OER and Open Education. Introduction to selected papers
OER and Open Education. Introduction to selected papers
Inés Gil-Jaurena 0
0 Editor for Open Praxis. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia - UNED , Spain
The Open Education Global Conference is the annual opportunity for researchers, practitioners, policy makers and educators to deeply explore open education and its impact on global education. Conference participants learn from thought leaders in open education and have the opportunity to share ideas, practices and discuss issues important to the future of education worldwide. Sessions cover new developments in open education, research results, innovative technology, policy development and implementation, and practical solutions to challenges facing education around the world.
technical and operational openness are systematically analyzed in the paper, applied to ROER4D.
The paper is an invitation to develop open research and hold a critical approach. ROER4D was
one of the winners of the Open Education Consortium 2016 Project awards, in the category “Open
Robert Farrow, from The Open University (United Kingdom), presents A Framework for the Ethics
of Open Education. The ethical dimension in educational research and the implications of open data
in research are discussed. The author presents a framework for thinking through ethical issues in
contexts where openness is emphasized and/or without institutional support. The frame, which
includes three positions within the normative theory (deontological, consequentialist and virtue
ethics), is then applied to analyse the case of the OER Research Hub project. As the previous
paper, this one is also an invitation to other researchers, in this case to incorporate the ethical
dimension “in the open”.
After those first two papers, which provide a reflection over various dimensions of open research,
the next contributions present various relevant experiences of implementation of open education,
narrated step-by-step and highlighting decisions, findings and lessons learned.
Jane-frances Obiageli Agbu, Fred Mulder, Fred de Vries, Vincent Tenebe and Abel Caine, from
National Open University of Nigeria, Open Universiteit in The Netherlands and UNESCO (The Best
of Two Open Worlds at the National Open University of Nigeria) present the NOUN case in relation
to OER. The paper explains in detail all the steps followed in the institution until they have reached
and OER strategy and agenda. Framed within the situation of other open universities worldwide,
NOUN has moved towards an OER-based university, and the paper highlights the process and
lessons learned. It is remarkable that the Organizational Leadership Award, granted by the Open
Education Consortium Board of Trustees, was awarded in 2016 to NOUN due to its strong
determination to become a full-fledged OER-based Open University.
Faye A. Chadwell and Dianna M. Fisher, from Oregon State University (US) (Creating Open
Textbooks: A Unique Partnership Between Oregon State University Libraries and Press and Open
Oregon State) introduce an open textbook initiative launched in partnership between the State and
the University Library in Oregon. The project is clearly framed and explained in the paper. Being a
successful initiative, it is being continued in a second phase now, with more prospective projects
for adopting or developing OER in the horizon.
Also referring to open textbooks as OER, Lawrence Hanley and Diego Bonilla, from the California
Open Educational Resources Council (US), (Atolls, Islands, and Archipelagos: The California OER
Council and the New Landscape for Open Education in California) explain the labour developed by
this council. It is conformed by representatives from three California public higher education systems,
with the mandate of locating, reviewing and curating a collection of open textbooks for the 50 most
highly-enrolled courses. The paper explains the project, with a special focus on scale and complexity
that the project has to face; on first findings about open textbook adoption and use, analysed through
surveys and focus groups; and on sustainability of the council work. These elements are identified
as key dimensions of interest to other OER projects.
Closing this section, another institutional experience by Patrina Law and Anne Jelfs, from The
Open University (UK) (Ten years of open practice: a reflection on the impact of OpenLearn), reports
on the OU platform for free learning in its 10th anniversary. After a descriptive overview of OpenLearn,
the authors introduce learners’ profiles, and focus specially on OU formal students as users of
OpenLearn. The authors, building upon the gathered experience and analysis, collect some lessons
learned, useful for open course providers. One of the OpenLearn projects, the Badged Open
Courses, was recipient of one of the Open Education Consortium 2016 Project awards, in the
category “Creative Innovation”.
The first paper covering the use of OER with specific populations is written by Lauryn Oates and
Jamshid Hashimi, from the Darakht-e Danesh Online Library for Educators in Afghanistan (Localizing
OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers). They describe
the development of a digital library in the three languages taught in the Afghan public school system.
The need for localizing and contextualizing resources meets the need for increasing the available
resources for teaching. Thus, the digital library purports to, at the end, improve teaching methods
and educational quality in Afghan schools. The paper explains the process of creating the digital
library, encountered challenges and decisions made in this pioneer initiative in Afghanistan.
Leigh-Anne Perryman and Beatriz de Los Arcos, from The Open University (UK) (Women’s
empowerment through openness: OER, OEP and the Sustainable Development Goals), analyse
women’s’ digital exclusion and study, based on data collected on the OER Research Hub, developing
world’s women’s interest in using OER, barriers to OER adoption, engagement with OER, and
perceived impact of OER on teaching practices. This gender-based study describes women’s’
perceptions and uses about OER and advances their potential for empowerment. The authors
suggest some valuable recommendations for OER and OER projects to include a gender equality
Finally, a book review completes this special issue about OER and Open Education. Justin Keel,
from US, presents a review of MOOCs: Opportunities, impacts, and challenges. Massive open online
courses in colleges and universities, published by Michael Nanfito.
It is our wish to contribute to the current and exciting debate about open education with the papers
included in this issue.
We specially thank from Open Praxis to the authors and the reviewers for their valuable
contributions, and to the Open Education Consortium for the partnership and collaboration in the
preparation of this special issue.