Associations of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels with Visceral Adipose Tissue in Chinese Men with Normal Glucose Tolerance
et al. (2014) Associations of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels with Visceral Adipose Tissue in Chinese Men with
Normal Glucose Tolerance. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86773. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086773
Associations of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels with Visceral Adipose Tissue in Chinese Men with Normal Glucose Tolerance
Andrzej T. Slominski, University of Tennessee, United States of America
Objective: Decreased serum vitamin D level is a common observation in obese adults. Since no Chinese population-based study has yet evaluated the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the accurate adiposity variables, this study investigated the association of serum vitamin D (assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]) levels with precise body fat content and distribution in a cohort of Chinese men. Methods: Serum samples were collected from a total of 567 men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) for assessment by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay to measure 25(OH)D3 levels. In addition, each participant underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis to quantify total body fat and magnetic resonance imaging to measure visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Results: Overweight/obese (BMI $25 kg/m2) subjects had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D3 levels than non-overweight/ non-obese (BMI ,25 kg/m2) subjects (P = 0.029). Greater fat mass and VFA were accompanied by a downward trend in serum 25(OH)D3 levels (P for trend ,0.01). Among overweight/obese subjects, those with body fat percent $25% also had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D3 levels (P ,0.05). Moreover, participants with VFA $80 cm2 had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D3 (P ,0.05), regardless of BMI value. VFA was independently correlated with serum 25(OH)D3 levels (b = 20.023, P ,0.001), even after adjustments for confounding factors. In addition, serum 25(OH)D3 levels were found to decrease by 0.26 ng/mL per 10 cm2 increment of VFA. Conclusions: Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were inversely associated with VFA in Chinese men with NGT.
Funding: Funding provided by 973 Program of China (2013CB530606), Key Project of Science and Technology of Shanghai (13XD1403000), Project of National
Natural Science Foundation of China (81100563), National Key Technology Research & Development Program of China (2012BAI02B03), Key Discipline of Public
Health of Shanghai (Epidemiology) (12GWZX0104) and Drug Innovation Program of National Science and Technology Project (2011ZX09307-001-02). The funders
had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
. These authors contributed equally to this work.
The primary biological role of vitamin D, a lipid-soluble
vitamin, is the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism;
as such, proper levels of vitamin D are critical for establishment of
bone health and its maintenance throughout life . Recent
studies have indicated that perturbed vitamin D status may also
contribute to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular
In recent years, the relationship between Vitamin D and obesity
has received extensive attention. Animal studies found that when
mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were exposed to vitamin D, the
formation of adipocytes was suppressed as a result of inhibited
proliferation and differentiation . In addition, when high-dose
vitamin D was delivered as a dietary supplement, along with high
whey protein and calcium, male Wistar rats experienced a
reduction in fat mass and an increase in lean mass .
As the main circulating form of vitamin D, serum
25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], consisted of 25(OH)D2 and
25(OH)D3, is used as a clinical marker to evaluate vitamin D
nutritional status. Additionally, more than 95% of 25(OH)D,
measurable in serum, is 25(OH)D3. Consistent with the
experimental studies, clinical evidence has indicated that serum
25(OH)D levels decrease significantly in obese subjects and has
shown that this decrease is closely correlated with fat distribution
[6,7]. Still other studies have implicated the decreased level of
serum 25(OH)D as a risk factor for obesity and its related
metabolic disorders .
Anthropometric indices for obesity and abdominal obesity, such
as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), have
been used widely in the previous studies examining the
relationship between obesity and vitamin D. Additionally, the differences
in serum 25(OH)D levels associated with sex and race are well
established . However, the associations of serum vitamin D
levels with accurate adiposity variables remain unknown within
the Chinese population.
Therefore, in the present study, magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) was used to evaluate visceral fat area (VFA) and
subcutaneous fat area (SFA) as accurate measurements for visceral
obesity. Body composition (as a precise evaluation of total body fat
content) was determined by bioelectrical impedance. The study
was designed to evaluate the association between serum vitamin D
levels (assessed by serum 25(OH)D3) and body fat as well as fat
distribution in a cohort of Chinese men with normal glucose
tolerance (NGT), in order to minimize the known influence of
hyperglycemia, including impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and
diabetes, on serum 25(OH)D3 levels .
Subjects and Methods
The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of
Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Jiao
Tong University Affiliated Sixth Peoples Hospital. All study
participants provided written informed consent prior to
The 1003 adult men with no previous history of diabetes who
participated in the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS) were
considered for study enrollment . This overall population
included 289 subjects from the Gonghexin community who
participated during August to September in 2010 and 714 subjects
from the Tianmuxi and Daning communities who participated
during April to September in 2011. All of the participants
underwent MRI scan to obtain abdominal fat area measurements
and completed a standardized questionnaire to identify history of
present and previous illness, medical therapy, physical activity, and
This study participants was filtered according to the following
exclusion criteria: newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus or IGR
(n = 266); liver and kidney dysfunction (n = 45); hyperthyroidism
or hypothyroidism (n = 31); serum calcium levels $10.5 mg/dL
(n = 4) ; current corticosteroids therapy or supplemental
calcium/vitamin D intake (n = 4); psychiatric disease, severe
disability or occurrence of bone fracture within the past six months
(n = 3); history of cardiovascular disease (n = 27); recent infection
(n = 24); serum C reactive protein .10 mg/L (n = 22); presence
of tumor (n = 5); severe anemia (n = 5). Finally, 567 subjects with
NGT were included in the analysis.
BMI (kg/m2) was calculated based on the height (to the nearest
0.1 cm) and weight (to the nearest 0.1 kg). Waist circumference
was measured starting at the midpoint of the inferior border of the
lowest rib and following the iliac crest on the mid-axillary line by
around the abdomen. Resting blood pressure was calculated as the
average value of three measurements taken at 3 min intervals.
Body fat measurements
Body composition, consisting of fat mass (FM) and free fat mass
(FFM), was estimated by the BC-420 Tanita Body Composition
Analyzer (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Percentage of body fat
(fat%) was calculated as FM (kg)/[FM (kg)+FFM (kg)]. Abdominal
MRI scans were performed on the Archiva 3.0T Clinical MRI
Scanner (Philips Medical System, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
at the level between the L4 and L5 vertebrae with the participant
in the supine position . VFA and SFA were calculated using
the Slice-O-Matic Image Analysis Software (version 4.2;
Tomovision Inc., Montreal, QC, Canada).
All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test after
10-h overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected to
measure 25(OH)D3 levels as well as other biochemical parameters.
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h postprandial glucose (2hPG)
were measured by the glucose oxidase method. Lipid profiles,
including total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG), were
determined using the standard enzymatic methods, while
lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were determined by the direct assay
method. All of the above measurements were carried out on a
Hitachi 7600120 auto-analyser (Tokyo, Japan). Serum fasting
insulin (FINS) level was measured by electrochemiluminescence
immunoassay, and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of
variation were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Insulin resistance
(IR) was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment index
(HOMA-IR) . Only serum 25(OH)D3 levels, but not the total
25(OH)D, was measured by electrochemiluminescence
immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and the
intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.6% and
8.0%, respectively. The lower limit of 25(OH)D3 detection was
Levels of physical activity were classified as light, moderate or
high according to the 2001 International Physical Activity
Questionnaire (IPAQ) . Hypertension was defined as systolic
blood pressure (SBP) $140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood
pressure (DBP) $90 mmHg, or current treatment for
hypertension, according to the 1999 World Health Organizations (WHO)
Hypertension Guidelines . Overweight/obesity was diagnosed
when BMI was $25.0 kg/m2, according to the 1999 WHO
criteria , and as fat% $ 25%, according to the WHO
definition of obesity for men . In addition, visceral obesity was
defined as VFA $80 cm2. Dyslipidemia was defined as receipt of
treatment of lipid abnormalities or lipid values over the boundary
value according to the following criteria published by the Joint
Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and
Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults : hypercholesteremia:
TC $5.18 mmol/L; hypertriglyceridemia: TG $1.70 mmol/L;
high LDL-c: LDL-c $3.37 mmol/L; low HDL-c: HDL-c
All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS statistical
software (version 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The
onesample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine data
normality; normally distributed data were expressed as
mean6standard deviation (SD) and skewed data were expressed as
median with interquartile range. For continuous variables, the
unpaired Students t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used
for between-group comparisons of normally distributed and
skewed data, respectively. For categorical variables, the x2 test
was used for between-group comparisons. Correlation coefficients
between serum 25(OH)D3 levels and clinical parameters were
determined by simple and partial correlation analyses, as
appropriate. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed
to identify independent associations of obesity-related variables
and other parameters with serum 25(OH)D3 levels, after adjusting
for potential confounders, while linear regression analysis was
carried out to estimate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D3
levels and VFA. The threshold for statistical significance was a
two-tailed P-value of ,0.05.
Clinical characteristics of study participants
The median level of age was 56.4 years old (interquartile range:
50.761.0). As shown in Table 1, there were no differences
between overweight/obese (BMI $25 kg/m2) and
non-overweight/non-obese (BMI ,25 kg/m2) groups in age, 2hPG, TG
or LDL-c levels, dyslipidemia (including hypercholesteremia,
hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-c and low HDL-c) frequency,
physical activity, smoking status, or lipid-lowering therapy (all P
.0.05). The serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations (overall range: 4.3
40.6 ng/mL) were lower in the overweight/obese individuals than
in their non-overweight/non-obese counterparts. In addition, the
overweight/obese individuals exhibited lower TC, HDL-c (both P
,0.01) and higher BMI, WC, FM, FFM, fat%, VFA, SFA, SBP,
DBP, FPG, FINS, HOMA-IR, and frequency of both
hypertension as well as antihypertensive therapy (all P ,0.05).
Association of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with
anthropometric and biochemical parameters
Serum 25(OH)D3 levels showed a significantly inverse
correlation with obesity-related parameters (BMI, WC, FM, fat%, VFA
and SFA) and TG (P ,0.05). However, after adjustment for age
and BMI, only FM, fat%, VFA and TG retained the significant
inverse correlation with serum 25(OH)D3 levels (all P ,0.01)
Relationship between 25(OH)D3 and total body fat and
When the overall subjects were stratified by 5 kg increments of
FM, the serum 25(OH)D3 levels were found to decrease in
accordance with the increment, as expected (P for trend ,0.01)
(Fig. 1a). Moreover, when the groups were stratified by 20 cm2
increments of VFA, the same trend of descending serum
25(OH)D3 levels was observed (P for trend ,0.01) (Fig. 1b).
When the overweight/obese and non-overweight/non-obese
groups were stratified by fat% (,25% vs. $25%), among the
overweight/obese individuals, those with fat% $ 25% showed
significantly lower serum 25(OH)D3 levels compared to those with
fat% , 25% (P ,0.05) (Fig. 2a). The non-overweight/non-obese
individuals showed no significant difference in serum 25(OH)D3
levels between the fat% stratified subgroups.
Finally, when the overweight/obese and
non-overweight/nonobese groups were further stratified according to the cutoff of
visceral obesity, it was found that within the same BMI categories,
serum 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly lower for those
individuals with VFA $80 cm2, compared to those with VFA
,80 cm2 (P , 0.05) (Fig. 2b).
Variables independently associated with serum 25(OH)D3
In order to assess the variables independently associated with
serum 25(OH)D3 levels, multiple stepwise regression analysis
identified the following variables as independent variables:
obesityrelated parameters (including BMI, WC, FM, FFM, fat%, VFA,
and SFA), age, SBP, DBP, FPG, 2hPG, TC, TG, LDL-c, HDL-c,
FINS, physical activity, smoking status, and receipt of lipid-lowing
therapy or antihypertensive therapy. Three regression models
were established according to the selection of different
obesityrelated variables. In model 1, the anthropometric variables (BMI
and WC) were applied. We found that WC (b = 0.065, P =
0.017) and TG (b = 0.524, P = 0.009) showed independent
associations with serum 25(OH)D3. Both model 2 (using accurate
adiposity parameters including FM, FFM, fat%, VFA and SFA)
and the expanded model 3 (using the additional anthropometric
variables including BMI and WC) showed independent
associations of serum 25(OH)D3 with VFA (b = 0.023, P ,0.001) and
TG (b = 0.415, P = 0.041).
In addition, linear regression analysis, with serum 25(OH)D3
levels set as the dependent variable and VFA set as the
independent variable, estimated serum 25(OH)D3 levels to be
decreased by 0.26 ng/mL for each 10 cm2 incremental change in
To our knowledge, the study described herein has provided the
first evidence of an association of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with
precise body fat content and distribution in Chinese men with
normal glucose tolerance. In particular, the data demonstrated
that serum 25(OH)D3 levels decreased with increment of FM and
VFA, and that the inverse influence of obesity on serum 25(OH)D3
levels might be mostly attributable to the effects of VFA,
irrespective of BMI.
Several demographic factors have been recognized for their
effects on serum 25(OH)D concentrations, including sex, age, race,
and even the season during which blood sampling occurred .
In a previous study of a large Caucasian population, decreased
serum 25(OH)D levels (,75 nmol/L) were found to exist in
significantly more of the obese subjects than in the non-obese
subjects . Another study of various ethnicities demonstrated
inverse correlations of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with body weight,
BMI, and WC . In the current study, the subjects were
selected to help minimize the effects of potential confounding
factors (as detailed above); for example, each subject had NGT
and resided in a single geographic region, were of a single race,
reported similar dietary status, provided blood samples in a single
season (to help ensure similar daily sunshine duration and
potential exposure). The results indicated that serum 25(OH)D3
levels decreased in the overweight/obese and were negatively
correlated with WC; these findings are consistent with the previous
Although BMI is an adequate estimator of whole body fat and is
used commonly in clinical analysis, it cannot distinguish fat mass
from lean blocks. The accurate variables (FM and fat%) can help
to compensate for the deficiency. Studies revealed that serum
25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with fat% in adolescents
and healthy women [23,24]. The present study found that a
decreasing trend for serum 25(OH)D3 levels were accompanied by
increased levels of FM. Moreover, among the overweight/obese
group in the present study, serum 25(OH)D3 levels were 14.17%
lower for those individuals with a higher level of fat% compared to
those with a lower level of fat%. These results indicate that whole
body fat may exert an inverse impact on the levels of 25(OH)D3, to
a certain extent.
Although WC can be considered as a brief anthropometric
index of abdominal obesity, it cannot accurately reflect the content
or location of the abdominal fat clearly or directly. As such, the
International Diabetes Federation has recommended using
computed tomography (CT) and MRI as the standard quantification
methods for VFA and SFA . Indeed, in a study of non-diabetic
Caucasians, serum 25(OH)D levels were found to be
Physical activity (high), N(%)
Current smoking, N(%)
Lipid-lowering therapy, N(%)
Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumference; FM, fat mass; FFM, free fat mass; Fat%, percentage of body fat; VFA, visceral fat area; SFA, subcutaneous
fat area; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; 2hPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose; TC, total cholesterol; TG,
triglyceride; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; FINS, fasting insulin; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for
insulin resistance; 25(OH)D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Data were expressed as mean 6SD for normal distribution variables or median (interquartile range) for skewed
dently associated with CT-determined SFA and VFA, but only the
relationship with VFA remained significant after further stratified
by BMI . These results indicated that serum 25(OH)D
concentrations were inversely correlated with visceral adiposity. In
the present study, regional adipose deposits were measured in a
precise manner using MRI and the results of analysis indicated
that serum 25(OH)D3 levels decreased in conjunction with the
increment of VFA. This finding is in accordance with the previous
studies in diverse ethnicities [27,28].
A particularly intriguing finding from the present study is that,
regardless of overweight/obesity status (i.e. BMI category),
individuals with higher VFA showed lower serum 25(OH)D3
levels and that only VFA and TG were identified as independent
risk factors of serum 25(OH)D3 levels after adjustment for
conventional confounders. Thus, it appears that, compared with
total fat content, increased VFA may contribute more to decreased
levels of serum 25(OH)D3.
Several putative mechanisms may explain the association
observed between the decreased levels of serum 25(OH)D3 levels
and the clinical measures of adiposity. For example, since vitamin
D is fat-soluble, the increased adipose tissue that occurs in the
obese state will expand the distribution of the pool of vitamin D,
thereby reducing the overall concentration of serum vitamin D
levels . In turn, Vitamin D deficiency is also an important risk
factor of obesity. Reduced levels of serum vitamin D can lead to a
secondary elevation of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which may
promote calcium influx into adipocytes and increase lipogenesis
and reduce lipolysis [30,31]. In addition, vitamin D is capable of
inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes via its suppression of
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc) expression
and activation, thereby causing an increase in lipogenesis when
serum vitamin D levels decrease .
Perturbed vitamin D status also appear to increase the risks of
dyslipidemia. A previous study of Spanish subjects with BMI
$40 kg/m2 showed that individuals with serum vitamin D
Table 2. Correlation of 25(OH)D3 with anthropometric
deficiency had higher levels of TG . Furthermore, a study of
elderly Chinese demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D levels were
inversely associated with TG in men, but not in women .
Consistent with these previous findings, the present study of adult
Chinese men with NGT identified TG as an independent risk
factor of serum 25(OH)D3 levels. The mechanism underlying this
phenomenon may involve intracellular Ca2+; in this manner, an
antilipolytic effect may be exerted, mainly by the activation of
phosphodiesterase, leading to a decrease in cAMP and
hormonesensitive lipase phosphorylation .
Previous studies have also indicated that serum 25(OH)D levels
are positively correlated with physical activity and negatively
correlated with age . However, this relationship was not
observed in the current study population, possibly as a result of the
relatively narrow age range which may have weakened the impact
of age and physical exercise on 25(OH)D3.
Some limitations inherent to the current studys design may
have influenced the overall findings. First, the sample size was
relatively small and the subjects recruited were mainly
middleaged and elderly, limiting the ability to generalize these findings to
the more heterogeneous population. Second, the fact that PTH
levels were not measured precluded the ability to determine
whether or not the relationship between 25(OH)D3 and clinical
measures of adiposity was caused by secondary
hyperparathyroidism. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated that the
relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and obesity is
independent of serum PTH levels . In addition, individuals
with abnormal serum calcium or taking calcium/vitamin D
supplements were excluded from the study enrollment, which
could have partially compensated for this deficiency. Finally, the
cross-sectional design precluded the ability to identify the exact
causal relationship between 25(OH)D3 and the clinical measures
This study has provided the first evidence of adipose tissue,
especially increased visceral adipose, being related to marked
decreases in serum 25(OH)D3 levels in Chinese men with NGT.
Physical activity 0.065
Abbreviation: 25(OH)D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; BMI, body mass index; DBP,
diastolic blood pressure; Fat%, percentage of body fat; FFM, free fat mass; FINS,
fasting insulin; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; FM, fat mass; HDL-c, high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin
resistance; 2hPG, 2h postprandial plasma glucose; LDL-c, low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SFA, subcutaneous fat
area; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; VFA, visceral fat area; WC, waist
Figure 1. Serum 25(OH)D3 with FM (a) or VFA (b) levels. (a) Subjects were stratified into 6 subgroups according to FM levels (5 kg increments).
(b) Subjects were stratified into 7 subgroups according to VFA levels (20 cm2 increments).
Figure 2. Serum 25(OH)D3 according to different fat% (a) / VFA (b) levels within similar BMI categories. (a) In the same BMI category,
subjects were stratified into fat% $ 25% and fat% , 25% subgroups. (b) In the same BMI category, subjects were stratified into VFA $ 80 cm2 and
VFA , 80 cm2 subgroups.
We are very grateful to all staff of Gonghexin, Tianmuxi, and Daning
communities for helping with the present study. We are also extremely
grateful to all participants for their dedication in data collections and
Conceived and designed the experiments: YB WJ. Performed the
experiments: XM YH YS JN YL. Analyzed the data: YH XM.
Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YX. Wrote the paper: YH.
1. Blum M , Dolnikowski G , Seyoum E , Harris SS , Booth SL , et al. ( 2008 ) Vitamin D ( 3 ) in fat tissue . Endocrine 33 : 90 - 94 .
2. Reis AF , Hauache OM , Velho G ( 2005 ) Vitamin D endocrine system and the genetic susceptibility to diabetes, obesity and vascular disease. A review of evidence . Diabetes Metab 31 : 318 - 325 .
3. Kong J , Li YC ( 2006 ) Molecular mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290 : E916 - E924 .
4. Siddiqui SM , Chang E , Li J , Burlage C , Zou M , et al. ( 2008 ) Dietary intervention with vitamin D, calcium, and whey protein reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in rats . Nutr Res 28 : 783 - 790 .
5. Hart GR , Furniss JL , Laurie D , Durham SK ( 2006 ) Measurement of vitamin D status: background, clinical use, and methodologies . Clin Lab 52 : 335 - 343 .
6. Rodrguez-Rodrguez E, Navia-Lomban B , Lopez-Sobaler AM , Ortega RM ( 2010 ) Associations between abdominal fat and body mass index on vitamin D status in a group of Spanish school children . Eur J Clin Nutr 64 : 461 - 467 .
7. Nam GE , Kim do H , Cho KH , Park YG , Han KD , et al. ( 2012 ) Estimate of a predictive cut-off value for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D reflecting abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents . Nutr Res 32 : 395 - 402 .
8. Mai XM , Chen Y , Camargo CA Jr, Langhammer A ( 2012 ) Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and obesity in adults: the HUNT study . Am J Epidemiol 175 : 1029 - 1036 .
9. Looker AC ( 2005 ) Body Fat and Vitamin D Status in Black Versus White Women . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 : 635 - 640 .
10. Dalgard C , Petersen MS , Weihe P , Grandjean P ( 2011 ) Vitamin D status in relation to glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in septuagenarians . Diabetes Care 34 : 1284 - 1288 .
11. Bao Y , Ma X , Yang R , Wang F , Hao Y , et al. ( 2013 ) Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and visceral fat area in Chinese men . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98 : 345 - 351 .
12. Paschoalin RP , Torregrosa JV , Sanchez-Escuredo A , Barros X , Duran CE , et al. ( 2012 ) Cinacalcet treatment for stable kidney transplantation patients with hypercalcemia due to persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism: a long-term follow-up . Transplant Proc 44 : 2588 - 2589 .
13. Wang Y , Ma X , Zhou M , Zong W , Zhang L , et al. ( 2012 ) Contribution of visceral fat accumulation to carotid intima-media thickness in a Chinese population . Int J Obes (Lond) 36 : 1203 - 1208 .
14. Matthews DR , Hosker JP , Rudenski AS , Naylor BA , Treacher DF , et al. ( 1985 ) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man . Diabetologia 28 : 412 - 419 .
15. Craig CL , Marshall AL , Sjostrom M , Bauman AE , Booth ML , et al. ( 2003 ) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity . Med Sci Sports Exerc 35 : 1381 - 1395 .
16. Chalmers J , MacMahon S , Mancia G , Whitworth J , Beilin L , et al. ( 1999 ) 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. Guidelines sub-committee of the World Health Organization . Clin Exp Hypertens 21 : 1009 - 1060 .
17. World Health Organization ( 2000 ) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic . Report of a WHO consultation . World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 894 : 1 - 253 .
18. Frankenfield DC , Rowe WA , Cooney RN , Smith JS , Becker D ( 2001 ) Limits of body mass index to detect obesity and predict body composition . Nutrition 17 : 26 - 30 .
19. Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in adults (2007) Chinese guidelines on prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in adults . Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 35 : 390 - 419 .
20. van der Meer IM , Karamali NS , Boeke AJ , Lips P , Middelkoop BJ , et al. ( 2006 ) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague , Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr 84 : 350 - 353 .
21. Hypponen E , Power C ( 2006 ) Vitamin D status and glucose homeostasis in the 1958 British birth cohort: the role of obesity . Diabetes Care 29 : 2244 - 2246 .
22. McGill AT , Stewart JM , Lithander FE , Strik CM , Poppitt SD ( 2008 ) Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity . Nutr J 7 : 4 .
23. Lenders CM , Feldman HA , Von Scheven E , Merewood A , Sweeney C , et al. ( 2009 ) Relation of body fat indexes to vitamin D status and deficiency among obese adolescents . Am J Clin Nutr 90 : 459 - 467 .
24. Arunabh S , Pollack S , Yeh J , Aloia JF ( 2003 ) Body Fat Content and 25- Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Healthy Women . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 : 157 - 161 .
25. Alberti KG , Zimmet P , Shaw J ( 2006 ) Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition . A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med 23 : 469 - 480 .
26. Cheng S , Massaro JM , Fox CS , Larson MG , Keyes MJ , et al. ( 2010 ) Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study . Diabetes 59 : 242 - 248 .
27. Seo JA , Cho H , Eun CR , Yoo HJ , Kim SG , et al. ( 2012 ) Association between visceral obesity and sarcopenia and vitamin D deficiency in older Koreans: the AnsanGeriatric Study . J Am Geriatr Soc 60 : 700 - 706 .
28. Young KA , Engelman CD , Langefeld CD , Hairston KG , Haffner SM , et al. ( 2009 ) Association of plasma vitamin D levels with adiposity in Hispanic and African Americans . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 : 3306 - 3313 .
29. Wortsman J , Matsuoka LY , Chen TC , Lu Z , Holick MF ( 2000 ) Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity . Am J Clin Nutr 72 : 690 - 693 .
30. Lu HK , Zhang Z , Ke YH , He JW , Fu WZ , et al. ( 2012 ) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in China: relationship with the levels of parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover . PLoS One 7 : e47264 .
31. McCarty MF , Thomas CA ( 2003 ) PTH excess may promote weight gain by impeding catecholamine-induced lipolysis-implications for the impact of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol on body weight . Med Hypotheses 61 : 535 - 542 .
32. Wood RJ ( 2008 ) Vitamin D and adipogenesis: new molecular insights . Nutr Rev 66 : 40 - 46 .
33. Botella-Carretero JI , Alvarez-Blasco F , Villafruela JJ , Balsa JA , Vazquez C , et al. ( 2007 ) Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity . Clin Nutr 26 : 573 - 580 .
34. Lu L , Yu Z , Pan A , Hu FB , Franco OH , et al. ( 2009 ) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals . Diabetes Care 32 : 1278 - 1283 .
35. Xue B , Greenberg AG , Kraemer FB , Zemel MB ( 2001 ) Mechanism of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) inhibition of lipolysis in human adipocytes . FASEB J 15 : 2527 - 2529 .
36. Ardawi MS , Qari MH , Rouzi AA , Maimani AA , Raddadi RM ( 2011 ) Vitamin D status in relation to obesity, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and vitamin D receptor genotypes in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women . Osteoporos Int 22 : 463 - 475 .