Special issue on resilience in steel structures
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.
Special Issue on Resilience in Steel Structures
This special issue of Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering features nine technical papers focusing on resilience in steel structures with authors from Canada, China, Italy, Portugal, Singapore and the United States. Through their contributions, they have shared their technical expertise in innovative solution towards resilience in steel structures by conducting experimental investigation, formulating analytical modelling and developing finite-element simulation. Papers also addressed the topical issue on life-cycle costing, constructability and reparability. Current design provisions were also assessed and new design concepts and solutions were proposed. The following are the highlights of each of the technical contributions.
The second paper by Ricles et al. presents an experimental
investigation on the seismic performance of a 0.6-scale three-story
steel frame building structure with nonlinear viscous dampers. They
adopted real-time hybrid simulations under the design basis
earthquake (DBE) and maximum considered earthquake (MCE) in their
investigations. The test structures consisted of a single-bay moment
resisting frame (MRF) and an associated single-bay frame with a
nonlinear viscous damper/associated bracings (DBF) in each story.
Results indicated that a MRF building structure with nonlinear viscous
dampers can be designed with a reduced MRF strength level but can
still achieve (i) high level performance between the “Immediate
Occupancy” and the “Life Safety” under DBE ground motions and (2)
high performance under MCE ground motions with a low probability of
collapse and a high probability of good post-earthquake functional
The third paper by Maurya and Eatherton proposes a new
selfcentering beam (SCB) moment frame to address the current
challenges in adopting self-centering (SC) seismic force resisting
systems which includes complex field construction, deformation
incompatibility between the SC system and gravity load system of
the structure. The proposed SCB system can also be shop-fabricated
and also be tuned specifically for particular design requirements on
strength and stiffness to achieve the optimum use of steel materials.
Prototype specimens were examined experimentally and all three
SCBs were successfully tested up to a story drift of 6% without
damages. Their proposed equations on moment capacity, beam
moment at gap opening and post-gap opening stiffness found to be
in good agreement with the experimental observations.
The fourth paper by Clayton et al. presents an overview of the
numerical and experimental research program on a recently proposed
self-centering steel plate shear wall (SC-SPSW) lateral force-resisting
system. Focus is also made at the innovative post-tensioned
beamcolumn connection and web plate designs. The proposed SC-SPSW
have shown promising performance on constructability, resilience and
The fifth by Yang and Li examines an innovative buckling restrained
knee braced truss moment frame (BRKBTMF) system through a
prototype 4-story office building. The modelling methodology using
robust buckling restrained brace model and element removal
technique in OpenSees was developed and implemented. Results
indicated that BRKBTMF demonstrated excellent seismic performance
on inter-story drift, floor acceleration and resistance against collapse.
Authors also adopted the next-generation performance-based
earthquake engineering framework to assess the life cycle repair cost of
BRKBTMF. Results also confirmed that BRKBTMF can effectively
control the structural and non-structural damage and repair costs.
The sixth paper by Chou et al. experimentally examines an
innovative steel dual-core self-centering brace (DC-SCB) by testing a
DC-SCB sub-assemblage and a full-scale one-story one-bay DC-SCB
frame. The key objective was to validate the seismic behavior of a steel
frame with the DC-SCB as an earthquake-resisting mechanism.
Authors have clearly described the behavior of an individual brace
as well as the mechanism on how the force redistributed as damages
progressed in the key dissipative elements – DC-SCBs, beams or
columns. Accounts on reparability and replaceability on the braced
frame were also discussed.
The seventh paper by Silva et al. presents the results of an
experimental campaign to evaluate the bending behavior of a new
concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column with the use of rubberized
concrete (RuC). Numerical assessment was also carried out, using
OpenSees to assess the seismic performance and resilience of
moment-resisting frames with CFST columns. Experimental results
indicated that RuC-CFST columns displayed ductile behavior while the
effect of concrete type was negligible in the member’s bending
behavior. Seismic performance assessment of the case studies
indicated that the seismic design of composite moment-resisting
frames using CFST columns in accordance with Eurocode 8 led to
lighter solution and also improved the seismic and resilience
performance as compared with equivalent steel options.
This Special Issue is concluded by two further contributions from
Quan et al. and Gu et al. The paper, by Quan et al. describes an
investigation on the use of narrow outer diaphragm and partial joint
penetration welds between concrete-filled steel tubular column and
steel beam under cyclic loads. Results from experimental, analytical
and numerical campaigns confirmed the suitability of this type of joint
configuration for seismic applications given appropriate control of the
axial load level. The paper, by Gu et al. presents a numerical
investigation to develop critical deformation limits for K- and X-joints
under brace axial tension. The numerical methodology was validated
and results were calibrated against existing experimental results. The
proposed deformation limit provided an explicit measure to quantify the
ductile fracture failure in engineering designs for a wide range of
geometric parameters and material toughness levels.
We sincerely hope you will enjoy reading this special issue and join
us in congratulating the authors for their immense achievements and
contributions to this special field “Resilience in Steel Structures”.
Professor, Tongji University, China
Assistant Professor, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong SAR, China
Professor, University of Maryland, USA
Dr. Tak-Ming Chan graduated from the
of Hong Kong, China in 2001
with a first class honours degree in Civil
Engineering. He started his structural
engineering career by joining Arup
(Hong Kong) as a graduate structural
engineer. He received his master’s
degree with Distinction in Structural
Steel Design in 2004, and was
awarded a PhD. in the area of Tubular Structures in 2008,
both from Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
Dr. Chan is currently an Assistant Professor in Structural
Engineering at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and an
honorary academic staff at the University of Warwick, United
Kingdom. He is a chartered member of the Institution of
Structural Engineers (IStructE, United Kingdom) and was
recently appointed as Deputy Secretary-General of the
Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Steel
Construction (Hong Kong Branch). Dr Chan is a committee
member of the United Kingdom mirror group for Eurocode 3 on
Steel Structures and a committee member of the Structural
Members Committee of the Technical Administrative
Committee on Metals, the Structural Engineering Institute (SEI,
American Society of Civil Engineers, United States).
Dr. Chan also serves as an associate editor for the Journal
of Advances in Structural Engineering and a member of the
Editorial Board for: Structures and Buildings (the Institution of
Civil Engineers, United Kingdom), Advanced Steel
Construction (an international journal), Steel and Composite Structures
(an international journal) and International Journal of
Earthquake and Impact Engineering. Dr Chan’s current research
interests focus on tubular structures, composite steel-concrete
structures and earthquake engineering.
in 2005 from Tongji University, Shang-
scholar in 2009 at Georgia Institute of
Technology , USA. In 2008, he received
of Technology in 2001 , MS degree from
in 1996 , and BE from Tongji University,
China in 1993 . His research interests
are in the general area of earthquake engineering and structural health monitoring technology . Dr . Zhang's research program has received external funding support totaling $6.24 million from diverse sources including the National Science Foundation (11 competitively awarded NSF grants ), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, US Air Force Research Office, and state funding. He has published 50 refereed journal articles and numerous peer-reviewed conference papers, technical reports, and book chapters . In 2006 , Dr. Zhang received the NSF CAREER Award for interdisciplinary research in smart structures technology and innovative education activities. He also won the Best Paper Award from the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineering ) Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering in 2006 .