Free and Cofree Acts of Dcpo-Monoids on Directed Complete Posets

Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society, May 2015

In this paper, we study the existence of the free and cofree objects in the categories Dcpo-\(S\) (and Cpo-\(S\)) of all directed complete posets (with bottom element) equipped with a compatible right action of a dcpo-monoid (cpo-monoid) \(S\), with (strict) continuous action-preserving maps between them. More precisely, we consider all forgetful functors between these categories and the categories Dcpo of dcpo’s, (CPo) of cpo’s, Pos of posets, and Set of sets, and study the existence of their left and right adjoints.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs40840-015-0127-z.pdf

Free and Cofree Acts of Dcpo-Monoids on Directed Complete Posets

Bull. Malays. Math. Sci. Soc. Free and Cofree Acts of Dcpo-Monoids on Directed Complete Posets Mojgan Mahmoudi 0 Halimeh Moghbeli 0 Mathematics Subject Classification 0 0 Department of Mathematics, Shahid Beheshti University , G.C., 19839 Tehran , Iran In this paper, we study the existence of the free and cofree objects in the categories Dcpo-S (and Cpo-S) of all directed complete posets (with bottom element) equipped with a compatible right action of a dcpo-monoid (cpo-monoid) S, with (strict) continuous action-preserving maps between them. More precisely, we consider all forgetful functors between these categories and the categories Dcpo of dcpo's, (CPo) of cpo's, Pos of posets, and Set of sets, and study the existence of their left and right adjoints. - 06F05 · 18A40 · 20M30 · 20M50 1 Introduction and Preliminaries The category Dcpo of Directed Complete Partial Ordered sets plays an important role in Theoretical Computer Science, and specially in Domain Theory (see [ 1 ]). It has Dedicated to Professor M. Mehdi Ebrahimi on the occasion of his 65th Birthday. Communicated by Ang Miin Huey. been proved that this category is complete and cocomplete (see [ 1,7 ]). The free dcpo over a poset has been given in [ 4,9,12 ]. In this paper, we consider the free and cofree objects in the category Dcpo-S of all S-dcpo’s; dcpo’s equipped with a compatible right action of a dcpo-monoid S, with continuous action-preserving maps between them. We take the forgetful functors from this category to the categories of dcpo’s, posets, and sets, and study the existence of their left and right adjoints. In fact, we consider the following three squares of forgetful functors U1 Cpo-S −−−−→ U4 Dcpo-S −−−−→ Dcpo ⏐⏐ U3 ⏐⏐ U6 Pos-S ⏐⏐ U9 Act-S U7 −−−−→ U10 −−−−→ Cpo ⏐⏐ U2 ⏐⏐ U5 Pos ⏐⏐ U8 Set and study the existence of the left and the right adjoints for these functors (that is, Ui -free and Ui -cofree objects). We recall that the bottom square has been considered in [ 3 ], where it has been shown that the horizontal forgetful functors, U7 and U10, have both left and right adjoints, while the vertical forgetful functors, U8 and U9, have just left adjoints (here we give a correction to the definition of the U9-free functor given in [ 3 ]). Also, the left adjoint to the right vertical forgetful functor, U5, in the middle square has been found in [ 4,9,12 ]. Here, we show that, although all the forgetful functors in these squares have left adjoints (for the existence of U1-free, U3-free, and U6-free, we had to add a condition on S), none of the vertical forgetful functors in all the above three squares has a right adjoint. In finding the left adjoints (free objects), we observe that the definition of the left hand side vertical free functors is the same as the right hand side ones, and just we need to define a proper S-action. Also we prove that all the horizontal functors, except U1, have right adjoints (cofree objects). In finding these right adjoints, we observe that the cofree horizontal functors (when existing) are in some sense the restrictions of the bottom horizontal cofree functors. The same is true for the free horizontal functors. In the following, we give some preliminaries needed in the sequel. For more information about dcpo’s we refer to [ 8 ], about S-sets see [ 6,10 ], about S-posets see [3], and for S-dcpo’s refer to [ 11 ]. Let Pos denote the category of all partially ordered sets (posets) with orderpreserving (monotone) maps between them. A nonempty subset D of a partially ordered set is called directed, denoted by D ⊆d P, if for every a, b ∈ D there exists c ∈ D such that a, b ≤ c; and P is called directed complete, or briefly a dcpo, if for every D ⊆d P, the directed join d D exists in P. A dcpo which has a bottom element ⊥ is said to be a cpo. A dcpo map or a continuous map f : P → Q between dcpo’s is a map with the property that for every D ⊆d P, f (D) is a directed subset of Q and f ( d D) = d f (D). A dcpo map f : P → Q between cpo’s is called strict if f (⊥) = ⊥. Thus we have the categories Dcpo (and Cpo) of all dcpo’s (cpo’s) with (strict) continuous maps between them. We repeatedly apply the following lemmas in this paper. Lemma 1.1 [ 1,5 ] Let { Ai : i ∈ I } be a family of dcpo’s. Then the directed join of a directed subset D ⊆d i∈I Ai is calculated as d D = ( d Di )i∈I where Di = {a ∈ Ai : ∃d = (dk )k∈I ∈ D, a = di } for all i ∈ I . Lemma 1.2 [ 8 ] Let P, Q, and R be dcpo’s, and f : P × Q → R be a function of two variables. Then f is continuous if and only if f is continuous in each variable; which means that for all a ∈ P, b ∈ Q, fa : Q → R (b → f (a, b)) and fb : P → R (a → f (a, b)) are continuous. Remark 1.3 Recall that for a poset P, a nonempty subset I is called an ideal if I is an (up-)directed down subset of P, and the collection of all ideals of P is usually denoted by Id( P). It has been stated in [ 4 ] that for a poset P, Id( P) is the free dcpo over P. Notice that Id( P) is a dcpo in which the supremum of every directed subset is given by union, and the down map ↓: P → Id( P) is the universal monotone map of the free object. We consider the cofree dcpo on a poset in Sect. 2. Recall that a po-monoid is a monoid with a partial order ≤ which is compatible with the monoid operation: for s, t, s , t ∈ S, s ≤ t , s ≤ t imply ss ≤ t t . Similarly, a dcpo (cpo)-monoid is a monoid which is also a dcpo (cpo) whose binary operation is a (strict) continuous map. Recall that a (right) S-act or S-set for a monoid S is a set A equipped with an acti on A × S → A, (a, s) → as, such that a1 = a and a(st ) = (as)t, for all a ∈ A and s, t ∈ S. Let Act-S denote the category of all S-acts with action-preserving maps (maps f : A → B with f (as) = f (a)s, for all a ∈ A, s ∈ S). Also, for a po-monoid S, a (right) S-poset is a poset A which is also an S-act whose action λ : A × S → A is order-preserving, where A × S is considered as a poset with componentwise order. The category of all S-posets with action-preserving monotone maps between them is denoted by Pos-S. Finally, recall that for a dcpo (cpo)-monoid S, a (right) S-dcpo (S-cpo) is a dcpo (cpo) A which is also an S-act whose action λ : A × S → A is a (strict) continuous map. Also, by an S-dcpo map (S-cpo map) between S-dcpo’s (S-cpo’s), we mean a map f : A → B which is both (strict) continuous and action-preserving. We denote the categories of all S-dcpo’s (S-cpo’s) and S-dcpo (S-cpo) maps between them by Dcpo-S and Cpo-S, respectively. Furthermore, notice that in the definition of an S-cpo, the monotonicity of the action implies that it is also strict (this is because, for an S-cpo A, ⊥A ≤ ⊥A⊥S ≤ ⊥A1S = ⊥A). Also, by Lemma 1.2, the action λ : A × S → A is continuous if and only if the maps λa : S → A and λs : A → A, for all a ∈ A and s ∈ S, are continuous. 2 Adjoint Relations for Dcpo-S In this section, we consider the middle square of the forgetful functors. We show that both U4 and U5 have left adjoints, while only U4 has a right adjoint. Also, it is proved that if S satisfies a condition which we call “good,” then U6 has a left adjoint, but U6 does not have a right adjoint. Free S-dcpo over a dcpo By a free S-dcpo on a dcpo P we mean an S-dcpo F4 together with a continuous map τ : P → F4 with the universal property that given any S-dcpo A and a continuous map f : P → A there exists a unique S-dcpo map f : F4 → A such that f ◦ τ = f . Theorem 2.1 For a given dcpo P, the free S-dcpo on P is F4 = P × S, with componentwise order and the action given by (x , s)t = (x , st ), for x ∈ P, s, t ∈ S. Proof Recall that P × S is an S-poset, and is a dcpo (see [ 1 ]). Now, we show that the action defined above on P × S is a continuous map. Applying Lemma 1.2, let D ⊆d P × S and s ∈ S. We show that d D s = d ( p,t)∈D ( p, t s). By Lemma 1.1, d D = d D1, d D2 where D1 = Dom D and D2 = I m D are directed subsets of P and S, respectively. Now, d d d D s = D1, D2 s = ⎝ ⎛ d D1, d s ∈D2 ⎞ s s⎠ = d ( p,t)∈D ( p, t s). Notice that the first equality is true by the definition of the action on P × S, also the last equality is proved straightforward. Now, let T ⊆d S and ( p, s) ∈ P × S. Then ( p, s) d T = p, s d T p, st d t∈T = d t∈T ( p, st ), = d x∈D where the last equality follows by applying the definition of the least upper bound. Again, recalling that P × S is the free S-poset on the poset P, with the universal map τ : P → P × S, given by x → (x , 1) (see [ 3 ]), we show that τ is continuous. Let D ⊆d P. Then d d τ D = D, 1 = (x , 1) = τ (d), d d∈D where the second equality is because of the definition of the upper bound. Finally, to prove the universal property of τ : P → P × S for S-dcpo’s, take a continuous map f : P → B to an S-dcpo B. Then the map f : P × S → B defined by f ( p, s) = f ( p)s, which is the unique S-poset map with f ◦ τ = f (see [ 3 ]), is continuous. Applying Lemma 1.2, let first D ⊆d P and s ∈ S. Then f d d D, s = f D s = f (x ) s = f (x )s = where the third equality is because B is an S-dcpo. Secondly, assume that T ⊆d S and p ∈ P, then d d f p, T = f ( p) T = f ( p)t = f ( p, t ), where the second equality is because B is an S-dcpo. Corollary 2.2 The forgetful functor U4 : Dcpo-S → Dcpo has a left adjoint. Cofree S-dcpo over a dcpo By a cofree S-dcpo on a dcpo P we mean an S-dcpo K4 together with a continuous map σ : K4 → P with the universal property that given any S-dcpo A and a continuous map g : A → P there exists a unique S-dcpo map g : A → K4 such that σ ◦ g = g. Theorem 2.3 For a given dcpo P and dcpo-monoid S, the cofree S-dcpo on P is the set K4 = P(S), of all dcpo maps from S to P, with pointwise order and the action given by ( f s)(t ) = f (st ), for s, t ∈ S and f ∈ P(S). Proof First we show that P(S) is an S-dcpo. Recall that P(S) is a dcpo, and the supremum in P(S) is calculated pointwise (see [ 8 ]). Also, the action defined above is a continuous map. It is well-defined, since for f ∈ P(S) and s ∈ S, f s is continuous. This is because for T ⊆d S, d ( f s) T = f s d T d t∈T d t∈T d t∈T = f st = f (st ) = ( f s)(t ), where the second equality is because S is a dcpo-monoid, and the third equality is because f is continuous. To prove the continuity of the action, we apply Lemma 1.2. Let first F ⊆d P(S) and s ∈ S. Then d d F s (t ) = F (st ) = f (st ) = d f ∈F d f ∈F ⎛ ( f s)(t ) = ⎝ d f ∈F ⎞ f s⎠ (t ), where the second and the last equality are because supremum in P(S) is calculated pointwise. Therefore, d F s = d (F s). Now assume that T ⊆d S and f ∈ P(S). Then = f d t s = f (t s) ( f t )(s) = f t (s), d t∈T d t∈T as required. Consequently P(S) is an S-dcpo. Now, take the cofree map σ : P(S) → P defined by σ ( f ) = f (1). First, we show that it is continuous. Let F ⊆d P(S). Then σ ⎝ ⎛ d f ∈F f ⎠ ⎞ = ⎝ ⎛ d f ∈F ⎞ f ⎠ (1) = d f ∈F f (1) = σ ( f ). Further, given a continuous map α : A → P from an S-dcpo A, the map α : A → P(S), given by α(a)(s) = α(as), is an S-dcpo map and satisfies σ ◦ α = α. First, we show that α is continuous. Let D ⊆d A and s ∈ S, then d α D (s) = α d D s Secondly, α is action-preserving, since for all s, t ∈ S and a ∈ A we have α(as)(t ) = α((as)t ) = α(a(st )) = α(a)(st ) = (α(a)s)(t ). To establish the uniqueness of α, suppose that h : A → P(S) is also an S-dcpo map such that σ ◦ h = α. Then for all a ∈ A and s ∈ S, h(a)(s) = h(a)(s1) = (h(a)s)(1) = σ (h(a)s) = σ (h(as)) = α(as) = α(a)(s). Corollary 2.4 The forgetful functor U4 : Dcpo-S → Dcpo has a right adjoint. Now, we consider the adjoints of U5. Recall that for a poset P, the set Id( P) of ideals of P is the free dcpo over P (see Remark 1.3). Corollary 2.5 The forgetful functor U5 : Dcpo → Pos has a left adjoint. d f ∈F d x∈D d x∈D d In the following, we see that the right adjoint of U5 does not necessarily exist. Lemma 2.6 If P is a nontrivial poset with nonidentity order, which is also a dcpo, then the cofree dcpo over P does not exist. Proof Let P be a nontrivial dcpo in which the order is not identity, and let K ( P) be the cofree dcpo over P as a poset. Take k : K ( P) → P to be the cofree monotone map. First we see that k is one-one. This is because, otherwise there exist x = y ∈ K ( P) such that k(x ) = k(y) = p0. Then, considering the monotone map f : { } → P from the singleton dcpo { }, defined by f ( ) = p0, we see that there exist two dcpo maps f1, f2 : { } → K ( P), given by f1( ) = x and f2( ) = y, such that k ◦ f1 = f and k ◦ f2 = f . This contradicts the universal property of the cofree map k. Moreover, we see that k is a retraction, since for the monotone map i dP : P → P, by the universal property of cofree maps, there exists a dcpo map f : P → K ( P) with k ◦ f = i dP . Therefore, k is a poset isomorphism. Now, since the order on P is not identity, there exist x , y ∈ P with x < y. Define the poset map f : P(N) → P by f (M ) = x y if M is finite otherwise Then, by the universal property of cofree maps, there exists a unique dcpo map f : P(N) → K ( P) with k ◦ f = f . Now, f being a composition of two dcpo maps, is a dcpo map. But this is a contradiction, because taking the directed subset D of P(N) consisting of all finite subsets of N, we have f d D D = f (N) = y but = f d f (D) = d {x } = x . Corollary 2.7 The forgetful functor U5 : Dcpo → Pos does not have a right adjoint. Now, we consider U6. First, using the above corollary, we have: Remark 2.8 The forgetful functor U6 from Dcpo-S to Pos-S does not have a right adjoint for a general dcpo-monoid S. This is implied by taking S = {1}, and applying Corollary 2.7. Now, we give a condition on S under which U6 has a left adjoint. Definition 2.9 We say that a dcpo P is good if for every directed subset D of P, d D ∈ D. Remark 2.10 A dcpo P is good if and only if each directed subset of P has a top element. This condition is also equivalent to the fact that each element of P is compact. Recall that the element x of a dcpo P is called compact if for every directed subset D of P, x ≤ d D implies x ≤ d, for some d ∈ D. Finite posets and Noetherian posets (satisfying ACC on chains of elements) are examples of good dcpo’s. Also, for any poset P with discrete order, the posets P ⊕ and ⊥ ⊕ P are good dcpo’s, where P ⊕ and ⊥ ⊕ P are obtained by adding a top element and a bottom element to P, respectively. Theorem 2.11 Let S be a good dcpo-monoid. For a given S-poset A, the free Sdcpo on A is the dcpo Id( A) with the action λ : Id( A) × S → Id( A), given by (I, s) → I.s =: ↓(I s), where I s = {as : a ∈ I } for I ∈ Id( A) and s ∈ S. Proof First we show that Id( A) is an S-dcpo. Notice that, by Remark 1.3, Id( A) is a dcpo in which the supremum of a directed subset D of Id( A) is D. Also, it is clear that the given action is well-defined. Further, for all I ∈ Id( A) and s, t ∈ S, we have (1) I.1 = ↓(I 1) = ↓I = I , (2) I.(st ) = ↓(I (st )) = ↓((I s)t ) = ↓(↓(I s))t = (I.s).t , where equalities are true by a straightforward computation using definitions. Now, we show that the action is also continuous. Applying Lemma 1.2, let {Iα : α ∈ } be a directed subset of Id( A) and s ∈ S. We have Iα .s = Iα .s = ↓ Iα s = ↓ (Iαs) = (↓(Iαs) d I.t, d t∈T α∈ d α∈ where the equalities are true by straightforward calculations. Now, assume that T ⊆d S and I ∈ Id( A). Then = d t∈T d t∈T where the second equality follows from the hypothesis that that ↓ I ( d T is the maximum element of the set {↓I t : t ∈ T }. Therefore, d T ∈ T , which gives ↓ I d T = ↓(I t ), and so Id( A) is an S-dcpo. Now, we show that ↓: A → Id( A), a → ↓a is an Sposet map. It is clear that ↓ is order-preserving. It is also action-preserving, since (↓a).s = ↓((↓a)s) = ↓(as). Finally, we show that ↓: A → Id( A) is a universal map. Let f : A → B be an S-poset map to an S-dcpo B. Then the map f : Id( A) → B given by f (I ) = d f (I ) is the unique S-dcpo map with f ◦ ↓ = f . To see this, first we show that f is continuous. Let {Iα : α ∈ } be a directed subset of Id( A). Then where the third equality follows by the definition of supremum. In fact, since f (Iα) ⊆ f α∈ Iα , we get d f (Iα) ≤ d f α∈ Iα , for all α ∈ . Also, if b ∈ f Iα = f Iα = α∈ d f α∈ Iα = d α∈ d f (Iα) = f (Iα), d B is an upper bound of the set d f (Iα) : α ∈ have x ∈ f (Iα0 ), for some α0 ∈ , and so x ≤ d f α∈ Iα ≤ b. Also, f is action-preserving, since for I ∈ Id( A) and s ∈ S, we have , then for x ∈ f α∈ d f (Iα0 ) ≤ b, which gives Iα , we where the third equality is because an element c is an upper bound of f (↓(I s)) if and only if it is an upper bound of f (I s). The fourth equality is because f is action-preserving. Also, the fifth equality is because B is an S-dcpo. Furthermore, we have f (↓a) = d f (↓a) = f (a). To show the uniqueness of f , suppose that h : Id( A) → B is also an S-dcpo map with h ◦ ↓ = f . Then for every I ∈ Id( A), d f (I ) = f (I ) = d a∈I d a∈I Corollary 2.12 If S is a good dcpo-monoid, then the forgetful functor U6 : DcpoS → Pos-S has a left adjoint. 3 Adjoint Relations for Cpo-S In this section, we consider the top square of the forgetful functors. We show that U2 has a left adjoint, and if we assume that S is a cpo-monoid whose identity is the bottom element, then U1 has a left adjoint; also if S is a cpo-monoid whose identity is the top element, then U3 has a left adjoint. But, none of U1, U2, and U3 has a right adjoint. Free S-cpo on a cpo P By a free S-cpo on a cpo P we mean an S-cpo F1 together with a strict continuous map τ : P → F1 with the universal property that given any S-cpo A and a strict continuous map f : P → A there exists a unique S-cpo map f : F1 → A such that f ◦ τ = f . Theorem 3.1 Let S be a cpo-monoid whose identity is the bottom element. Then for a given cpo P and cpo-monoid S, the free S-cpo on P is F1 = P ×S, with componentwise order and the action given by (x , s)t = (x , st ), for x ∈ P, s, t ∈ S. Proof First recall that P × S with the above action and order is the free S-dcpo on the dcpo P (see Theorem 2.1). Also, we know that P × S with the componentwise order is a cpo (see [ 1 ]). Now, we show that τ : P → P × S given by x → (x , 1) is a universal strict continuous map. Since the identity element of S is the bottom element, we have τ (⊥P ) = (⊥P , 1) = (⊥P , ⊥S), which means that τ is strict. The continuity of τ was proved in Theorem 2.1. To prove the universal property, let f : P → B be any strict continuous map to an S-cpo B. Then the map f : P × S → B defined by f ( p, s) = f ( p)s is the unique S-dcpo map with f ◦ τ = f (see Theorem 2.1). Now, we show that f is also strict. Since f is strict and B is an S-cpo, f (⊥P , ⊥S) = f (⊥P )⊥S = ⊥B ⊥S = ⊥B . Corollary 3.2 If S is a cpo-monoid whose identity is the bottom element, then the forgetful functor U1 : Cpo-S → Cpo has a left adjoint. Remark 3.3 The forgetful functor U1 : Cpo-S → Cpo does not have a right adjoint. One can see this by noting that it does not necessarily preserve the initial object. For example, let S be the 2-element chain {1, a} with 1 < a, and aa = a, 1a = a = a1. Then S is an S-cpo and, it is the initial object of Cpo-S (see [ 11 ]), whereas the initial object in the category Cpo is the singleton cpo. Now, we consider U2. Theorem 3.4 The forgetful functor U2 : Cpo → Dcpo has a left adjoint. Proof For a dcpo P, P⊥ = ⊥ ⊕ P is the free cpo on P. Remark 3.5 The forgetful functor U2 : Cpo → Dcpo does not have a right adjoint. This is because, U2 does not preserve the initial object. Notice that the initial object in Cpo is the singleton poset { }, while the initial object in Dcpo is the empty poset. Finally, we study U3. Free S-cpo over an S-dcpo. By a free S-cpo on an S-dcpo A we mean an S-cpo F6 together with a S-dcpo map τ : A → F6 with the universal property that given any S-cpo B and a strict continuous map f : A → B there exists a unique S-cpo map f : F6 → A such that f ◦ τ = f . Theorem 3.6 Let S be a cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the top element. Then the free S-cpo on an S-dcpo A is A⊥ = ⊥ ⊕ A with the action defined by a.s = as if a ∈ A ⊥ if a = ⊥ for all a ∈ A⊥ and s ∈ S. Proof We show that this action is continuous. Applying Lemma 1.2, let D ⊆d A⊥ and s ∈ S. First note that D ⊆ A⊥ is directed if and only if D ⊆ A is directed or D = D ∪ {⊥} where D = ∅ or D is a directed subset of A. Therefore, two cases may occur: Case (1): D ⊆d A. In this case, D .s = D s = x s = x .s, d x∈D d x∈D since the action on A is continuous. Case (2): D = D ∪ {⊥}, where D ⊆d A or D = ∅. If D = ∅, then the result is clear. Let D ⊆d A. Then, d D .s = D .s = D s = x s d x∈D d x∈D = x .s ∨ (⊥.s) = x .s. d x∈D Now assume that T ⊆d S and a ∈ A⊥. If a = ⊥, then ⊥.( If a ∈ A, then d T ) = ⊥ = d (⊥.s). d where the second equality is because A is an S-dcpo. Therefore, A⊥ is an S-cpo. Now, we show that the inclusion map ι : A → A⊥ is the universal free map. Let f : A → B be any S-dcpo map to an S-cpo B. Then, the map f : A⊥ → B defined by is the unique cpo map with f ◦ ι = f . Now, we show that f : A⊥ → B is actionpreserving, and so it is an S-cpo map. Since the identity element of S is the top element, the bottom element of every S-cpo is a zero element (s ≤ 1 implies ⊥As ≤ ⊥A1 = ⊥A, and so ⊥As = ⊥A), and hence f (⊥.s) = f (⊥) = ⊥B = ⊥B s = f (⊥)s, for all s ∈ S. Also, for a = ⊥ and s ∈ S, f (a.s) = f (as) = f (as) = f (a)s = f (a)s. Corollary 3.7 If S is a cpo-monoid whose identity is the top element, then the forgetful functor U3 : Cpo-S → Dcpo-S has a left adjoint. Remark 3.8 The forgetful functor U3 : Cpo-S → Dcpo-S does not have a right adjoint. Take S = {1} and apply Remark 3.5. Another way to see this, is by showing that U3 does not preserve the initial object. Consider the example S given in Remark 3.3. Then S is the initial object in the category Cpo-S, but the initial object in Dcpo-S is the empty poset. 4 Erratum to Adjoint Relations for Pos-S In this section, we consider the bottom square of forgetful functors. Recall that the adjoint situations related to the category of S-posets have been stated in [ 3 ]. The free functor from S-acts to S-posets is described in Theorem 17 of [ 3 ]. There is an error in that description which makes it true if and only if the pomonoid S has a trivial order. In fact, it is stated there that for a given S-act A, the free S-poset is ( A, ), where is the discrete (equality) order. But, if there are s, t ∈ S with s < t , then we may have a in A such that as = at and so (as, at ) ∈/ . That is, ( A, ) is not necessarily an S-poset. In the following, we correct this, and find the free adjunction to the forgetful functor U9 : Pos-S → Act-S. Let A be an S-act. Consider the relation R = {(as, at ) : a ∈ A, s ≤ t } on A. Recall the order R (see [ 2 ], and ≤R in [ 3 ]) given by a R b if and only if there exist a1, a1, . . . , an , an ∈ A; a = a1 Ra1 = · · · = an Ran = b, which explicitly means that a R b if and only if there exist a1, a2, . . . , an ∈ A, s1, . . . , sn ∈ S, t1, . . . , tn ∈ S with si ≤ ti , for all i = 1, . . . , n, and such that a = a1s1 a1t1 = a2s2 a2t2 = a3s3 . . . antn = b a3t3 = a4s4 . . . an−1tn−1 = an sn Then the relation θ given by is an S-act congruence, and the quotient S-act A/θ turns into an S-poset with the order given by aθ b ⇔ a R b Ra, [a]θ ≤ [b]θ ⇔ a R b. Theorem 4.1 For a given S-act A, the quotient S-act A/θ given above is the free S-poset on A. Proof First note that the S-act A/θ with the above order is an S-poset. To see this, we show that the order is a well-defined partial order, and also the action is monotone. Let [a]θ = [c]θ , [b]θ = [d]θ , and [a]θ ≤ [b]θ . Then a R c Ra, b R d R b, and a R b. This gives that c R a R b R d, and so c R d, since R is transitive. Thus, the order is well-defined. It is also a partial order, since R , and so ≤ is a preorder. Further, it is anti-symmetric. For, if [a]θ ≤ [b]θ ≤ [a]θ , then a R b Ra. Therefore, by the definition of θ , [a]θ = [b]θ . To see that the action is monotone, let [a] ≤ [b] and s ≤ t . Then there exist a1, a 1, . . . , an , a n ∈ A such that a = a1 Ra 1 = a2 Ra 2 = · · · = an Ra n = b, and by the definition of R, using the fact that S is a pomonoid, this gives which means as R bt . Now, we show that the natural map π : A → A/θ , a → [a], is a universal S-act map. Let f : A → B be any S-act map to an S-poset B. Then, the map f : A/θ → B, defined by f ([a]) = f (a), is the unique S-poset map with f ◦ π = f . To see this, notice that θ ⊆ K er f . For, if a R b then f (a) ≤ f (b), by the definition of R , the hypothesis that f is an S-act map, and that B is an S-poset. Therefore, by the Decomposition Theorem (Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem) of S-acts, there exists the unique S-act map f as above. We further see that f is an order-preserving map, since [a] ≤ [b] means a R b, and so f (a) ≤ f (b). 5 Conclusion In this final section, applying the investigations done in the above sections, we consider the composition of forgetful functors given in all the three squares, and consider the questions whether they have a left or a right adjoint or do not have. Remark 5.1 Applying the compositions of some of the free functors in the above sections, we get: (1) If S is a cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the bottom element, then the free S-cpo over a set X is X⊥ × S. (2) If S is a cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the bottom element, then the free S-cpo over a poset P is (Id( P) ∪ {∅}) × S. (3) If S is a good cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the top element, the free S-cpo over an S-act A is Id( A/θ ) ∪ {∅}, where A/θ is the S-poset given in Theorem 4.1. (4) If S is a good cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the top element, the free S-cpo over an S-poset A is Id( A) ∪ {∅}. (5) If S is an cpo-monoid in which the identity element is the bottom element, then the free S-cpo over a dcpo A is (⊥ ⊕ A) × S. While if the identity element is the top element, then the free S-cpo over a dcpo A is ( A × S)⊥. (6) The free S-dcpo over a set X is X × S, where X is considered as a dcpo with the identity order. (7) The free S-dcpo over a poset P is Id( P) × S. (8) If S is a good S-dcpo, then the free S-dcpo over an S-act A is Id( A/θ ), where A/θ is the S-poset given in Theorem 4.1. (9) The free cpo over a poset P is Id( P) ∪ {∅}. (10) The free cpo over a set X is ⊥ ⊕ X . (11) The free dcpo over a set X is (X, =). Remark 5.2 About the cofree functors, we have: (1) The cofree functor Set → Cpo-S does not necessarily exist. This is because, considering S = {1}, the forgetful functor U : Cpo → Set does not preserve coproducts. Let 2 denote the two elements chain {0, 1} with 0 < 1, and let 3 denote the three elements chain {0, a, 1} with 0 < a < 1. The coproduct of 2 and 3 in Cpo is their coalesced sum 2 3 = ⊥ ⊕ ((2 \ {0}) ∪˙(3 \ {0})) which has four elements, whereas the coproduct of U8(2) and U8(3) in Set is their disjoint union which has five elements. Also, similar to Remark 3.8, it is seen that U does not preserve the initial object. And, similarly, the cofree S-cpo over a poset, a dcpo, an S-poset, and an S-act, do not necessarily exist. (2) The cofree S-dcpo over Act-S does not necessarily exist. Take S = {1}, and see Theorem 5.3. Similarly, the same is true for the cofree S-dcpos over a set and over a poset. (3) The forgetful functors from Cpo to Pos and to Set do not have right adjoints. This is because they do not preserve initial objects. Notice that the initial object in Cpo is the singleton poset { }, while the initial objects in Pos and Set are both the empty set. In the following, we see that the cofree dcpo over a set does not necessarily exist. Theorem 5.3 The cofree dcpo over set X exists if and only if | X | = 1. Proof If | X | = 1, then the cofree dcpo over X is ( X, =). If | X | ≥ 2, we show that the cofree dcpo over the set X does not exist. Assume the contrary and let K ( X ) be the cofree dcpo over X with the cofree map k : K ( X ) → X . First we see that k is one-one. This is because, otherwise there exist x = y ∈ K ( X ) such that k(x ) = k(y) = x0. Then, considering the map f : { } → X defined by f ( ) = x0, we see that there exist two dcpo maps f1, f2 : { } → K ( X ), given by f1( ) = x , and f2( ) = y, such that k ◦ f1 = f and k ◦ f2 = f . This contradicts the universal property of k, and therefore k is one-one. Now, take x = y ∈ X and define the map f from the three-element chain {0, a, 1} with 0 < a < 1, to X by f (0) = x = f (1), f (a) = y. By the universal property of k, there exists a unique dcpo map f : 3 → K ( X ) with k ◦ f = f . Now, k( f (0)) = f (0) = x and k( f (1)) = f (1) = x . Since k is one-one, we get f (0) = f (1). By monotonicity of f , f (0) ≤ f (a) ≤ f (1) holds. Whence f (a) = f (0), and so x = k( f (0)) = k( f (a)) = y, which is a contradiction. Open Problems. (a) Are the conditions given on S for the existence of the free objects F1, F3, and F6, necessary? (b) Can we give a condition on S, under which the cofree vertical functors on the side of the diagram exist? Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor M. Mehdi Ebrahimi’s comments and conversations during this work, specially we thank his suggestion to draw the diagram of forgetful functors which helped us to improve the results and have a clear picture of what we were working on. Also our sincere thanks goes to the referees for their careful reading and helpful suggestions. 1. Abramsky , S. , Jung , A. : Domain Theory, Handbook of Computer Science and Logic , vol. 3 . Clarendon Press, Oxford ( 1995 ) 2. Blyth , T.S. , Janowitz , M.F.: Residuation Theory . Pergamon Press, Oxford ( 1972 ) 3. Bulman-Fleming , S. , Mahmoudi , M.: The category of S-posets . Semigr. Forum 71 ( 3 ), 443 - 461 ( 2005 ) 4. Crole , Roy L.: Categories for Types . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ( 1994 ) 5. Davey , B.A. , Priestly , H.A. : Introduction to Lattices and Order . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ( 1990 ) 6. Ebrahimi , M.M. , Mahmoudi , M.: The category of M-Sets . Ital. J. Pure Appl. Math. 9 , 123 - 132 ( 2001 ) 7. Fiech , A. : Colimits in the category Dcpo . Math. Struct. Comput. Sci. 6 , 455 - 468 ( 1996 ) 8. Jung , A. : Cartesian Closed Categories of Domains, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, p. 110 . Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica , Amsterdam ( 1989 ) 9. Jung , A. , Moshier , M. Andrew , Vickers, S. : Presenting dcpos and dcpo algebras . Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci . 219 , 209 - 229 ( 2008 ) 10. Kilp , M. , Knauer , U. , Mikhalev , A. : Monoids, Acts and Categories. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin ( 2000 ) 11. Mahmoudi , M. , Moghbeli , H.: The categories of actions of a dcpo-monoid on directed complete posets . ( 2014 ) 12. Vickers , S. , Townsend , C. : A universal characterization of the double powerlocale . Theor. Comput. Sci . 316 , 297 - 321 ( 2004 )


This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs40840-015-0127-z.pdf

Mojgan Mahmoudi, Halimeh Moghbeli. Free and Cofree Acts of Dcpo-Monoids on Directed Complete Posets, Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society, 2015, 589-603, DOI: 10.1007/s40840-015-0127-z