A chronicle of just-in-time information: The secret to building first year university student wellbeing and resilience based on a three year initiative
0 James Cook University , Townsville , Australia
1 Schreiner , L., Louis, M., & Nelson, D. (2012). Thriving in Transitions: A Research-Based Approach to College Student Success. National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. University of South Carolina
To date, little has been published on the provision of student-driven just-in-time information to support first year students. This chronicle of just-in-time curricular and extra-curricular student support information was designed early in 2014 and successfully disseminated to first year biomedical science students over three years at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. In 2016, the information was redeveloped to make the support information electronically available to a much broader student audience. This article provides a dissemination template of what just-in-time curricular and extracurricular information is required by first year university students. In addition, it outlines how students' need for this information was determined and how information was successfully created and disseminated over these three years to assist the students in their transition to and through university. The intention of this article is to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on student resilience and wellbeing and to provide a guide for anyone interested in supporting their students in a similar manner.
Initial experiences on campus are important as
students’ first impressions and transition to
undergraduate study can influence their
persistence in higher education (McInnis, 2001;
McInnis, Hartley, Polesel, & Teese, 2006;
Schreiner, Louis, & Nelson 2012; Williams,
1982). No unanimous opinion exists on the
most effective means to support students and
how best to disseminate curricular and
extracurricular just-in-time information or for that
matter, what just-in-time information is
pertinent for the students as they progress
through their university student life-cycle
(Taylor & Harrison 2016). Lizzio (2011) and
Tinto (2012) suggest the student
lifecycle/journey involves identities, needs and
purposes as they enter into, move through and
graduate from university.
First year student research and transition
pedagogy advocates the importance of creating
a campus community (Tinto, 2012), a sense of
belonging (Maisal & Gable, 2009) and how
transition pedagogy transcends the silos of
academic and administrative support for a more
holistic environment (Kift, Nelson, & Clarke,
2010) in which students can thrive, rather than
just survive (Taylor & Harrison, 2016). Cabrera
and Padilla (2014) suggest that, despite
economic, cultural, social and first in family
barriers, educational resilience - and hence
student success - is enhanced through
community support and social and academic
support (Clauss-Ehlers & Wibrowski 2007).
Resilience is the ability for an individual to cope,
make alternative plans and seek support during
setbacks. It is the ability to bounce back wiser,
stronger and more courageous. The more an
individual learns and practises, the more
resilient they can become which highlights the
importance for student support, particularly for
individuals with financial and transition
challenges such as first in family. First in family
is defined as the first member of their
immediate family (siblings, parents or primary
care-givers) to attend university.
An evaluation of the responses of the James
Cook University (JCU) students to the University
Experience Survey (UES) conducted in 2013,
made evident that a variety of reasons students
withdraw were higher than the national
average (NA): particularly first in family (60%
JCU vs 48.3% NA), financial difficulties (37% vs
29%) and family responsibilities (23% vs 17%;
Taylor & Harrison 2016). JCU biomedical
science students, like many first year students,
struggle with the first year transition which is
compounded by the fact that 33% of them
struggle with “second-choice-syndrome”
(disappointment of not being accepted into
their first choice of professionally accredited
courses of medicine, nursing, etc.; Taylor &
Harrison 2015a; 2015b; 2016). Historically JCU
first year bachelor of biomedical student
retention from year to year (2008-2014) ranges
from 42-63%, faculty retention 62-80% and the
university retention of these students in general
ranges from 72-82% (Taylor & Harrison, 2016).
This article focusses on four main factors: 1)
just-in-time information requirements and
creation, 2) just-in-time information
dissemination, 3) results and success, and 4)
redevelopment into iAspire Student Support
articles electronically posted for a much
broader student audience. This discussion is
followed by conclusions drawn based on the
success of the student support initiatives and
the downloads of the iAspire articles.
Overview of the initial research
The 2014 first year cohort of biomedical science
students consisted of 77 students in study
period one (SP1) and 52 in SP2 (Table 1). In SP1
there were 74% Female and 26% Male, 9%
Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
(ATSI), 33% Low and 67% Medium Socio
Economic Status (SES) and 58% first in family
(FIF) students. Other demographic details
included 10% Non-English Speaking
2 | Student Success, 8(1) - Early Release - October 2016
Table 1 Biomedical science student degree cohort characteristics in 2014 (Statistics from JCU
SP – Study Period; ATSI – Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander; Med – Medium; Y – Yes; N – No; NESB – Non-English
Speaking Background; Reg – Regional; Rem – Remote.
Background (NESB) student, 23% Regional and
52% Remote students (Table 1). There were 29
of the 52 SP2 students in 2014 that progressed
to the second year of the biomedical science
degree in 2015 (Taylor & Harrison, 2016).
In 2014, a student support initiative was
established to disseminate curricular and
extracurricular just-in-time information to first year
and second year biomedical science students to
build their resilience. The program consisted of
monthly 50 minute themed (costumes optional)
pop-up lunch events called Biomed Freaky
Friday (BFF) and a biweekly MicroBytes
enewsletter (Taylor & Harrison, 2016). Each BFF
event was themed to correspond with its timing
in the semester and season (Table 2) and to
relate with the potential issues and challenges
the students may be dealing with at that point in
time during the semester. For example, the
Nightmare before Mid Semester was before the
mid semester exams and was a spoof of the Tim
Burton movie Nightmare before Christmas
(Table 2). The pop-up BFF events provided a
temporary suspension of reality for the
students during their lunch hour where they
could relax, be entertained (networking and
team building games and activities), be catered
for and treated as special guests. On average
between 31% and 75% of the first year cohort
(n=77 SP1, n=52 SP2) and consistently 96% of
the second year cohort (n=29 SP1 & SP2, 2015)
attended their BFF events (Taylor & Harrison,
On and off
A host of academic and professional student
support agencies from both on campus (JCU
staff from student life, JCU Student Association,
library liaison and rovers, student central,
learning advisors, student mentors, equity and
student engagement, student wellbeing, careers
and biomedical academic and research staff)
and off campus (Townsville community
Bendigo Bank and laboratory suppliers
Sarstedt, Cell Biosciences, ThermoFisher
Scientific. actively participated in the BFF
luncheons and provided additional support
information and resources not outlined in this
article (Taylor & Harrison, 2016). These
resources and advisors were available to help
students see their potential and to assist them
in envisioning their future and success similar
to what Snyder (1994) referred to as caring
coaches who are particularly important for
students at risk (Schreiner, Noel, & Cantwell
2011). The creation of a sense of community,
belonging and a support network with
resources (Table 2) is key for a more holistic
support initiative for first and second year
students to thrive and for building resilience
(Clauss-Ehlers & Wibrowski 2007). Having
contacts and a network system is particularly
important as first year students are often
seeking clarity on their academic identities and
purpose and in second year to reduce the
sophomore slump (Loughlin, Gregory, Harrison,
& Lodge, 2013; Taylor & Harrison, 2016). Both
contacts and a network system have been linked
to building student resilience (Clauss-Ehlers &
At each BFF event the students received a
themed 20-28 page booklet filled with
extracurricular and curricular just-in-time
information relating to their academic, social
and personal challenges (Table 2). The contents
of the BFF student support information
booklets are an important focus of this paper
along with the success of this student-driven
support information that lead to the creation of
non-discipline specific iAspire Student Support
articles for a much broader student audience.
1. Just-in-time information requirements
In early 2014 it became a challenging task to
decide what curricular and extra-curricular
just-in-time information students required and
at what point in their university life-cycle. A
literature review on the provision of student
support to improve their wellbeing and the
university students’ life-cycle (Lizzio, 2011;
Taylor & Harrison, 2016, Tinto, 2012, Wilson &
Lizzio, 2012) and for building resilience
(Clauss-Ehlers & Wibrowski 2007) lead to
initial indicators of what information the first
year students may require, however, the most
valuable resource was the students themselves.
Once a rapport was established between the
first year experience coordinator and the six
volunteer students from the first and second
year cohorts, the need for relevant material was
openly discussed. This led to the delivery of
student-driven curricular and extra-curricular
just-in-time information that created a safe,
supportive and nurturing environment;
something which Clauss-Ehlers and Wibrowski
(2007) found contributed to resilience-building
in first and second generation university
The just-in-time support information provided
to the students, as outlined in Table 2, included
coping skills, life skills, study skills and
motivational quotes from famous and
accomplished people to encourage a positive
and growth-oriented mindset for students that
encouraged their positive appraisal of their
situation while stimulating an “I can handle
this” attitude. The support information was
aimed at providing an “I’m not alone” and “we’re
in this boat together” feeling. All of the
components that potentially lead to improving
an overall sense of hope (Snyder, 1994).
Tempski et al. (2015) found that medical
students with higher resilience levels seemed to
have improved perception of their educational
environment and a better quality of life overall.
The support resources delivered to the first
year students (Table 2) provided resilience,
building support with strong consistent
supportive counselling ideas that could address
academic and personal challenges
(ClaussEhlers & Wibrowski, 2007) so individuals could
feel more apprised for more positive internal
responses such as “I know what to do” or at least
“I know where to seek help”. Schreiner et al.
(2012) suggests that a growth mindset is much
more positive with an understanding that this is
how we learn and grow rather than functioning
4 | Student Success, 8(1) - Early Release - October 2016
in a fixed mindset of avoidances using phrases
like “I’ll try” or “I’m not smart enough” - with the
latter most definitely leading to procrastination
and additional stress in a student’s life. This
mindset has also been associated to low hope
and the challenges associated with a low sense
of agency (Schreiner, 2010; Snyder, 1994).
Assisting students to develop their goal setting
capacity and a sense of agency by building on
their strengths is a key factor in student
wellbeing (Kibby, 2015; Snyder, 1994) and to
improving their resilience (Grant & Kinman,
The creation of engaging student support content
To complement the BFF handouts, just-in-time
curricular and extra-curricular support
information was provided in the form of
biweekly MicroBytes e-newsletters (Table 2).
How students scan and take in information in a
quick and easy fashion was considered in the
creation of the e-newsletters and the handouts.
Dot points, font and font size, easy to follow
charts, pictures and visual representations of
information were utilised as students tend to
scan, rather than read information from media
sources such as websites, flyers and handouts.
Nielson’s (1997) web usability study
highlighted that 79% of users scanned rather
than thoroughly read word-for-word web
screen information. Three decades later
scanning has become even more prevalent
(Krug, 2014) as we trawl through the plethora
of information available to us. It is no different
for students who are overwhelmed with
reading requirements for each of their subjects’
Understanding your audience and their
requirements as well as their time limitations
are paramount to providing curricular and
extra-curricular just-in-time information
successfully. In a study of web content reading,
Nielsen (1997) found through eye tracking
visualisations that users often read web pages
in an F-shape or an E-shape pattern: two to
three horizontal stripes followed by a vertical
stripe of content scanning. Nielsen (1997) and
Krug (2014) note the importance of making the
information in documents, handouts and on
web sites concise and engaging through the use
of short captions to introduce the content. This
makes the information more reader-friendly
and encourages the reader to persist rather
than creating the typical academic mass of
overwhelming text. When covering complex
topics, breaking the information in to bite size
chunks and embracing the use of white space
helps to facilitate reading and comprehension.
For example, paragraphs should feature only
one idea and be kept short to 3-4 sentences. The
use of bullet points or numbered lists with an
enticing title, like “Five Top Tips” or “Five
Secrets” will ease scanning and reading.
Sentences need to be succinct and should not
contain unnecessary words just as paragraphs
should not contain any unnecessary sentences
(Krug, 2014, p. 49).
The use of compelling and informative headings
or captions paired with an authentic image
leads to the highest levels of reader engagement
(Krug, 2014; Bean, 2014). Supplying links or
outbound hypertext links is also an effective
way to provide more information if the reader is
interested however, it is important that the
links are current and usable to avoid user
frustration. Writing style and layout are also
important. It is critical to create information
that will work for both novice and expert users
by writing in a relaxed or semi-formal academic
style, making the content enjoyable as well as
useful. How the student support content was
read or utilised was not measured in this study
however, it would be an interesting topic for
future research and could provide an insight on
how to better provide support information to
first and second year university students. The
guidelines outlined by Bean (2014) Nielsen
(1997) and Krug (2014) informed the creation
of the BFF just-in-time curricular and
extracurricular information and the iAspire Student
2. Just-in-time information dissemination
Feedback from the six student volunteers, and
the cohort’s overall progression through the
semester were both determining factors for the
delivery of pertinent, authentic and rich
student-driven just-in-time curricular and
extra-curricular information. Table 2 is an
outline of the curricular and extra-curricular
just-in-time information successfully provided
to the first year students and the weeks in which
it was delivered based on student requests and
feedback. The second year student support
initiatives utilised the same timing for the
delivery of the support outlined in Table 2;
however, the content was adapted to meet the
second year students’ requirements and offered
an opportunity for reflective growth.
Timing of just-in-time information distribution
Every student is unique, therefore each of them
will have different identity-related needs at
different times of their student life-cycle.
Persistence often comes with a range of
emotional highs and lows (Lizzio, 2011; Wilson
& Lizzio, 2012). An understanding from the first
year transition literature (Kift, et al., 2010;
Taylor & Harrison, 2014; Wilson & Lizzio, 2012
Figure 1) of when the highs and lows are likely
to occur suggested the optimal timing for the
provision of student support information.
Utilising findings from transition literature, the
BFF student support initiative aimed to follow
and improve the emotional graph by easing the
lows and improving overall student wellbeing
while building their resilience (Grant & Kinman,
The provision of student curricular and
extracurricular just-in-time support information
aimed to shorten the ebbs (dipping below the
OK line in Figure 1) while promoting active
engagement, encouraging growth, and inspiring
heightened progression in the flows (well above
the OK line in Figure 1). The provision of the
just-in-time support information contributed to
creating a sense of engagement and belonging
(based on student and academic surveys
feedback) while the BFF luncheons offered
opportunities for networking and collegiality
among the students and other academics and
professionals on and off-campus. These types of
initiatives have been linked to resilience
building and the ability to forge success
(ClaussEhlers & Wibrowski, 2007).
3. Results and Success
A great deal of positive student and academic
feedback was received on the BFF events and
the BFF booklets content in 2014 and 2015 and
on how the support information improved and
supported the first and second year students’
experience. The MicroBytes e-newsletters also
received a high student satisfaction rating and
positive student feedback (Taylor & Harrison,
2016). This was evidenced by 63% of the 52
students surveyed in 2014 respectively
agreeing that the MicroBytes e-newsletters
were fun and that they encouraged support. In
addition, 88% agreed that the BFF events and
handouts made them feel supported and
connected within biomedical science and the
JCU community (Taylor & Harrison, 2016). The
students’ surveys and student quotes suggest an
overall sense of hope and that abilities to build
resilience were improved.
A central goal was to improve student support,
wellbeing and learning potential while
bolstering the students’ overall sense of hope
and abilities to build resilience. Hope and
resilience were not officially measured in this
study however hope and resilience as measures
of students’ wellbeing would be highly
recommended for future studies in this area.
These guidelines also informed the
redevelopment of the BFF booklets contents for
the iAspire Student Support articles discussed
6 | Student Success, 8(1) - Early Release - October 2016
Introduction to the first year experience coordinator and the academic advisor.
Induction and introduction to first year lecturers and laboratory technicians/tutors to
Outline the importance of networking with class mates, academic staff and technicians
and suggestions on how to network.
Introduction to PhD researchers on staff to provide an indication of post degree
How to set up a time table of classes, laboratories and tutorials.
How to set up a study period plan, a weekly pan, a job list and a daily action plan.
University etiquette and academic expectations.
How to set up an assignment plan.
Event Theme: Mad Hatter Tea Party
A spoof on Tim Burton’s and Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland.
Information provided on:
• Steps for effective time management and organization.
• Organizing lecture material and study areas.
• How to take, revise and condense lecture notes.
• How to plan an assignment working backwards from the due date.
• Five Study strategies.
• How to set up a personal budget and plan your savings.
• Review of how to work with a diary of all study, work and life activities.
• How to assess what is working and what isn’t working so the next four weeks can be
Information provided on:
• Six tips from successful students.
• The top 9 study habits.
• How to get motivated.
• The cone of learning and the importance of attending classes, labs and how to relate
assignments to lecture and lab materials.
• How to set up a study group and the benefits of study groups.
• Tips and suggestions on academic writing.
• How to maximize your grade potential.
• How to work smarter not harder.
• Why do I feel the way I do? What can I do?
• How to use tips and strategies to create new habits.
Event Theme: Survivor
A spoof on the Survivor TV Show
Information provided on:
• Feeling Anxious? What to do!
• Distortions that add to anxiety, worry and stress.
• Tips on planning careers, resumes and portfolios.
• How to network in a host of different environments.
• How to maximize your exam potential.
• Top 10 exam tips and exam tips from students.
• An outline of common instructional words used in exams.
• How to best prepare for exams.
• Reminder of study group benefits and how to form a study group.
• Quality study snacks and suggestions.
• How to cook once and eat three meals. The eat-well plate and yummy recipes.
• Suggestions on how best to take care of your self during stressful situations.
• Personal note from the first year experience coordinator.
Event Theme: Mad Scientist
Transforming laboratory science into fun props and ornamentation
Information provided on:
• A guided reflection on your success in study period one.
• How to improve your study area.
• Reminder on how to get and stay motivated.
• Reminder of distortion thoughts that cause anxiety, worry and stress.
• Time management suggestions.
• Reminder of networking and career strategies.
Event Theme: Nightmare Before Mid-Semester
A spoof of the Tim Burton movie Nightmare Before Christmas
Information provided on:
• Happiness = Reality – Expectations: How to balance your expectations with reality.
• Tips on how to strategize, plan and get things done.
• How to train your brain to stay focused.
• Study tips for specific subjects the students feel they are struggling in.
• Fifty tips for surviving your worst work days.
Event Theme: Halloween
Eat, drink and be scary.
Information provided on:
• Reminder of previous exam and study tips provided.
• How to plan your three-month break (celebrate, catch up with family and friends, jobs,
volunteer, micro or extended adventures and suggested books to read).
• How to organize and store your subject material, assessments and subject outlines.
• Plan for packing up your temporary residence for the break. A moving check list.
• Final exam preparations.
• Inspirational quotes, notes and images.
• Personal note from the first year experience coordinator.
Note: All of the student support information noted above also contained inspirational quotes, notes and images.
8 | Student Success, 8(1) - Early Release - October 2016
The following quotes highlight the usefulness of
the BFF handout booklets that contained
justin-time curricular and extra-curricular student
First year biomedical science student quotes
(2014 & 2015) on the just-in-time information
handouts reflected their impact: “the handouts
are great and very informative loved the study
plan stuff”, “love the BFF and the handouts”,
“handouts are very helpful”, “Easy access to
learning resources” and “very helpful
motivational tips in the handouts” (for more
quotes please refer to Taylor & Harrison, 2016).
First year biomedical science student quotes
(2014 & 2015) on the BFF events: “great event
to make you forget about all your stress and enjoy
yourself for an hour”, “great presence and
atmosphere”, “I found it [BFF events] beneficial in
breaking the ice and really getting to know others
in my course”, “It was great to be able to network
with people who are teachers or graduates and to
make stronger connections with friends” and
“Having themes is a good idea and makes it
enjoyable” (Taylor & Harrison, 2016).
JCU Academic staff (2014 & 2015) quotes on the
BFF events and handout booklets: “Interaction
in an informal setting enabled students to feel
comfortable enough to approach staff and
discuss subject content and career aspirations”
and “Very good turnout for BFF events,
The second year students (n=29) that were
initially involved in the first year support
initiatives in 2014 were provided with support
information along with two BFF events in each
study period in 2015. The second year BFF
events were very successful (based on informal
and formal student feedback) in supporting the
students through their sophomore slump with
96% of the second year cohort consistently
attending the BFF events in second year.
Results of the student support and the
curricular and extra-curricular just-in-time
information initiatives were presented at the
Australian Conference on Science and
Mathematics Education (ACSME) Conference in
Sydney, Australia (Taylor & Harrison, 2014), the
Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention
and Success (STARS) Conference in Melbourne,
Australia (Taylor & Harrison, 2015a) and the
Students in Transition Conference (SIT) in
Baltimore, United States (Taylor & Harrison,
2015b), receiving acclaim and requests for
more information on the support initiatives for
duplication at national and international
universities. Quote from Professor Sally Kift,
JCU’s Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) in
2014, to the JCU Biomedical Science first year
experience coordinator on student support
initiatives and research (S. Kift, personal
communication, October 10, 2014):
This is such great work and I am not
surprised at all that (a) your presentation
[at the ACSME conference] was a hit with
your colleagues (b) that colleagues want to
learn more about your initiatives and (c)
that levels of student engagement [at JCU]
have so patently improved.
Congratulations and thank you again for
your strong commitment to the student
experience here at JCU. You are clearly
making a difference.
4. Redevelopment into iAspire Student Support articles
In February 2016, the contents of the BFF
booklets were redeveloped and transcribed into
iAspire Student Support articles to support
students to and through university and were
posted in Research Online at JCU web access for
a much broader student audience. To date, the
iAspire Student Support articles have each
received between 68-261 hits and 27-129
downloads (Figure 2) in various countries
10 | Student Success, 8(1) - Early Release - October 2016
worldwide (Figure 3). These articles have been
a success in spite of no official advertising or
promotion. Below are the links to the current
iAspire Student Support articles:
An Introduction to Statistics
What is your preferred learning style?
Maximise your exam potential
The 5 steps to a great assignment plan
Feeling anxious? What to do
Study strategies and habits for success
Study groups – Join one today
How to make, revise and condense lecture
Positive psychology constructs such as goal
theory (Covington, 2000; Dweck, 1999),
optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985), self-efficacy
(Bandura, 1982) and problem solving (Heppner
& Petersen, 1982) give differentially weighted
emphasis to goals and the pathways process to
achieve these goals while hope theory
emphasises all of the above mentioned equally
as pursuit components (Snyder, 1994). The
support information strategy was designed to
provide the biomedical science student cohort
with an inspirational and reusable package of
resources. Through these support initiatives the
event coordinator (first year experience
coordinator and author of this paper) built a
much needed rapport with the students which
helped to inform the creation of the support
information outlined in Table 2. Taylor and
Harrison (2016) found the convergence of
student and academic ratings of the student
support initiatives included positive themes of
networking, collegiality, belonging and
engagement. It is out of the success of the
biomedical science support initiative that the
iAspire Student Support articles were developed
and based on their web hits and downloads they
are proving to be complementary support
resources accessible to a wider audience.
Until now, no template has existed for the
provision of curricular and extra-curricular
just-in-time information and support for first
and second year university students. It is
becoming increasingly crucial to recognise the
importance of providing personal and social
support in addition to curricular and
extracurricular support so students can thrive
regardless of cohort demographics or their
career paths. Successful transitions are based
on positive perception of self, healthy coping
A chronicle of just-in-time information: The secret to building first year university student wellbeing …
skills, social support and access to information
and resources for significant personal growth
and overall resilience.
Even though the 2014 and 2015 student
support initiatives and the provision of support
information were “tacked on” strategies, future
student engagement and support success
should only increase if this support is integrated
into course material (Kibby, 2015) and the
institutional climate (Tinto, 2005). The
dissemination template created (Table 2) for
first year just-in-time support initiatives can be
used in second year with a refresh to meet the
uniqueness of each cohort. Based on the early
success of the iAspire Student Support articles,
much of the support information does not have
to be discipline, culture or nation specific.
Through the sharing of this resource it is hoped
this information will initiate university
collaboration and increase awareness for the
importance of first and second year support
through the provision of just-in-time
information. How information is disseminated,
what information is shared and at what time
during the semester are all important. Further
research conducted at different universities
with their own diverse student cohorts will add
to the growing body of knowledge on the
importance of integrated first year experience
support to build student resilience improving
their wellbeing and ability to succeed.
Continued research will highlight to university
academic senior managers the importance for
funding of university-wide sustainable student
support programs. The outcomes of the
initiatives summarised here have demonstrated
that student just-in-time curricular and
extracurricular support have been perceived to
improve levels of student wellbeing and
resilience, consequently providing the students
with an environment in which they can thrive
and not just survive.
The author would like to acknowledge 2014 and
2016 grant funding from the James Cook
University Student Services and Amenities Fee
(SSA Fee). Thank you to all the volunteer
students and other contributors that helped to
make the BFF events a resounding success.
Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get
there from here. New York: Free Press.
Paper presented at the Australian
Conference on Science and Mathematics Education
(ACSME), University of Sydney, Australia.
Paper presented at the 22nd
National Conference on Students in Transition (SIT),
presented at the Students, Transitions, Achievement,
Retention and Success (STARS). Retrieved from
Bandura , A. ( 1982 ). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency . American Psychologist , 37 ( 2 ), 122 - 147 . Retrieved from https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1 982AP.pdf
Bean , C. ( 2014 ). The Accidental Instructional Designer. Learning Design for the Digital Age . Versa Press Inc. East Peoria IL.
Cabrera , N. , & Padilla , A. ( 2004 ). Entering and succeeding in the “culture of college”: The story of two Mexican heritage students . Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences , 26 ( 2 ), 152 - 170 . doi: 10.1177/0739986303262604
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