. These mutations are exclusively
deletions that lead to frame-shifts which change tandem
hydrophilic serine-serine-aspartic amino acid repeats to
long stretches of hydrophobic residues rich in valine,
alanine and isoleucine [26,27]. Moreover, a broad
genotype-phenotype correlation has been reported for the DPP
mutations with the most 5' mutations, which result in the
longest sequences of hydrophobic amino acids,
underlying DD-II and the more 3' mutations underlying DGI-II/
III; nevertheless, this observation is based on the analysis
of a relatively small number of samples and confirmation
by screening larger patient cohorts is required [26,27].
Recent information has shown the g.1480A>T  variant
and g.3595ins18 bp/g.3479del36 bp  compound
variants , to be polymorphisms. The g.1480 A>T mutation
has been shown to have allele frequencies of 15% in
Finnish , 6% in Caucasian  and 16% in
African-American  unaffected control subjects. The compound
mutations reported by Dong and co-workers , in a
family from the Brandywine isolate, were found to
resemble similar deletions and insertions in exon 5 present in
normal control subjects . Reanalysis of this family by
McKnight and co-workers , resulted in identification
of the mis-sense mutation c.49 C>T, which segregates with
the phenotype and causes retention of the protein within
the endoplasmic reticulum . Indeed, retention of
mutated protein within the endoplasmic reticulum may
be a more general mechanism for the molecular
pathogenesis of DSPP-linked dentine disorders [2,31].
Overall, the mutations in DSPP that have been described
to date consist of a combination of mis-sense and
nonsense changes, splicing mutations and deletions (Table 1)
which have been hypothesised to lead to intracellular
retention of DSPP as a consequence of errors in signal
peptide or subsequent processing events [2,26,27,31].
Moreover, it has been suggested that all of these
mutations will have a dominant-negative effect on the
wildtype protein. If this hypothesis is true, it would explain
why mice heterozygous for a null allele of Dspp appear to
Bone defects appear to be absent from individuals with
dentine disorders involving mutations of DSPP despite
DSPP expression in this tissue. This may be due to the low
expression level of DSPP in bone , altered proteolytic
processing [41,42] or molecular redundancy involving
other extracellular matrix proteins found in bone .
Alternatively, any bone defects may be sufficiently mild to
go undetected during clinical examination .
Sensorineural hearing loss is associated with the g.49 C>A
and g.1197 G>T mutations (MIM 605594) . This is
difficult to explain since any hearing impairment found in
these patients would be expected to be of the conductive
type, involving defects of the ear ossicles, rather than
neurosensory. Kim and Simmer  suggest the auditory
impairment may be an effect secondary to tooth attrition.
Overclosure of the jaw is a common consequence of such
wearing of the teeth and may lead to altered inner ear
shape and concomitant hearing deficits; nevertheless, the
cause of the hearing loss remains unresolved.
A medical history should aim to establish if the dental
condition is a 'syndromic' form of DGI as this is a variable
feature of a number of heritable conditions  including
osteogenesis imperfecta , Ehlers Danlos sydrome
, Goldblatt syndrome , Schimke
immunoosseous dysplasia , Brachio-skeleto-genital syndrome
[47,48], and osteodysplastic and primordial short stature
with severe microdontia, opalescent teeth, and rootless
Since DGI may be the most penetrant clinical finding in
individuals with DGI-I , it is very important to ask
patients with DGI about histories of bone fracture with
minimal trauma, joint hyperextensibility, short stature,
hearing loss and scleral hue . A medical history should
also aim to establish any conditions the patient has that
may aid diagnosis or influence treatment options.
The history should aim to determine that the condition is
indeed inherited and not acquired. A family history
should establish which other members are affected and
allow a pedigree diagram to be compiled. Additionally, a
dental history may involve questions which establish
whether the primary dentition was also affected and in
what way. Details such as colour, tooth wear, abscess
formation, tooth mobility and early loss of primary teeth
may help to establish what type of DGI or DD the patient
has. Dental history, experience and age often influence
treatment options and mode of treatment.
Obvious extraoral features such as short stature and blue
sclera may be consistent with osteogenesis imperfecta.
Intraorally, in both dentitions, it is important to consider
tooth colour (which may vary from normal to amber, grey
or purple to bluish translucent discolouration), tooth
wear, abscess formation, tooth mobility and early loss of
teeth. The tooth enamel may have sheared off leaving
dentine exposed; in such cases the exposed dentine often has
a hard glassy appearance due to sclerosis. For this reason,
patients rarely complain of sensitivity.
Radiographs should reveal normal enamel and dentine
radiodensity; however, the enamel may already be lost
with only dentine remaining. Crowns may appear
bulbous with marked cervical constriction. Pulp chambers
and canals may be normal, contain pulp stones or, more
often, be partially or totally obliterated. Roots are often
short but may be of normal length or absent. There may
be numerous periapical radiolucencies in non-carious
Diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination and
radiographic features. DGI-I always occurs in association
with osteogenesis imperfecta. The features of DGI-II are
similar to DGI-I but osteogenesis imperfecta is not a
feature and, because penetrance is almost complete,
presentation is more uniform with all teeth affected. Bulbous
crowns with marked cervical constriction and pulpal
obliteration are a feature of DGI-II and may also present
in DD-II. DGI-III is also not associated with osteogenesis
imperfecta and, unlike DGI-I and -II and DD-I and -II, it
is associated with hypotrophy of dentine and resultant
'shell teeth' which are a distinguishing feature. Like DD-I,
DGI-III is associated with multiple periapical
radiolucencies in noncarious teeth. DD-I, however, appears normal
clinically. Diagnostic radiographic features include sharp
conical roots with apical constrictions or rootless teeth,
pulpal obliteration with crescent shaped pulpal remnants
parallel to the cemento-enamel junction in permanent
teeth and total obliteration in primary teeth. The features
of DD-II resemble DGI-II in the primary dentition. The
permanent dentition, however, is either unaffected or
radiographically has thistle tube-shaped deformity of the
pulp chamber and pulp stones. Clinical and radiographic
features of DGI and DD are summarised in Table
2. In reality, the clinical and radiographic presentation
is more diverse than the categories described by Shields
 and classic or diagnostic features of DGI or DD may
present in other types [6,7]. In addition, clinical and
radiographic features of DGI and DD may differ in individuals
of the same family [8,9]. Since pulp chamber and canal
obliteration is often progressive, radiographic follow up at
various ages is recommended to determine diagnosis
a) Exposure of underlying dentine
Hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta initially
develop normal enamel thickness but the poorly calcified
enamel is soft and friable and is rapidly lost by attrition
leaving dentine cores. Unlike DGI the teeth are usually
sensitive and on radiographs enamel is less radio-dense
than dentine . Pulp chamber and root canals are
usually not sclerosed.
b) Intrinsic discolouration
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria is a rare condition
resulting from an inborn error of porphyrin metabolism.
This deficiency leads to haemolytic anaemia,
photosensitivity, blistering of the skin, and deposition of red-brown
pigments in the bones and teeth . A number of
prenatal and neonatal enamel discolourations and hypoplasias
are due to neonatal haemolytic anaemias. Most cases are
due to Rhesus incompatibility. The discolouration which
ranges from yellow through to green, brown and grey to
black is usually found at the necks of teeth and the enamel
hypoplasias are usually located in the coronal third of the
Tetracyclines have the ability to chelate calcium ions and
to be incorporated into developing teeth, cartilage and
bone, resulting in discolouration of both the primary and
permanent dentitions. This permanent discolouration
varies from yellow or grey to brown depending on the
dose or the type of the drug received in relation to body
c) Mobility leading to early tooth loss
Other causes of early loss of teeth as in DGI-III and DD-I
include: hypophosphatasia, immunological deficiencies
e.g. severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann's disease),
cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome,
neutropenias, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome and
leucocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome . With the
exception of hypophosphatasia, all of these conditions
have an underlying immunological defect which makes
those with these conditions susceptible to periodontal
breakdown. Mobility of teeth in those with
hypophosAmber translucent (opalescent)
Short constricted roots
Sharp conical short roots
Pulp obliteration primary
Pulp obliteration permanent
Thistle tubed pulp chamber
Primary Dentition affected
Permanent dentition affected
1 Primary Dentition.2 Permanent dentition.
Regional odontodysplasia is of unknown aetiology.
Radiographically, roots are short with wide open apices and
very wide pulp canals, and often become infected as in
DGI-III and DD-I. Primary and permanent teeth are
affected . Irradiation to jaws or chemotherapy during
the period of root development leads to arrested
development and can give a radiographic appearance of DD-I
III. Clinical and radiographic
Vitamin D-dependent rickets and vitamin D-resistant
rickets have clinical and radiographic features of DGI and DD.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets is characterised by yellowish
to brown enamel, chronic periodontal disease, large
quadrangular pulp chambers and short roots .
Features of vitamin D-resistant rickets include attrition and
exposure of abnormally formed dentine of primary teeth
and abscessed non-carious primary or permanent teeth
As previously mentioned, DGI-I is a variable feature of
Ehlers Danlos syndrome , Goldblatt syndrome ,
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia  and
Brachioskeleto-genital syndrome [47,48], and osteodysplastic
and primordial short stature with severe microdontia,
opalescent teeth, and rootless molars .
As DGI and DD are inherited in an autosomal dominant
fashion, there is a 50% chance that a child born to an
affected parent will themselves be affected.
In general, the diagnosis is made on clinical grounds
alone; however, as the genetic mutations underlying these
conditions are delineated, molecular genetic diagnosis
may prove to be a useful adjunct to clinical analysis,
particularly where the precise diagnosis is in doubt.
The aims of treatment are to remove sources of infection
or pain, restore aesthetics and protect posterior teeth from
wear. Treatment varies according to the age of the patient,
severity of the problem and the presenting complaint.
In the primary dentition, stainless steel crowns on the
molars may be used to prevent tooth wear and maintain
the occlusal vertical dimension. The aesthetics may be
improved using composite facings or composite strip
crowns [63,64]. If, however the child presents late, the
teeth may have undergone attrition to the level of the
gingivae and the only treatment option then is to provide
over-dentures [65,66]. Children usually adapt well to
over-dentures but they need to be reviewed regularly and
dentures remade, as the child grows. If abscesses develop,
pulp therapy is not successful and removal of the affected
teeth is required. In younger children, where co-operation
is limited, or the level of treatment required is extensive, a
general anaesthetic may be required to facilitate
treatment. In some cases, the parents or child may not be
concerned with aesthetics and may request removal of sources
of pain or infection only.
As the permanent dentition erupts, it should be closely
monitored in relation to the rate of tooth wear with
intervention only if necessary. Cast occlusal onlays on the first
permanent molars and eventually the premolars, help to
minimise tooth wear and maintain the occlusal vertical
dimension . The emphasis should be on minimal
tooth preparation until the child reaches adulthood. At
this point, if clinically indicated, a full mouth
rehabilitation may be considered. Teeth with short thin roots and
marked cervical constrictions however are often
unfavourable for crowns . Obliteration of the pulp chambers
and root canals in teeth that develop abscesses makes
endodontic therapy difficult if not impossible. Successful
conventional endodontic therapy however has recently
been reported in a case with DD-I . If conventional
therapy is not an option, periapical curettage and
retrograde root filling is another possible alternative, but is not
recommended for teeth with short roots .
Some patients present with severe tooth wear in the
permanent dentition. As in the primary dentition, one of the
options is over-dentures. Those with DD-I have mobile
teeth due to very short roots and as a result tend to lose
teeth early in the primary and permanent dentition. Until
growth is complete, the treatment of choice for the
replacement of missing teeth is dentures. Dental implants
may be considered when growth is complete at about 18
years of age. Maxillo-mandibular atrophy is a
consequence of no or rudimentary root development and early
tooth loss. Ridge augmentation prior to implants is often
Exposed dentine is more susceptible to tooth decay than
enamel. For all patients, regular dental checkups and
prevention of tooth decay in the form of oral hygiene
instruction, dietary advice and appropriate use of fluoride is
essential. Early diagnosis and regular dental care however
cannot prevent premature tooth-loss due to short or
absent roots and spontaneous abscess formation that
occurs in some types of DGI and DD .
The outcome of a diagnosis of DGI/DD largely depends
upon the age at which the diagnosis was given and the
speed and quality of the treatment provided. Where
diagnosis occurs early in the life of the patient and treatment
follows the recommendations outlined above, good
aesthetics and function can be obtained thereby minimising
nutritional deficits and psychosocial distress.
DGI: Dentinogenesis imperfecta; OI type IA: Osteogenesis
imperfecta type I with DGI; DD: Dentine dysplasia; MIM:
Mendelian Inheritance in Man; DSP: dentine sialoprotein;
DGP: dentine glycoprotein; DPP: dentine
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The authors contributed to this review article. They read
and approved the final version of the manuscript.
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