Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement
Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement
David Moher 0
Larissa Shamseer 0
Mike Clarke 2
Davina Ghersi 1
Mark Petticrew 5
Paul Shekelle 4
Lesley A Stewart 3
0 Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and University of Ottawa , Ottawa , Canada
1 National Health and Medical Research Council , Canberra , Australia
2 Queen's University Belfast , Belfast , Ireland
3 Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York , York , UK
4 Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center , Santa Monica, CA , USA
5 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London , UK
Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
Systematic reviews are the reference standard for
synthesizing evidence in health care because of their
methodological rigor. They are used to support the
development of clinical practice guidelines and inform
clinical decision-making. They are becoming
increasingly common; in 2010, 11 new reviews were estimated
to be published daily [
]. Ideally, systematic reviews are
based on pre-defined eligibility criteria and conducted
according to a pre-defined methodological approach as
outlined in an associated protocol.
The preparation of a protocol is an essential
component of the systematic review process; it ensures that a
systematic review is carefully planned and that what is
planned is explicitly documented before the review
starts, thus promoting consistent conduct by the review
team, accountability, research integrity, and transparency
of the eventual completed review. A protocol may also
reduce arbitrariness in decision-making when extracting
and using data from primary research, since planning
provides an opportunity for the review team to
anticipate potential problems. When clearly reported
protocols are made available, they enable readers to identify
deviations from planned methods in completed reviews
and whether they bias the interpretation of a review
results and conclusions. Bias related to the selective
reporting of outcomes has been characterized as a
serious problem in clinical research, including systematic
Until recently, systematic review protocols were
generally available only through select organizations, such as
The Cochrane [
] and Campbell Collaborations and the
Joanna Briggs Institute, for which the preparation of a
protocol is mandatory. Outside of these organizations,
the existence of a protocol is infrequently reported in
completed reviews [
]. Fewer than half of 300
systematic reviews indexed on MEDLINE in November 2004
(most recent generalizable sample; 2014 update
underway) report working from a protocol , 80% of which
are non-Cochrane affiliated. Of the non-Cochrane
therapeutic reviews, only 11% mentioned the existence of a
]. The majority of reviews in health care are
conducted and published outside of Cochrane, however
]. The paucity of protocols may be due, in part, to the
authors’ lack of knowledge about how to write them and
what to include. Currently, little succinct guidance is
available for those preparing systematic review protocols,
although the recent Standards for Systematic Reviews
prepared by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) provide
some guidance toward addressing this gap [
Many groups have called for the widespread preparation
and registration of systematic review protocols in order
to increase the availability and accessibility of a priori
methods for systematic reviews [
]. Such an effort
may reduce the duplication of effort [
] and reduce
the publication bias of systematic reviews. This
challenge has been taken up by the Centre for Reviews and
Dissemination, University of York, which has spearheaded
the establishment of an international
register—PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Ongoing
Systematic Reviews, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero)
]. The register, which enables the permanent
documentation of 22 mandatory (and 18 optional) items about
the a priori design and conduct of a review, was launched
in February 2011. At the time of writing, >5,000
systematic review protocols from over 70 countries have been
registered since its inception. Starting in October 2013,
new Cochrane protocols were and continue to be
automatically added to PROSPERO.
Along with the improved accessibility of protocols
through registration comes the need for strengthened
transparency, accuracy, and completeness of the reports
of protocols intended for dissemination. A template to
aid in the preparation of systematic review protocols,
such as a reporting guideline, may help achieve this.
Furthermore, such guidance will enable authors to create a
clear and complete document of their a priori methods,
which may facilitate the registration of key information
into the PROSPERO database. Building on an
established guideline for systematic reviews and
metaanalyses of studies evaluating health care interventions
—the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews
and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, www.prisma-statement.
]—we have developed PRISMA for Protocols
(PRISMA-P) 2014. Table 1 summarizes the difference
in intentions between PRISMA-P and PROSPERO.
The aim of PRISMA-P 2015 is to improve the quality
of systematic review protocols, similar to the impact
achieved by other reporting guidelines [
helping authors document an a priori road map of their
systematic review, PRISMA-P also has the potential to
improve the conduct of systematic reviews, as has been
suggested of other reporting guidelines [
Statement paper summarizes the development of the
guideline and presents the PRISMA-P checklist.
There is no standard definition for a systematic review
and meta-analysis protocol, and we note that some
terminology contained within these definitions may carry
different meanings for different readers (i.e., ‘systematic
search’). The terms ‘systematic review’ , ‘meta-analysis,’
and ‘protocol’ are defined in Table 2. The former two
terms are in accordance with the definitions reported in
the PRISMA Statement [
] and are in line with those
used by the Agency for Healthcare Research and
Quality’s Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) program [
The Cochrane Collaboration [
], and the 2011 guidance
from the Institute of Medicine [
]. The definition
provided is a culmination of the terminology used by the
Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for
Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) 2013 initiative [
PROSPERO register, and the IOM Standards (Table 2).
The PRISMA-P checklist is intended primarily for the
preparation of protocols of systematic reviews and
metaanalyses that summarize aggregate data from studies,
Definition and objective
An online portal through which to register the intention to conduct a systematic review, with health-related
outcomes, before it is initiated [
]. One of the main goals of PROSPERO is to make the intent of systematic
reviews known before they are conducted in order to reduce the unplanned duplication of systematic
]. In addition, by requiring the documentation of a priori methods, the register facilitates
increased transparency in the review process by allowing readers of systematic reviews to compare
methods, outcomes, and analyses carried out with those planned in advance and judge whether such
changes impact the results of a review.
PRISMA-P: Preferred Reporting Items for A guideline to help authors prepare protocols for planned systematic reviews and meta-analyses that
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis provides them with a minimum set of items to be included in the protocol. A protocol is intended to
Protocols provide the rationale for the review and pre-planned methodological and analytic approach, prior to
embarking on a review. Investigators should prepare a review protocol in advance of registering it in
PROSPERO so that details requiring further consideration may be thought through in advance, avoiding
the need for multiple amendments to registration information. PRISMA-P items have been derived largely
from the PRISMA checklist and items of the PROSPERO register, in order to facilitate seamless registration.
A systematic review attempts to collate all relevant evidences that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a specific research
question. It uses explicit, systematic methods to minimize bias in the identification, selection, synthesis, and summary of studies.
When done well, this provides reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made [
]. The key
characteristics of a systematic review are (a) a clearly stated set of objectives with an explicit, reproducible methodology; (b) a
systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that would meet the eligibility criteria; (c) an assessment of the validity of the
findings of the included studies (e.g., assessment of risk of bias and confidence in cumulative estimates); and (d) systematic
presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies
Meta-analysis is the use of statistical techniques to combine and summarize the results of multiple studies; they may or may be
contained within a systematic review. By combining data from several studies, meta-analyses can provide more precise estimates
of the effects of health care than those derived from the individual studies
In the context of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a protocol is a document that presents an explicit plan for a systematic
review. The protocol details the rationale and a priori methodological and analytical approach of the review
particularly the evaluations of the effects of
interventions. There are many review types that are outside of
this scope. As such, given the general lack of protocol
guidance for other types of reviews, we encourage
reviewers preparing any type of review protocol to make
use of PRISMA-P as applicable. Readers can also use the
checklist to assess the completeness of the reporting of
published protocols. However, it is not recommended to
use the checklist as an assessment tool to gauge the
appropriateness of the methods of a systematic review
protocol; it has not been validated for that purpose.
Development of PRISMA-P 2015
An international steering committee (MC, DG, AL, DM,
MP, PS, and LAS) comprising members with wide-ranging
experience in systematic review methodology, protocol
registry development, and reporting guideline development
led the development of PRISMA-P, coordinated by LS. The
process proposed by the Enhancing the Quality and
Transparency of Health Research (EQUATOR) Network was
used to guide PRISMA-P development [
]. The process
has 18 step-by-step recommendations grouped into five
1. Initial steps (determine the need for a reporting
2. Pre-meeting activities (identify contributors, conduct
Delphi exercise, generate a list of potential items,
and prepare for face-to-face meeting);
3. Face-to-face consensus meeting (present results of
pre-meeting activities and relevant evidence);
4. Post-meeting activities (develop guidance Statement,
Explanation and Elaboration document, and a
5. Post-publication activities (encourage uptake of
The first stage, ‘Initial steps,’ was described above;
details of the remaining four steps are below.
In developing the PRISMA-P checklist, the steering
committee compiled a list of items from various tools
relating to the preparation of systematic review
protocols for discussion at a consensus meeting of experts.
Specifically, we mapped items from a Delphi exercise
carried out during the development of PROSPERO [
PROSPERO register items, PRISMA checklist items [
SPIRIT 2013 checklist items [
], and items of IOM
Standard 2.6 [
] against each other to identify unique
and overlapping concepts. Lessons learned from the
development of the SPIRIT checklist with respect to the
concept and content of research protocols were used to
guide discussion and debate at the meeting.
PRISMA-P consensus meeting
Twenty-three international experts attended the
PRISMA-P consensus meeting on June 23–24, 2011, in
Rockville, MD, USA to gain consensus on and reduce
the number of potential PRISMA-P items. Delegates
included journal editors, systematic review methodologists
(including directors and representatives from
international Cochrane Centres, Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality’s (AHRQ’s) Evidence-based Practice
Centres, and the UK National Institute for Health
Research), reporting guideline developers, information
specialists, biostatisticians, and health research funders.
Through group discussion at the meeting, 38 potential
checklist items were reduced to 22.
Following the meeting, the steering committee revised
the draft 22-item checklist and refined their wording
such that they accurately reflected meeting discussions.
The draft checklist was also presented to the
PROSPERO group, at a scientific meeting of the Cochrane
Collaboration, for input and feedback and to AHRQ’s
Learning Network. After each of these reviews, the
steering committee made minor amendments to the items.
The checklist was then circulated to all meeting invitees
for critical input.
The PRISMA-P 2015 checklist
The final PRISMA-P 2015 checklist contains 17 numbered
items (26 including sub-items) Items are categorized into
three main sections: administrative information,
introduction, and methods (Table 3).
We made a conscious effort to harmonize the
PRISMAP checklist items with the items of the PRISMA checklist
to facilitate authors in transitioning their protocol into
a report of a systematic review. Thirteen PRISMA-P
sub-items have existing PRISMA counterparts. Where
PRISMA wording or content did not sufficiently
address protocol reporting, checklist items were modified.
Readers familiar with PRISMA will notice that
PRISMAP does not contain a flow diagram documenting the flow
of studies throughout the systematic review process. Such
documentation is possible only after a review has been
carried out and remains an essential component to include in
the report of a completed systematic review or
metaanalysis; for further guidance, see the PRISMA Explanation
and Elaboration document [
We strongly recommend that the present document
and the accompanying PRISMA-P 2015 Explanation and
Elaboration document [
], which includes examples of
good reporting, rationale, and evidence (where available),
be read together with the PRISMA-P 2015 checklist.
PRISMA-P 2015 explanation and elaboration
Once the steering committee prepared the PRISMA-P
2015 Statement and checklist, they drafted the content
of an Explanation and Elaboration document, with
assistance from the larger PRISMA-P group. The
explanatory text was derived largely from discussions at the
PRISMA-P meeting (recorded at the time) as well as the
PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration document [
Examples of well-reported PRISMA-P items came from
protocols registered in the PROSPERO database,
AHRQ’s EPC Program, and the Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews or those published elsewhere. After
the entire group had an opportunity to suggest
additions, deletions, and changes, the steering committee
combined all amendments to create the PRISMA-P 2014
Explanation and Elaboration document [
The post-publication activities recommended by
EQUATOR include seeking and responding to criticism,
encouraging the endorsement of and adherence to the guideline
from various stakeholders, translating the guideline into
other languages, evaluating its impact, ensuring website
development, and updating of the guideline. The
PRISMA-P 2015 checklist and related publications are
freely available on the websites of the PRISMA Group
(www.prisma-statement.org) and EQUATOR Network
(www.equator-network.org). The PROSPERO register
also contains a link to the guidance to encourage
registrants to prepare a complete documentation of their
protocol if they have not done so already.
We plan to develop an educational webinar about the
rationale, usefulness, and potential impact of PRISMA-P,
similar to what was done for PRISMA [
]. In addition,
the potential for PRISMA-P 2015 to be used as an
educational tool for authors, peer reviewers, and editors will be
explored. Targeted implementation activities for
PRISMAP will be developed in a systematic manner together with
experts in knowledge translation. The PRISMA website
and social media (@PRISMAStatement, www.twitter.
com/PRISMAStatement) will be used to make
announcements about the launch of PRISMA-P and
We encourage journals publishing systematic review
products to modify their ‘Instructions for Authors’ section to
endorse PRISMA-P 2015 and to consider publishing
systematic review protocols, if they do not do so already. We
plan to communicate with known endorsers of PRISMA
(http://prisma-statement.org/endorsers.htm) as well as to
other, relevant non-endorsing journals, to ask them to
consider extending their support to PRISMA-P.
To help ensure optimal uptake by systematic reviewers,
we propose a uniform endorsement policy across
organizations and journals involved in the development and
publication of systematic review protocols, demonstrated
by the adoption of the following statement:
‘[this organization/journal] requires a completed
PRISMA-P 2015 checklist as a condition of submission
of systematic review protocols. We recommend that,
while completing the PRISMA-P 2015 checklist, you
ensure your protocol addresses all items. Taking the
time to ensure that your protocol adheres to these
basic reporting elements will improve your manuscript
and potentially enhance its chances of eventual
Such a statement could be included in a journal’s
‘Instructions to Authors,’ or for funding agencies and those
commissioning systematic reviews, in their Application
Guidelines, recommending that applicants developing
the proposals of systematic reviews for funding use
PRISMA-P 2014. Peer reviewers and scientific
committees can also use the checklist to gauge the extent to
which protocols include necessary information.
As has been done for previous reporting guidelines
] we plan to evaluate whether and to what degree
If quantitative synthesis is not appropriate, describe the type of summary planned
PRISMA-P Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols.
aIt is strongly recommended that this checklist be read in conjunction with the PRISMA-P Explanation and Elaboration [
] for important clarification on the items.
Amendments to a review protocol should be tracked and dated. The copyright for PRISMA-P (including checklist) is held by the PRISMA-P Group and is distributed
under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.
endorsement of PRISMA-P 2015 by journals (and
potentially by other organizations) influences the
completeness of reported protocols. Such an evaluation will be
planned after allowing sufficient time for the wide
dissemination of PRISMA-P 2015.
The current system of implementing reporting
guidelines is not optimal. At present, their primary
mechanism of uptake is through endorsement by journals at
their discretion, if at all. In journals that do endorse
Systematic review authors/ Use/adhere to PRISMA-P during protocol development
PROSPERO (and other
Standardized protocol content will improve peer
review efficiency and investigator understanding
Improved quality, completeness, and consistency
of protocol content
Enables reviewers to anticipate and avoid future
changes to review methods (i.e., outcomes)
Increased awareness of minimum content for
Improved completeness of reporting of
Improved consistency across registry entries,
protocols, and systematic reviews
Enables easy comparison across protocols, registry
entries, and completed systematic reviews
May yield better quality, more complete, and more
consistent reviews to inform decision-making
Improved quality, completeness, and consistency
of protocols over those published in journals not
Increased efficiency in protocol peer and
author understanding of journal requirements
Improved transparency and interpretation
of reviews by readers
Simplified teaching and grading of protocols
Improved quality, completeness, and
consistency of protocol content
Improved understanding of the minimum
Well-trained systematic reviewer going
into the workforce
Encourage the development of PRISMA-P-based protocols
Improved quality of registry entries
Use PRISMA-P to gauge the completeness of protocols and
facilitate detection of selective reporting when considering
reviews for guideline inclusion
Advocate use of PRISMA-P by those funding and carrying
out systematic reviews
Encourage compliance to PRISMA-P for authors submitting
protocols for publication
Offer PRISMA-P as a template to assist in protocol
writing for publication
Use PRISMA-P as a training tool
Encourage adherence in students submitting protocols
Develop protocols for coursework or research using PRISMA-P
guidelines, language describing their support is often
vague, leaving authors unclear on what they are
supposed to do with a given reporting guideline during the
submission process [
]. Furthermore, policies around
how journal editors and peer reviewers should ensure
and/or enforce adherence to reporting checklists are
even less clear, if they exist at all [
]. Other barriers to
implementation may include a lack of awareness of the
guideline and perceived burden of using a reporting
guideline checklist during the editorial process [
Some well-known checklists, such as PRISMA, include
a column to the right of the main checklists in which
users report the page number on which a specific item is
reported. This was initially intended to help authors
ensure each checklist item is addressed and to aid peer
reviewers in locating reported text for each item within a
document. However, this system is not optimal. One
major problem is that peer reviewers still have to search
within a considerable body of text to locate the exact
text describing a checklist item. When multiple items
are listed separately but reported together or vice versa,
this problem is compounded, because exactly which
content pertains to each item may remain unclear.
The lack of implementation and adherence to
reporting guidelines is systemic; additional authorities
encountered early in the research process should promote a
clearer message about author adherence to reporting
standards if improvements in reporting are to be made.
In targeting protocols of systematic reviews, PRISMA-P
has a unique opportunity to not only affect the way in
which protocols are reported but to also impact the way
in which reviews are eventually conducted, perhaps
allowing for a more seamless transition into a
completely reported systematic review.
To overcome known challenges with reporting guideline
], we are developing a prospective
implementation strategy for PRISMA-P 2015 using knowledge
translation principles involving theoretically derived
interventions  which have demonstrated effectiveness in
the development of implementation interventions for
clinical practice guidelines [
]. An initial list of proposed
stakeholders who can assist in the implementation of
PRISMA-P, along with proposed actions and benefits, is
provided in Table 4.
Studies comparing trial protocols to final reports have
widely documented both the presence and the extent of
reporting biases in publications of randomized trials
]. Protocols for systematic reviews are rarely available
for such comparisons, with the exception of select
organizations. Of 288 reviews with available protocols in a 2006/
2007 cohort, 64 (22%) were observed to have at least one
discrepant outcome with their completed reviews; only 4
described reasons for the change in the completed review
. Discrepant outcomes added or upgraded from
secondary to primary at the review stage were more likely to be
statistically significant than those outcomes that had not
changed. This practice (i.e., including, excluding, or
changing outcomes in association with the strength or
direction of findings) has the potential to bias the findings of
any meta-analysis and the review’s conclusions. As review
protocols are expected to become increasingly available
with the advent of PROSPERO, clear reporting will
become essential to facilitate the identification of
discrepancies between protocol and review by readers and help
them determine whether they need to be cautious in
Reporting and publishing protocols is an important step
in increasing the transparency of the research process and
reliability of published papers. For example, some journals
require a copy of the protocol as part of the peer review
process of randomized trials. As of 1 March 2014, BioMed
Central has published 4,158 trial protocols across 66 of its
258 open-access journals, including 1,026 in Trials.
Systematic Reviews, a BioMed Central journal launched in
February 2012, is committed to publishing systematic
review products, including protocols [
], and has published
142 protocols since inception (to 8 June 2014).
Journals, granting agencies, and systematic review
organizations are encouraged to endorse PRISMA-P 2015
in their ‘Instructions to Authors’ and guidance for
applicants and to implement its use during their peer review
process of systematic review proposals. Reviewers are
encouraged to use the PRISMA-P checklist and
Explanation and Elaboration [
] document to guide them
through the documentation of a protocol. Doing so will
enhance the completeness of reporting of review
protocols, facilitate the assessment of potential in systematic
reviews, and hopefully strengthen the methodological
quality and reliability of completed systematic reviews.
The PRISMA-P 2015 initiative was supported by the AHRQ, USA (Contract No.
HHSA 290 2007 10059 I) and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research
(Reference No. 114369). This manuscript does not reflect the opinions of
either agency; one author, SC, is an employee of AHRQ. MC, DG, DM, MP,
and LAS are members of the Advisory Board for PROSPERO. DGA, SC, MC,
JG, MH, JM, and MP are members of the Editorial Board, and DM, PS, and
LAS are co-Editors in Chief of Systematic Reviews. None of the authors who
are editors of Systematic Reviews were involved in the handling of this
paper or the decision to publish it.
DM, LS, MC, DG, AL, MP, PS, and LAS conceived this paper. DM and LS
drafted the article, and all authors critically revised it for important
intellectual content. All authors approved the final version of this article. DM
is the guarantor of this work.
The PRISMA-P steering committee would like to thank the following staff
from the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI): Jodi Peters for her efforts
organizing the PRISMA-P consensus meeting, Michael Zhao for his assistance
in preparing documents for the PRISMA-P meeting, Dr. Mohammed Ansari
for valuable input and feedback throughout the process, and Justin Thielman
for his assistance during the preparation of the PRISMA-P manuscripts.
The PRISMA-P 2015 initiative is dedicated to our colleague Alessandro Liberati
(1954–2012) who passed away during the time in which PRISMA-P 2015 was
under development and whose contributions to this work were invaluable.
PRISMA-P group (listed alphabetically)
Douglas G Altman, DSc, Centre for Statistics in Medicine (CSM), University of
Oxford, (Oxford, UK); Alison Booth, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD),
University of York (York, UK); An-Wen Chan, Women’s College Research
Institute, University of Toronto (Toronto, Canada); Stephanie Chang,
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Rockville, USA); Mike Clarke,
Queen’s University of Belfast (Belfast, Ireland); Tammy Clifford, Canadian
Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) (Ottawa, Canada);
Kay Dickersin, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Matthias
Egger, Institut für Sozial-und Präventivmedizin; Davina Ghersi, National
Health and Medical Research Council (Canberra, Australia); Peter C Gøtzsche,
Nordic Cochrane Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark); Jeremy M Grimshaw,
Canadian Cochrane Centre and OHRI (Ottawa, Canada); Trish Groves, The
BMJ (London, UK); Mark Helfand, AHRQ EPC Scientific Resource Center,
Portland VA Research Foundation (Portland, USA); Julian Higgins, School of
Social and Community Medicine (Bristol, UK); Toby Lasserson, Cochrane
Editorial Unit (London, UK); Joseph Lau, Center for Evidence-based Medicine,
Brown University (Providence, USA); Alessandro Liberati, University of Modena
(Modena, Italy); Kathleen Lohr, Research Triangle Institute-University of North
Carolina EPC (Research Triangle Park, USA); Jessie McGowan, University of
Ottawa (Ottawa, Canada); David Moher, Clinical Epidemiology Program, OHRI,
and University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Canada); Cynthia Mulrow, Annals of
Internal Medicine (San Antonio, USA); Melissa Norton, PLoS Medicine
(London, UK); Matthew Page, Monash University (Australia); Mark Petticrew,
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK); Margaret
Sampson, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Ottawa; Canada); Holger
Schünemann, McMaster University (Hamilton, Canada); Larissa Shamseer, Clinical
Epidemiology Program, OHRI, and University of Ottawa (Ottawa; Canada);
Paul Shekelle, Southern California EPC, (Los Angeles, USA); Iveta Simera,
CSM, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK); Lesley A Stewart, CRD, University of
York (York, UK); William Summerskill, The Lancet (London, UK); Jennifer Tetzlaff,
Clinical Epidemiology Program, OHRI (Ottawa, Canada); Thomas A Trikalinos,
Center for Evidence-based Medicine, Brown University (Providence, USA); David
Tovey, The Cochrane Library (London, UK); Lucy Turner, Clinical Epidemiology
Program, OHRI (Ottawa Canada); Evelyn Whitlock, Kaiser Permanente Research
Affiliates EPC (Portland, USA).
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