A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

Journal of Experimental Botany, Oct 2016

Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:


A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

Journal of Experimental Botany A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence Yuntong Jiao 0 1 2 Weirong Xu 0 1 2 Dong Duan 3 Yuejin Wang 0 1 2 Peter Nick 3 Robert Hancock, The James Hutton Institute 0 State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Northwest A & F University , Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 , People's Republic of China 1 Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture , Yangling 712100, Shaanxi , People's Republic of China 2 College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University , Yangling 712100, Shaanxi , People's Republic of China 3 Molecular Cell Biology, Botanical Institute 1, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology , Kaiserstr. 2, D-78133 Karlsruhe , Germany Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. Basal immunity; defence; grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata); powdery mildew; promoter activity; SA; signalling; stilbene synthase - As one of the most ancient crops, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is of economic and cultural significance. However, this crop is challenged by several diseases such as downy and powdery mildew, leading to a requirement for intensive plant protection. For instance, ~70% of European fungicide production is used for viticulture (Eurostat, 2007). This expensive application produces a negative ecological footprint, and is far from sustainable due to the rapid spread of fungicide resistance through the pathogen population. So far, resistance breeding has been the most successful strategy for sustainable © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. viticulture and cost reduction (Eibach et al., 2007). Resistance factors from non-vinifera species, such as the locus Rpv3 (for Resistance to Plasmopara viticola) or the locus Ren3 (for Resistance to Erysiphe necator) from North American wild grapes have been used successfully for introgression into V. vinifera cultivars that are used commercially (Welter et al., 2007; Di Gaspero et al., 2012). However, the success of these resistant varieties is progressively challenged by the occurrence of new pathogen strains that have already acquired strategies to circumvent the resistance mediated by these resistance loci (Peressotti et al., 2010; Gómez-Zeledón et al., 2013), stimulating the search for alternative mechanisms of resistance. Plant innate immunity consists of two layers (Jones and Dangl, 2006; Boller and He, 2009) that have to be understood from the co-evolutionary interaction between host and pathogen. The more ancient pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is activated by molecules termed PAMPs or microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), which are ubiquitous in pathogenic microorganisms and can be recognized by receptors at the plasma membrane. During co-evolution with their hosts, many pathogens have developed chemical signals, so-called effectors, to quell PTI. This will allow them to reinstate pathogenicity, but it will also initiate a second cycle of warfare, whereby the host cell can recognize the effectors by resistance proteins, predominantly nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors, and initiate a second layer of defence, termed effector-triggered immunity, or ETI (Takken and Tameling, 2009). This ETI often (but not necessarily) culminates in a hypersensitive response (HR) of the infected cell as the most efficient strategy to contain the intruder. The canonical form of ETI is linked with specific strains of the pathogen that infect specific host genotypes based on a coevolutionary history. In fact, both downy and powdery mildew have co-evolved with wild grapevine species in North America, and these grapevines have evolved resistance accompanied by HR. When these highly advanced biotrophic pathogens were unintentionally introduced into Europe in the second half of the 19th century, they encountered the completely naive host V. vinifera with devastating economic consequences. For downy mildew, the existence of ETI in sensu stricto is still under debate, but is supported by the recent discovery of host-specific pathogen strains (Gómez-Zeledón et al., 2013; Rouxel et al., 2013). In contrast, strain specificity for germplasm derived from wild North American grapes has been shown repeatedly for powdery mildew (Ramming et al., 2012; Feechan et al., 2015), supporting the existence of an ETI in senso strictu. There is a current debate about the existence of ETI against powdery mildew in non-American grapes (Qiu et al., 2015). This debate is mainly stimulated by claims of cell deathrelated defence resembling a HR. It should be kept in mind, however, that ETI has to meet three criteria: (i) it originates from a co-evolutionary history between host and pathogen; (ii) it is strain specific; and (iii) the cell death is not necrotic, but programmed. The first criterion is certainly not met, because powdery mildew arrived in China only in the 1950s (Wang, 1993; Wang et al., 1995). The second criterion would require a study where different strains of powdery mildew are compared, and has, to the best of our knowledge, only been addressed and confirmed for the North American resistance loci (Ramming et  al., 2012; Feechan et  al., 2015). Even the third criterion, cell death of the programmed type, is controversial. For instance, the factor Ren4 identified in the Chinese species V.  romanetii confers a strain-independent resistance based on penetration barriers (Ramming et  al., 2010). However, in a recent review (Qiu et  al., 2015), unpublished data on Ren4 are mentioned that are claimed to show a programmed cell death-based mechanism. Also, VvPEN1 was proposed to cause penetration resistance against incompatible strains of powdery mildew (Feechan et  al., 2013b). Although only wild North American grapevines have co-evolutionary history with downy and powdery mildew, the use of non-American Vitis germplasm has great potential. For instance, the resistance loci, Ren6 and Ren7, from the wild Chinese grapevine species V.  piasezkii confer good immunity to powdery mildew. Whether this immunity is caused by programmed cell death as claimed by the authors of that study (Pap et al., 2016) does not clearly verify the fact that such factors are highly valuable. Even if this, still unpublished, claim is substantiated, it would remain to be elucidated whether there is strain specificity as a central pre-condition for ETI. The discovery of a resistance locus, Ren1, in two local grapevine varieties ‘Kishmish Vatkana’ and ‘Kara Djandal’ from Usbekistan (Hoffmann et al., 2008), that later turned out to be linked to a region rich in NB-LRR genes, has fostered speculation about the presence of ETI in this Non-American germplasm, leading to the suggestion of a potential and hitherto overlooked co-evolution with powdery mildew (Riaz et al., 2013). The history of these varieties that derive from the Sultanina/Thompson Seedless lineage has been described in detail in Coleman et al. (2009). Most NB-LRR genes encode R-proteins, and have been proposed to derive from genes that had been recruited into a defence context (Ellis and Jones, 1998). In fact, functions of NB-LRR proteins in cytokinin signalling (Igari et al., 2008) or phytochrome-dependent shade avoidance (Faigón-Soverna et  al., 2006) support a scenario where this evolutionarily ancient class of protein had undergone a functional shift from developmental signalling (possibly competitor sensing) to immunity (reviewed in Johnson et al., 2003). Thus, while the presence of an NB-LRR gene in the Ren1 locus triggering a cell death-related immunity provides an attractive possibility, alternative mechanisms should also be considered. For instance, the Ren1 locus also harbours a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Coleman et  al., 2009), a member of the phenylpropanoid pathway that has been shown to be an important resistance factor against powdery mildews, because it is crucial for papilla formation (Bhuiyan et  al., 2009). Thus, whether ETI for powdery mildew exists outside of the Non-American grapes remains to be elucidated. However, it should be kept in mind that ETI is not the only path to success, and a co-evolutionary history is not a conditio sine qua non for resistance. Although the receptors triggering PTI and ETI are thought to differ, the molecular events underlying signalling are partially shared: these include calcium influx, activation of the apoplastic oxidative burst, MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades, and transcriptional activation (Schwessinger and Zipfel, 2008; Nürnberger and Kemmerling, 2009; Tsuda and Katagiri, 2010). However, PTI usually does not lead to programmed cell death, whereas ETI in most (but not in all) cases does (Thomma et  al., 2011). Comparative studies in grapevine cells have revealed that the differential output of defence is associated with differences in the relative timing of the early signalling events (Chang and Nick, 2012; Chang et  al., 2016). The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) have been documented to play central roles in this context. The JA pathway is mainly induced by and involved in regulating resistance against herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens (i.e. a type of defence where programmed cell death is not observed). Also in grapevine cell cultures, accumulation of jasmonates was only observed in PTI triggered by the PAMP flg22, but not in cell death-related immunity triggered by the elicitor Harpin (Chang et al., 2016). In contrast, the SA pathway is primarily activated by and involved in mediating resistance against biotrophic pathogens (i.e. under conditions where hypersensitive cell death occurs; Glazebrook, 2005). SA is also required for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) (Durrant and Dong, 2004). Stilbenes, as the central grapevine phytoalexins, confer resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens (Adrian et  al., 1997; Schnee et al., 2008). In particular, the non-glycosylated resveratrol has attracted increasing attention for its medical benefits (Roupe et  al., 2006). The first product of the committed stilbene branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway is synthesized from coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS). This key enzyme belongs to the type-III group of the polyketide synthase enzyme superfamily, which has strongly expanded in grapevine with 48 members, at least 32 of which are potentially functional (Parage et  al., 2012). The large number of STS genes with potential functions already indicates the importance of stilbenes for defence in grapevine. In fact, an extensive screen in V. sylvestris, the wild ancestor of the cultivated grapevine V.  vinifera, demonstrated a correlation between the inducibility of resveratrol accumulation and performance against infection with downy mildew (Duan et al., 2015). In addition, the relationships between susceptible and resistant grapevine varieties according to stilbene concentrations in response to powdery mildew had been described by Schnee et al. (2008). However, the induction of STS is not confined to basal immunity, but is also observed in the context of cell deathrelated defence in grapevine (Chang and Nick, 2012). STS alleles with elevated responsiveness of their promoters might therefore be an interesting target for future resistance breeding. Non-American wild species of Vitis have not co-evolved with downy or powdery mildew and thus are unlikely to launch ETI directed against these pathogens. Nevertheless, the abovementioned factors Ren6 and Ren7 (Pap et  al., 2016), Ren4 (Ramming et al., 2010; Qiu et al., 2015), and Ren1 (Hoffmann et al., 2008; Coleman et al., 2009) provide examples for such factors conferring resistance to powdery mildew. Already more than two decades ago, 18 Vitis species native to China were probed for resistance to powdery mildew (Wang et al., 1995). This approach had uncovered a genotype in the Chinese wild grape V. pseudoreticulata which was resistant to powdery mildew (Wang et  al., 1995). From this genotype, a specific STS allele was isolated that differed upon heterologous expression in tobacco as monitored by a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter. The STS promoter from V. pseudoreticulata was not induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and was not responsive to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata (Xu et al., 2011). However, the same promoter was activated after inoculation with the biotrophic pathogen Erysiphe necator (the causative agent of grapevine powdery mildew) or by treatment with SA (Xu et al., 2010). In contrast, the STS promoters from the vinifera cultivars ‘Carigane’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ showed the inverse pattern of regulation. When expression of different STS alleles can be differentially activated either by necrotrophic pathogens/JA or by biotrophic pathogens/SA, this leads to the question of whether STS promoters can differentially recruit JA and SA signalling, whether activation of STS is sufficient to ward off biotrophic pathogens, at what point the two signal chains converge, and which signalling events differ between them. We addressed these questions using two strategies. First, we introduced the STS promoters of V.  pseudoreticulata and the reference promoter from the V.  vinifera cultivar ‘Carigane’ driving an STS coding sequence into Arabidopsis as a heterologous system otherwise not capable of stilbene synthesis. In the second approach, we analysed the two promoters in a homologous promoter–reporter system (a V. vinifera cell culture) to dissect the upstream signals conferring the response to SA. We provide evidence for a model where STS can be activated by two pathways that both employ the signalling chain driving basal immunity. One pathway passes through activation of MYB14 and depends on jasmonate, and the second pathway acts independently of MYB14 and integrates SA into basal immunity. This second pathway is more efficiently recruited by the STS allele from the wild Chinese grapevine V. pseudoreticulata. Materials and methods The powdery mildew-resistant Chinese wild V.  pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1 (Wang et al., 1995) and the powdery mildewsusceptible V.  vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ were cultivated in the Grape Repository of Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium agar plates at 22  °C for 10–14 d, then transferred into a mix of peat moss, perlite, and vermiculite (3:1:1, by vol.), and cultivated under a 16 h light/8 h dark regime at 22 °C with 75% humidity. Isolation of STS promoter fragments and plasmid constructs Genomic DNA from the leaves of V. pseudoreticulata and V. vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ was extracted using the CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) protocol (Lodhi et al., 1994) and then used as template. Two fragments encoding the STS coding region and the respective native upstream promoter were amplified by PCR using the primers (Supplementary Table S1 at JXB online) designed according to Xu et al. (2011). Their chromosomal location was confirmed by a BLAST search in the Genoscope Genome Browser (http://www.genoscope. cns.fr/blat-server/cgi-bin/vitis/webBlat). Both genomic fragments were inserted into the pART-CAM-S vector (Xu et  al., 2014) after restriction by XhoI and SacI. From the amplified genomic sequences, one sense primer and two antisense primers (Supplementary Table S1) were designed to isolate the STS promoters. The verified promoter sequences were analysed for the presence of putative cis-elements using the PLACE (plant cis-acting regulatory DNA elements) algorithms. Subsequently, both amplified promoter fragments were cloned into the SacI/NcoI site of pCAMBIA1301 (http://www.cambia.org/daisy/ cambia/585.html). Each of these constructs was individually introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 by electroporation (Mersereau et al., 1990). To conduct the transient luciferase assay, the STS promoter regions were amplified with Q5 High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase (NEB) using the specific primers (Supplementary Table S1) to generate attB-PCR products. After Gateway® BP and LR recombination, the promoter regions of VpSTS and VvSTS were transferred into the pLuc luciferase vector (Horstmann et al., 2004) and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Pathogen inoculation and microscopic analysis of colonization Golovinomyces cichoracearum strain UCSC1 (Wen et al., 2011) was maintained on living Arabidopsis mutant pad4 plants to generate fresh inocula. Inoculation was carried out as previously described (Xiao et  al., 1997). Fungal structures in inoculated leaves were stained blue by trypan blue and observed by bright-field microscopy (Xiao et al., 2003). Arabidopsis transformation and GUS assays Arabidopsis transformation was carried out using the floral dipping method (Clough and Bent, 1998). The T3 generation of transgenic Arabidopsis lines were inoculated either with aseptic water or with the pathogen and then used for histochemical and quantitative assays of GUS activity as described by Jefferson et al. (1987); experiments were carried out in triplicate using three independent lines. Quantification of gene expression by qRT-PCR Total RNA was extracted from leaf samples of transgenic Arabidopsis using the EZNA® Total RNA kit II (Omega Bio-tech), and then transcribed into cDNA with Prime Script Reverse Transcriptase (TaKaRa) according to the manufacturer’sְ instructions. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted by a two-step protocol as described in Xu et al. (2011), using AtGAPDH (AT1G13440) as the internal standard. Primers used in qPCR experiments are listed in Supplementary Table S1; experiments were repeated three times. Biolistic transformation and treatment The grapevine cell suspension culture V.  vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ (Seibicke, 2002) cultivated in MS medium was collected at day 4 after subcultivation (just at the end of the cycling phase) and transiently transformed by particle bombardment as described by Maisch et al. (2007). After expression for 48 h, the transgenic suspension cells were subjected to the various treatments before assaying the luciferase activity. All transfection experiments were carried out in triplicate and each set of promoter experiments was repeated at least twice. For the induction treatments, the bacterial peptide flg22, the bacterial elicitor Harpin, SA, and MeJA were prepared as described previously (Duan et al., 2016). The UV-C induction was performed as described by Duan et  al. (2015). For inhibition treatments, the transgenic suspension cells were pre-treated with the respective inhibitors for 30 min before SA was administered. 2-(2-Amino-3methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD98059), diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), and phenidone were prepared as described by Duan et al. (2016). All experiments were accompanied by controls, where each inhibitor was added without SA to assess the impact of inhibitors on cells. All treatments were accompanied by solvent controls, with the maximal concentration of the solvent not exceeding 0.1%. Dual-luciferase assay After the transgenic suspension cells had been treated for 6 h at 22  °C in the dark, the harvested cells were collected to measure luciferase activities using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system as described previously (Czemmel et al., 2009; Höll et al., 2013). The relative luciferase activity was calculated as mean values of firefly and Renilla luciferase ratios after subtraction of the cell background (cells that had not been bombarded). Isolation and analysis of two STS alleles and their promoters To verify the different patterns of expression and hormonal regulation observed for the STSs from the Chinese wild V.  pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1 versus V.  vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’, genomic fragments containing the STS coding region and its native promoter were amplified by PCR using genomic DNA isolated from the two genotypes. The PCRamplified fragment of V. pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) was 3802 bp in length, of which the promoter accounted for 2264 bp, while the fragment amplified from V. vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS) was significantly shorter (3559bp), due to a shorter (2021 bp) promoter. Using the Genoscope Genome Browser, both amplified fragments could be assigned to the same locus in chromosome 16 (Fig. 1B). The alignment revealed a highly conserved coding region with 98.63% identity at the nucleotide level and 99.49% identity at the amino acid level (Fig.  1A, C, D). In contrast, the promoter sequences, despite some degree of congruence, displayed specific differences. In particular, the promoter of the wild allele (VpSTS) harboured two stretches (of 13 bp and 244 bp, respectively) that were absent in the VvSTS allele, whereas the VpSTS allele lacked a stretch of 18 bp found in VvSTS. Comparison of the two promoters with respect to predicted cis-regulatory elements revealed that both promoter alleles shared somef putative stress-responsive elements: WBOXATNPR1 was reported to confer a response to SA (Yu et al., 2001); WBOXNTERF3 has been shown to drive response to wounding (Nishiuchi et al., 2004); CCAATBOX1 is linked to responsiveness to heat (Rieping et al., 1992); CBFHV has been shown to be the binding site for CBF1 during the response to dehydration (Xue et  al., 2002); MYBCORE was found to be involved in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis (Solano et al., 1995); and GT1GMSCAM4 has been linked to the response to salt and biotic stress (Park et al., 2004). The two STS promoter alleles respond differentially to powdery mildew To test whether the structural differences between the VpSTS and VvSTS promoters are of functional relevance, the 2264 bp (VpSTS) and the 2021 bp (VvSTS) promoter fragments were inserted into SacI and NcoI sites of pCAMBIA1301, replacing the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter region and placed upstream of a GUS reporter, then transformed in a stable manner into Arabidopsis as the heterologous system using the floral dipping method (Clough and Bent, 1998). After selection by 25 mg l–1 hygromycin, and verification of the transgene by genomic PCR, the basal expression was assessed (Fig.  2). In the next step, the response of the two promoters to a compatible strain of powdery mildew UCSC1 (G. cichoracearum) was analysed (Fig.  3). A  CaMV-35S::GUS construct, used as a positive control (Fig. 2A), showed, as expected, a strong expression in all tested tissues including seedling, root, stem, leaf, bud, and silique. In contrast, the two STS promoters were active at a much weaker level, with VpSTS being active in all tissues, whereas the activity of the VvSTS promoter could only be measured in leaves and even here its activity was considerably lower than that of the VpSTS promoter (Fig. 2B). To assess whether the VpSTS and VvSTS promoters can be induced by powdery mildew, GUS expression was followed by X-Gluc staining (Fig.  3A), qRT-PCR analysis of GUS transcripts (Fig. 3B), and quantification of GUS enzymatic activity (Fig.  3C) in leaves after inoculation with the compatible powdery mildew G.  cichoracearum strain UCSC1 compared with a mock inoculation with aseptic water. The CaMV-35S promoter used as positive control yielded a constitutively strong GUS expression and did not reveal any significant difference between pathogen inoculation and water treatment. In contrast, the VpSTS promoter was significantly induced in response to G. cichoracearum (Fig. 3A). Quantification of GUS transcripts (Fig. 3B) and enzymatic activity (Fig. 3C) revealed a strong but transient induction detectable from 6 hours postinoculation (hpi), and reaching its peak at 12 hpi, followed by a sharp decline approaching the low expression seen in the mock control. The maximal activity reached at 12 hpi was comparable with that achieved by the constitutive CaMV-35S promoter. In the mock control, there was a slight increase as well, but this was not statistically significant. In contrast to VpSTS, the VvSTS promoter produced only a slight induction. Again, this induction remained below the threshold for significance. These findings show that the VpSTS promoter not only confers a higher basal expression, but also is sufficient to produce inducibility by the compatible powdery mildew G. cichoracearum in the heterologous Arabidopsis system. To test whether these differences in the promoter responses to infection by the biotrophic pathogen correlate with a differential response to SA and MeJA, respectively, we followed the accumulation of GUS transcripts after treatment with 1 mM of either exogenous SA or exogenous MeJA. We observed that the VpSTS promoter was strongly and rapidly induced by SA: already at the first time point (which, due to the time required for excision, was ~2 min after application of SA), the transcript was found to be slightly elevated; after 4 h an almost 5-fold induction had been reached; and this high level of expression persisted over the entire 12 h of this experiment. In contrast, the VvSTS promoter was induced to a much lower extent and more slowly: even after 8 h the induction was only ~2-fold. For MeJA, both promoters responded more slowly compared with SA: here, the VpSTS promoter was induced weakly, but significantly, after 8h, and the VvSTS promoter after 12 h (Supplementary Fig. S1). The full-length VpSTS allele is sufficient to confer resistance to powdery mildew in a heterologous system To test whether the full-length VpSTS allele is sufficient to confer pathogen resistance, the two STS alleles (consisting of the full-length coding sequence under control of the respective native promoter) derived from V.  pseudoreticulata and V.  vinifera were inserted into the pART-CAM-S vector (Xu et al., 2014) after restriction by XhoI and SacI, and then transformed into Arabidopsis as the heterologous system (Fig. 4). Transformants verified by resistance to the hygromycin marker and genotyping by PCR were propagated, and the T3 generation was used to follow colonization by G.  cichoracearum strain UCSC1 (Fig. 4) in parallel with the response of the STS transgene (Fig. 5) over 1 week. Whereas leaves of the wild type (WT) were covered with abundant sporangiophores at 7 days post-inoculation (dpi), lines expressing the complete alleles of Vitis STS exhibited lower sporulation densities, which was most pronounced for the VpSTS allele (Fig. 4B). When colonization was followed over time by histology, fungal spores were found to have attached to the leaf surface successfully at 1 dpi in all three genotypes. Likewise, germination and appressoria formation (from 2 dpi) seemed to proceed normally. However, the progress of colonization was impaired from 4 dpi in the lines expressing the allele from V.  pseudoreticulata, and from 5 dpi in the lines expressing the allele from V. vinifera. In contrast, G.  cichoracearum continued colonization in the WT Col-0 and, from 5 dpi, the mycelium had almost covered the whole infected surface. The inhibition of colonization was preceded by accumulation of STS transcripts and formation of the stilbene glycoside α-piceid (Fig. 5B, C), particularly in the allele driven by the VpSTS promoter. In summary, the phenotype of the transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed that expression of full-length alleles of STS was correlated with arrested colonization of the compatible powdery mildew G.  cichoracearum, and that this arrest was more pronounced for the allele derived from the wild Chinese species V. pseudoreticulata. The VpSTS promoter is more efficiently activated by basal immunity The STS allele from V. pseudoreticulata had been found to confer pathogen resistance in the heterologous Arabidopsis system (Fig.  4), namely in a situation where no co-evolutionary history between pathogen and gene activation can definitely be expected. Likewise, a co-evolutionary context cannot account for the resistance of this wild Chinese Vitis species to powdery mildew of grapevine (Erysiphe necator), since this pathogen is native to North America and came to China only a few decades ago (Wang, 1993; Wang et al., 1995). These considerations stimulated the question of whether the STS allele of V.  pseudoreticulata is activated in the context of basal immunity (PTI), or whether it is linked rather to a cell death-related, ETI-like immunity. To dissect the signalling upstream of STS, we employed a dual-luciferase promoter reporter system in a vinifera cell culture (cv. ‘Pinot Noir’) as the homologous expression system (Höll et  al., 2013) using biolistic transformation. We used this genotype because ‘Pinot Noir’ under normal conditions cannot efficiently deploy a programmed cell death response that would overlay the effect of the introduced transgene. The transgenic suspension cells were treated either with 10  µg l–1 flg22, a potent inducer of basal immunity, or with 9  µg ml–1 of the bacterial elicitor Harpin, triggering a cell death-related ETI-like response in these cells (Chang and Nick, 2012). Alternatively, a short pulse (2 min) of UV-C was used as an abiotic inducer of stilbene metabolism (Duan et  al., 2015). After induction by these three treatments, the cells were allowed to express the luciferase reporter for 6 h in the dark before measuring the activity. Using this system, we observed that the VpSTS promoter was significantly (P<0.05) activated by the bacterial PAMP flg22 by ~1.9-fold, while this activation was not found for the VvSTS promoter. In contrast to flg22, neither the elicitor Harpin nor a pulse of UV-C (a powerful abiotic activator of stilbene accumulation in Vitis) was able to stimulate luciferase activity over the values observed in the controls (Fig. 6B, C). The VpSTS and VvSTS promoters are differentially induced by SA As pointed out in the Introduction, defence against biotrophic pathogens has been associated with SA, whereas Fig. 5. Time course for the expression of the STS reporter upon heterologous expression of VpSTS::STS compared with VvSTS::STS in response to inoculation with G. cichoracearum. (A) Chemical structures and biosynthetic pathway of stilbenes. Both mock-inoculated and pathogen-inoculated leaves were sampled at the indicated time points for the quantification of STS transcripts by qRT-PCR (B), and the resveratrol glucoside α-piceid (C). The housekeeping gene AtGAPDH (AT1G13440) was used as the internal standard for the transcript measurements (B). Values represent means and SEs of three biological replicates. * and ** indicate statistical significance of the difference from mock controls by a one-sided paired t-test with confidence levels of P<0.05 or P<0.01, respectively. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.) jasmonates have been shown to act in the defence against necrotrophic pathogens. We therefore tested the response of the two STS promoters to 50 µM of either SA or MeJA for 6 h using the luciferase assay described above (Fig.  7). We found that SA activated the VpSTS promoter by 3.7-fold (P<0.01) compared with a solvent control (Fig. 7A), whereas the induction of the VvSTS promoter was significantly weaker (2.5-fold). In contrast, both promoters responded in a similar way to MeJA treatment (Fig. 7B). Here, the induction of the VpSTS promoter was only 2.3-fold, and that of Fig. 6. Activation of VpSTS and VvSTS promoters by flg22 in a grapevine suspension cell line derived from the vinifera cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’. Induction of promoter activity was measured either 6 h after addition of 10 μg l–1 flg22 (A) or of 9 μg ml–1 Harpin (B), or after irradiation with UV-C for 2 min (C). Data represent mean values and SEs from three biological replicates. * indicates statistical significance of the difference from controls by a one-sided paired t-test with a confidence level of P<0.05. the VvSTS promoter was 2.2-fold. Thus, the VpSTS promoter was found to be specifically responsive to SA, whereas both promoter alleles were not different with respect to their responses to MeJA. Induction of VpSTS and VvSTS promoters by SA depends on calcium influx and NADPH oxidase activity Previous work on grapevine suspension cells had shown that the transcripts of STS were induced by the elicitor Harpin dependent on a calcium influx channel and an apoplastic oxidative burst triggered by an NADPH oxidase (Chang et al., 2011). We therefore tested the effect of GdCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium influx) as well as the NADPH oxidase inhbitor DPI on the activation of STS promoters by SA (Fig.  8). Whereas 20 µM GdCl3 by itself did not cause any modulation of promoter activity, this pre-treatment almost completely abolished the activation of the two STS promoters by SA (Fig. 8A). When the transformed cells were pre-treated with GdCl3 for 30 min before the SA treatment, the induction of the VpSTS promoter was decreased from 3.7-fold to 1.5-fold, and the activity of the VvSTS promoter was decreased from 2.5-fold to 1.4-fold. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by DPI had a similar but milder effect on SA inducibility of VpSTS promoter activity (Fig. 8B). Here, pre-treatment of the transgenic cells with DPI for 30 min decreased the SA induction of VpSTS promoter activity from 3.7-fold to 2.3-fold, and from 2.5-fold to 2.0-fold for the VvSTS promoter, but the decrease remained below the threshold for significance. Again, the inhibitor alone did not produce any significant modulation. These results show that calcium influx is necessary for the induction of VpSTS and VvSTS promoters by SA, whereas apoplastic reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by the NADPH oxidase act as positive modulators of the SA-dependent signalling significantly activating the VpSTS promoter. This positive modulation is different for the two promoter alleles, since the VpSTS promoter responded to SA more strongly than the VvSTS promoter, but both alleles show the same residual activation observed under elimination of NADPH oxidase. To understand whether the signal generated by apoplastic ROS amplifies with SA-dependent activation of STS promoter activity at an early or a late state of signalling, a time course experiment was conducted where DPI was administered at different time points with respect to the inductive SA treatment (Supplementary Fig. S2). We observed that if the transgenic suspension cells were pre-treated with DPI for 30 min before the SA treatment, or treated with SA and DPI at the same time, the induction of the VpSTS promoter by SA was obviously suppressed. The VvSTS promoter activity decreased as well, but, again, this decrease remained below the significance threshold. However, when the transgenic cells were treated with DPI after SA had been acting for 30 min, the activation of both promoters was also decreased, and when administered 1 h after SA treatment, DPI had little effect on the activation of STS promoters by SA. This indicates that ROS are effective up to 30 min after application of SA, showing that they are not part of an early induction step but modulate a downstream event. Induction of VpSTS and VvSTS promoters by SA is modulated by the MAPK pathway and jasmonate synthesis The MAPK signalling cascade has been reported to act both upstream and downstream of the SA signalling pathway (Zhang and Liu, 2001; Zhang et al., 2007), and was found to be necessary for induction of STS transcripts in grapevine (Chang and Nick, 2012). To explore whether the activation of STS promoters by SA is dependent on the MAPK pathway, the specific inhibitor PD98059 was used to suppress MAPK signalling in the SA treatment. When the transgenic suspension cells were pre-treated with PD98059 for 30 min before the SA treatment, we found that the SA induction of both the VpSTS and VvSTS promoters was clearly, but partially, suppressed by the inhibitor of MAPK pathway (Fig.  9A). Compared with the induction by SA alone, the inhibitor reduced the activation of the VpSTS promoter from 3.7fold to 1.7-fold, while the activation of the VvSTS promoter decreased from 2.5-fold to 1.8-fold (which was not significant). In the absence of SA, the MAPK inhibitor did not affect the promoter activities (Fig. 9A). Similarly to DPI, the inhibition by PD98059 remained partial, indicating that the MAPK cascade acts as a positive modulator of SA signalling to the STS promoters. Since we had found that MeJA can induce the two STS promoter alleles to a similar extent (Fig. 7B), we probed for the contribution of JA to the promoter induction by SA, using phenidone, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases, because the inhibition of lipoxygenases quells the entire oxylipin metabolism including the synthesis of JA. In fact, we observed that the activation of both STS promoters by SA was affected after pre-treatment with 2 mM phenidone for 30 min (Fig.  9B): VpSTS promoter activation was decreased significantly from 3.7-fold to 2.0-fold, and VvSTS promoter activation from 2.5fold to 1.9-fold, which is not significant. This finding indicates that synthesis of JA is a positive modulator of SA signalling to the STS promoters. As already found for DPI (Fig.  8B), the differential activation of the two promoter alleles by SA is not completely eliminated when MAPK activation (Fig. 9A) or JA synthesis (Fig. 9B) is inhibited. This means that these factors promote the SA effect by a second independent pathway. Wild relatives of crop plants are often valuable genetic resources for breeding, because they have preserved resilience factors that have been lost during domestication due to biased selection for fast growth and high yield. For grapevine, resistance factors against biotrophic pathogens such as downy or powdery mildew have been successfully introgressed from wild American species (Eibach et  al., 2007; Gessler et  al., 2011). These resistance factors are generally interpreted in the context of ETI. Since both downy and powdery mildew of grapevine were introduced into Europe only in the 19th century and from there to Central and East Asia even later, ETI is not expected either in Non-American wild grapevine species or in vinifera. Nevertheless, several resistance factors have been identified in those grapevines that lack a co-evolutionary history with these pathogens: for downy mildew, the factor Rpv10 from V.  amurensis is already exploited in commercial vinifera varieties in Germany (Schwander et al., 2012). As pointed out in detail in the Introduction, also for powdery mildew, several valuable resistance factors have been discovered in different wild Chinese grapevines as well as in the Uzbek vinifera variety ‘Kishmish Vatkana’. These factors also indicate that ETI may not be the only mechanism that can be exploited for resistance breeding. The Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1 was identified as a genotype with high resistance to powdery mildew (Wang et  al., 1995). Similar to the European Wild grapevine, V.  sylvestris, an ETI-like mechanism is not very likely, since powdery mildew of grapevine is not native to China, but was introduced from either Europe or North America, with the first incidences in China reported in the 1950s (Wang, 1993; Wang et  al., 1995). However, since the accumulation of stilbenes resulting from induction of STS genes represents a crucial factor in the resistance to powdery mildew (Schnee et al., 2008), we therefore addressed the role of a powdery mildew-responsive STS allele from the resistant Chinese wild Vitis species and used the susceptible vinifera cultivar ‘Carigane’ as reference. Grapevine STS genes are organized in a large family and can be activated by various abiotic and biotic factors (Parage et al., 2012). Some members have been reported to respond to pathogen attack (Xu et al., 2011; Dai et al., 2012). The differential responsiveness of the two STS alleles is correlated with distinct differences in their promoter sequences, whereas the transcripts are fairly similar. Using transformation of STS promoter constructs driving a GUS reporter in Arabidopsis as the heterologous model, we can show that the specific differences in the VpSTS promoter are necessary and sufficient to confer high responsiveness to a compatible strain of powdery mildew, G.  cichoracearum UCSC1, and that this elevated responsiveness is correlated with an elevated responsiveness to exogenous SA, whereas the response to MeJA is not altered. Expression of the fulllength STS alleles in the same system shows that they confer accumulation of stilbenes in Arabidopsis accompanied by a partial resistance against the compatible strain of powdery mildew. Arabidopsis lacks the molecular and cellular machinery to accumulate stilbenes, which may be the reason why the stilbenes formed by the transformants are glycosylated. It remains to be elucidated to what extent they are cleaved in response to pathogen attack. A function for SA in basal immunity? Lessons from STS regulation To understand the signalling upstream of STS and to integrate the data into the type of defence response (PTI versus ETI-like cell death-related immunity), we introduced the two promoter alleles into a promoter–reporter system (Höll et al., 2013) based on a grapevine cell line derived from the vinifera cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’. In this cell line, the bacterial PAMP flg22 activates PTI, whereas the bacterial elicitor Harpin activates a cell death-related ETI-like response (Chang and Nick, 2012). We found that flg22, but not Harpin, was able to activate VpSTS in this system, whereas VvSTS was not responsive. This places VpSTS in the context of basal immunity, consistent with the responsiveness of this promoter to MeJA (albeit that both alleles were responsive to the same degree). This finding is consistent with the observation that in the cell line used as host for the VpSTS promoter, flg22 causes the accumulation of JA and its bioactive conjugate JA-Ile, whereas Harpin fails to do so (Chang et al., 2016). These observations are consistent with a model where STS is activated by basal immunity (possibly via activation of jasmonate signalling), rather than by cell death-related, ETI-like immunity. On the other hand, the VpSTS promoter was significantly responsive to SA, and this responsiveness was much more pronounced compared with the VvSTS promoter, a pattern that had already been observed upon heterologous expression in Arabidopsis. Activation of the SA pathway is traditionally discussed in the context of cell death-related defence (Tenhaken and Rübel, 1997). Our results showed that induction of the VpSTS promoter by SA required calcium influx, NADPH oxidase activity, the MAPK pathway, and jasmonate synthesis, namely events that are typical for basal immunity. The molecular events underlying early signalling seem to be mostly shared between PTI and ETI, including calcium influx, oxidative burst, or activation of MAPK cascades. On the other hand, flg22 and Harpin, while both activating STS, can generate a qualitatively different defence response in the grapevine cell line used for the promoter–reporter assay (Chang and Nick, 2012), leading to the question of at what point the bifurcation of basal and cell death-related immunity is generated. Interestingly, we find that SA specifically activates the VpSTS promoter, as does flg22. Moreover, SA uses the same signalling events (calcium influx, NADPH oxidasegenerated ROS, MAPK signalling, and jasmonate) that have already been found to activate flg22-induced accumulation of STS transcripts (Chang and Nick, 2012) as well as activation of MYB14, a transcription factor gene activating STS (Duan et  al., 2016). Addition of exogenous SA to tobacco suspension cells can induce a transient calcium influx (Kawano et al., 1998), and MAPK signalling is activated by SA in tobacco (Zhang and Liu, 2001), whereas the link between SA and apoplastic oxidative burst seems not to be that straightforward (see, for example, Pogány et al., 2009). Here, we found that both calcium and ROS signalling act downstream of SA (Fig. 8), because exogenous SA would over-ride the effect of Gd3+ and of DPI if SA were acting downstream of calcium and ROS signalling. Using a time course experiment, where the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is administered at different time points with respect to the inducing SA (Supplementary Fig. S2), we see that the apoplastic oxidative burst is needed up to 60 min after induction by SA (i.e. relatively late). It should be mentioned here that also for flg22-triggered basal defence, the apoplastic burst occurs later than calcium influx, whereas for Harpin-triggered cell death-related defence this sequence is reversed (Chang and Nick, 2012). These coincidences indicate a pattern whereby SA acts in the context of basal immunity. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that activation of the VpSTS promoter by SA can be blocked by the inhibitor PD98059 (Fig.  9A), which can block phosphorylation and activation of MAPKs (English and Cobb, 2002), as well as by phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis (Fig. 9B). We therefore arrive at a model where SA can activate the STS promoter through the same signalling machinery that is also activated by the PAMP flg22. The promoter allele of the wild Chinese grapevine can recruit this signalling more efficiently as compared with the allele found in the vinifera cultivar ‘Carigane’, and this efficient recruitment underlies the more efficient activation of stilbene accumulation in response to powdery mildew, which may be the reason why the investigated accession of the wild Chinese grapevine V.  pseudoreticulata is resilient against powdery mildew. The reason for this superior recruitment of signalling for STS induction remains to be elucidated; however, a scenario where a member of the phenylpropanoid pathway (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) is modulated by an NB-LRR protein to culminate in powdery mildew resistance is also suggested by the analysis of the Ren1 factor from the Central Asiatic seedless variety ‘Kishmish Vatkana’ (Coleman et al., 2009). Outlook: convergence of JA and SA signalling on the STS promoter It has been shown that two R2R3-MYB-type transcription factor genes, MYB14 and MYB15, can regulate the expression of STSs in grapevine (Höll et al., 2013). Further analysis of a MYB14 allele from V.  sylvestris that was found to be correlated with high stilbene inducibility revealed that this promoter was activated by MeJA (as well as by UV light and flg22-triggered basal immunity), whereas SA was not effective (Duan et al., 2016). Thus, there exist two pathways culminating in activation of the STS promoter: one pathway acts through activation of MYB14 (presumably in concert with MYB15) in the context of basal immunity and is mostly independent of SA. The second pathway activates the STS promoter in a manner strongly dependent on SA (but also requires the same events transducing basal immunity as the MYB14/MYB15-dependent pathway). Therefore, we conjecture that additional transcription factors different from MYB14/MYB15 possibly participate in the regulation of STS. Promising candidates are the WRKY transcription factors that also act as regulators of SA-dependent defence responses (Wang et al., 2006), and often are induced by SA. For instance, expression of VvWRKY1 is regulated by SA in grapevine (Marchive et  al., 2007). Some WRKY transcription factor genes, such as rice WRKY13 (Qiu et al., 2007) or Arabidopsis WRKY70 (Li et al., 2004), can stimulate SA signalling to the cost of JA signalling. Recently, co-expression of specific STS members whose promoters contain a large number of W-box motifs with specific WRKY transcription factor genes has been reported for a drought-tolerant genotype of vinifera (Corso et  al., 2015). Since both STS promoters addressed in our study are rich in predicted W-box motifs (Fig. 1B) that are thought to act as binding domains for WRKY proteins, we will address the role of WRKY for the SA-dependent induction of VpSTS. The classical dichotomy of a cell death-free, basal immunity (PTI), and a cell death-related, evolutionarily advanced immunity (ETI) has been questioned by transitional situations, suggesting that there is far more flexibility available than thought previously (Thomma et  al., 2011). Our finding that SA, which classically has been associated with cell death-related defence, can be recruited for basal immunity is consistent with this ‘blurred dichotomy’. We wonder whether the signalling function of SA as a molecule depends on the state to which (JA-dependent) basal immunity has progressed when SA is formed, an idea which we can address by modulating relative temporal patterns of early signals. Independently of the molecular mechanism that will emerge from such studies, the current work shows that resistance against biotrophic pathogens such as powdery mildew can be achieved by multiple strategies: introgression of ETIlike HR-linked defence from North American wild grapes is certainly one of these strategies (Feechan et al., 2013a), but boosting basal immunity to culminate in a swift and strong stilbene response might be an alternative strategy worth pursuing. Supplementary data Supplementary data are available at JXB online. Figure S1. Time course for the accumulation of the GUS reporter upon heterologous expression of VpSTS::GUS compared with VvSTS::GUS in transgenic Arabidopsis leaf tissues in response to treatment with 1 mM SA or MeJA. Figure S2. Response of two stilbene synthase promoters to SA with the time course of DPI quelling the increase of ROS abundance. Table S1. Primers used for gene cloning and qRT-PCR for this study. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the BACCHUS Interreg IV Upper Rhine project co-financed by the European Union/European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the German Federal Agency for Agriculture (Programme for Sustainable Agriculture, BÖLN), and the Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China. Adrian M , Jeandet P , Veneau J , Weston LA , Bessis R . 1997 . Biological activity of resveratrol, a stilbenic compound from grapevines, against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent for Gray Mold . Journal of Chemical Ecology 23 , 1689 - 1702 . Bhuiyan NH , Gopalan S , Yangdou W , John K. 2009 . Gene expression profiling and silencing reveal that monolignol biosynthesis plays a critical role in penetration defence in wheat against powdery mildew invasion . Journal of Experimental Botany 60 , 509 - 521 . Boller T , He SY . 2009 . Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens . Science 324 , 742 - 744 . Chang X , Heene E , Qiao F , Nick P. 2011 . The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell . PLoS One 6 , e26405 . Chang X , Nick P. 2012 . Defence signalling triggered by Flg22 and Harpin is integrated into a different stilbene output in Vitis cells . PLoS One 7 , e40446 . 2016. Jasmonates are induced by the PAMP flg22 but not the cell deathinducing elicitor Harpin in Vitis rupestris . Protoplasma (in press). Clough SJ , Bent AF . 1998 . Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana . The Plant Journal 16 , 735 - 743 . Coleman C , Copetti D , Cipriani G , Hoffmann S , Kozma P , Kovács L , Morgante M , Testolin R , Gaspero GD . 2009 . The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines . BMC Genetics 10 , 89 . Corso M , Vannozzi A , Maza E , et al. 2015 . Comprehensive transcript profiling of two grapevine rootstock genotypes contrasting in drought susceptibility links the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhanced tolerance . Journal of Experimental Botany 66 , 5739 - 5752 . Czemmel S , Stracke R , Weisshaar B , Cordon N , Harris NN , Walker AR , Robinson SP , Bogs J. 2009 . The grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor VvMYBF1 regulates flavonol synthesis in developing grape berriers . Plant Physiology 151 , 1513 - 1530 . Dai R , Ge H , Howard S , Qiu W. 2012 . Transcriptional expression of stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine . Plant Science 197 , 70 - 76 . Di Gaspero G , Copetti D , Coleman C , Castellarin SD , Eibach R , Kozma P , Lacombe T , Gambetta G , Zvyagin A , Cindrić P. 2012 . Selective sweep at the Rpv3 locus during grapevine breeding for downy mildew resistance . Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124 , 277 - 286 . Duan D , Fischer S , Merz P , Bogs J , Riemann M , Nick P. 2016 . An ancestral allele of grapevine transcription factor MYB14 promotes plant defence . Journal of Experimental Botany 67 , 1795 - 1804 . Duan D , Halter D , Baltenweck R , Tisch C , Tröster V , Kortekamp A , Hugueney P , Nick P. 2015 . Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris . Journal of Experimental Botany 66 , 3243 - 3257 . Durrant WE , Dong X. 2004 . Systemic acquired resistance . Annual Review of Phytopathology 42 , 185 - 209 . Eibach R , Zyprian E , Welter L , Topfer R . 2007 . The use of molecular markers for pyramiding resistance genes in grapevine breeding . Vitis 46 , 120 - 124 . Ellis J , Jones D. 1998 . Structure and function of proteins controlling strain-specific pathogen resistance in plants . Current Opinion in Plant Biology 1 , 288 - 293 . English JM , Cobb MH . 2002 . Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK pathways . Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 23 , 40 - 45 . Eurostat. 2007 . The use of plant protection products in the European Union . http://ec.europa. eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5611788/ KS-76-06-669-EN . PDF Faigón-Soverna A , Harmon FG , Storani L , Karayekov E , Staneloni RJ , Gassmann W , Más P , Casal JJ , Kay SA , Yanovsky MJ . 2006 . A constitutive shade-avoidance mutant implicates TIR-NBS-LRR proteins in Arabidopsis photomorphogenic development . The Plant Cell 18 , 2919 - 2928 . Feechan A , Anderson C , Torregrosa L , et al. 2013a. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine . The Plant Journal 76 , 661 - 674 . Feechan A , Jermakow AM , Ivancevic A , Godfrey D , Pak H , Panstruga R , Dry IB . 2013b. Host cell entry of powdery mildew is correlated with endosomal transport of antagonistically acting VvPEN1 and VvMLO to the papilla . Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26 , 1138 - 1150 . Feechan A , Kocsis M , Riaz S , Zhang W , Gadoury DM , Walker MA , Dry IB , Reisch B , Cadle-Davidson L. 2015 . Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race specificity . Phytopathology 105 , 1104 - 1113 . Gessler C , Pertot I , Perazzolli M. 2011 . Plasmopara viticola: a review of knowledge on downy mildew of grapevine and effective disease management . Phytopathologia Mediterranea 50 , 3 - 44 . Glazebrook J. 2005 . Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens . Annual Review of Phytopathology 43 , 205 - 227 . Gómez-Zeledón J , Zipper R , Spring O. 2013 . Assessment of phenotypic diversity of Plasmopara viticola on Vitis genotypes with different resistance . Crop Protection 54 , 221 - 228 . Hoffmann S , Gaspero GD , Kovács L , Howard S , Kiss E , Galbács Z , Testolin R , Kozma P. 2008 . Resistance to Erysiphe necator in the grapevine 'Kishmish vatkana' is controlled by a single locus through restriction of hyphal growth . Theoretical and Applied Genetics 116 , 427 - 438 . Höll J , Vannozzi A , Czemmel S , D'Onofrio C , Walker AR , Rausch T , Lucchin M , Boss PK , Dry IB , Bogs J. 2013 . The R2R3-MYB transcription factors MYB14 and MYB15 regulate stilbene biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera . The Plant Cell 25 , 4135 - 4149 . Horstmann V , Huether CM , Jost W , Reski R , Decker EL . 2004 . Quantitative promotor analysis in Physcomitrella patens: a set of plant vectors activating gene expression within three orders of magnitude . BMC Biotechnology 4 , 13 . Igari K , Endo S , Hibara KI , Aida M , Sakakibara HS , Kawasaki T , Tasaka M. 2008 . Constitutive activation of a CC-NB-LRR protein alters morphogenesis through the cytokinin pathway in Arabidopsis . The Plant Journal 55 , 14 - 27 . Jaillon O , Aury JM , Noel B , Policriti A , Clepet C , Casagrande A , Choisne N , Aubourg S , Vitulo N , Jubin C. 2007 . The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla . Nature 449 , 463 - 467 . Jefferson RA . 1987 . Assaying chimeric genes in plants: the GUS gene fusion system . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 5 , 387 - 405 . Johnson GB , Brunn GJ , Tang AH , Platt JL . 2003 . Evolutionary clues to the functions of the Toll-like family as surveillance receptors . Trends in Immunology 24 , 19 - 24 . Jones JD , Dangl JL . 2006 . The plant immune system . Nature 444 , 323 - 329 . Kawano T , Muto S. 1998 . Mechanism of peroxidase actions for salicylic acid-induced generation of active oxygen species and an increase in cytosolic calcium in tobacco cell suspension culture . Journal of Experimental Botany 51 , 685 - 693 . Li J , Brader G , Palva ET . 2004 . The WRKY70 transcription factor: a node of convergence for jasmonate-mediated and salicylate-mediated signals in plant defense . The Plant Cell 16 , 319 - 331 . Lodhi MA , Ye GN , Weeden NF , Reisch BI . 1994 . A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and Vitis species . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 12 , 6 - 13 . Maisch J , Nick P. 2007 . Actin is involved in auxin-dependent patterning . Plant Physiology 143 , 1695 - 1704 . Marchive C , Mzid R , Deluc L , et al. 2007 . Isolation and characterization of a Vitis vinifera transcription factor, VvWRKY1, and its effect on responses to fungal pathogens in transgenic tobacco plants . Journal of Experimental Botany 58 , 1999 - 2010 . Mersereau M , Pazour GJ , Das A. 1990 . Efficient transformation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens by electroporation . Gene 90 , 149 - 151 . Nishiuchi T , Shinshi H , Suzuki K. 2004 . Rapid and transient activation of transcription of the ERF3 gene by wounding in tobacco leaves: possible involvement of NtWRKYs and autorepression . Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 , 55355 - 55361 . Nürnberger T , Kemmerling B. 2009 . PAMP-triggered basal immunity in plants . Advances in Botanical Research 51 , 1 - 38 . Pap D , Riaz S , Dry IB , Jermakow A , Tenscher AC , Cantu D , Oláh R , Walker MA . 2016 . Identification of two novel powdery mildew resistance loci, Ren6 and Ren7, from the wild Chinese grape species Vitis piasezkii . BMC Plant Biology 16 , 170 . Parage C , Tavares R , Rety S , et al. 2012 . Structural, functional, and evolutionary analysis of the unusually large stilbene synthase gene family in grapevine . Plant Physiology 160 , 1407 - 1419 . Park HC , Kim ML , Kang YH , et al. 2004 . Pathogen- and NaCl-induced expression of the SCaM-4 promoter is mediated in part by a GT-1 box that interacts with a GT-1-like transcription factor . Plant Physiology 135 , 2150 - 2161 . Peressotti E , Wiedemann-Merdinoglu S , Delmotte F , Bellin D , Gaspero GD , Testolin R , Merdinoglu D , Mestre P. 2010 . Breakdown of resistance to grapevine downy mildew upon limited deployment of a resistant variety . BMC Plant Biology 10 , 147 . Pogány M , von Rad U , Grün S , Dongó A , Pintye A , Simoneau P , Bahnweg G , Kiss L , Barna B , Durner J. 2009 . Dual roles of reactive oxygen species and NADPH oxidase RBOHD in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem . Plant Physiology 151 , 1459 - 1475 . 2007. OsWRKY13 mediates rice disease resistance by regulating defenserelated genes in salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent signaling . Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 20 , 492 - 499 . Qiu W , Feechan A , Dry I. 2015 . Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease . Horticulture Research 2 , 41 - 46 . Ramming DW , Gabler F , Smilanick J , Cadle-Davidson M , Barba P , Mahanil S , Cadle-Davidson L. 2010 . A single dominant locus Ren4 confers non-race-specific penetration resistance to grapevine powdery mildew . Phytopathology 101 , 502 - 508 . Ramming DW , Gabler F , Smilanick JL , Margosan DA , CadleDavidson M , Barba P , Mahanil S , Frenkel O , Milgroom MG , Cadle-Davidson L. 2012 . Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis spp. limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth . Phytopathology 102 , 83 - 93 . Riaz S , Boursiquot JM , Dangl GS , Lacombe T , Laucou V , Tenscher AC , Walker MA . 2013 . Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm . BMC Plant Biology 13 , 149 . Rieping M , Schöffl F. 1992 . Synergistic effect of upstream sequences, CCAAT box elements, and HSE sequences for enhanced expression of chimaeric heat shock genes in transgenic tobacco . Molecular and General Genetics 231 , 226 - 232 . Roupe KA , Yáñez JA , Xiao WT , Davies NM . 2006 . Pharmacokinetics of selected stilbenes: rhapontigenin, piceatannol and pinosylvin in rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 58 , 1443 - 1450 . Rouxel M , Mestre P , Comont G , Lehman BL , Schilder A , Delmotte F. 2013 . Phylogenetic and experimental evidence for host-specialized cryptic species in a biotrophic oomycete . New Phytologist 197 , 251 - 263 . Schnee S , Viret O , Gindro K. 2008 . Role of stilbenes in the resistance of grapevine to powdery mildew . Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 72 , 128 - 133 . Schwander F , Eibach R , Fechter I , Hausmann L , Zyprian E , Töpfer R . 2012 . Rpv10: a new locus from the Asian Vitis gene pool for pyramiding downy mildew resistance loci in grapevine . Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124 , 163 - 176 . Schwessinger B , Zipfel C. 2008 . News from the frontline: recent insights into PAMP-triggered immunity in plants . Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11 , 389 - 395 . Seibicke T. 2002 . Untersuchungen zur induzierten Resistenz an Vitis spec . PhD thesis , University of Freiburg, Germany. Solano R , Nieto C , Avila J , Cañas L , Diaz I , Paz-Ares J. 1995 . Dual DNA binding specificity of a petal epidermis-specific MYB transcription factor (MYB.Ph3) from Petunia hybrida . EMBO Journal 14 , 1773 - 1784 . Takken FL , Tameling WI . 2009 . To nibble at plant resistance proteins . Science 324 , 744 - 746 . Tenhaken R , Rübel C. 1997 . Salicylic acid is needed in hypersensitive cell death in soybean but does not act as a catalase inhibitor . Plant Physiology 115 , 291 - 298 . Thomma BPHJ , Thorsten N , Joosten MHAJ . 2011 . Of PAMPs and effectors: the blurred PTI-ETI dichotomy . The Plant Cell 23 , 4 - 15 . Tsuda K , Katagiri F. 2010 . Comparing signaling mechanisms engaged in pattern-triggered and effector-triggered immunity . Current Opinion in Plant Biology 13 , 459 - 465 . Wang D , Amornsiripanitch N , Dong X. 2006 . A genomic approach to identify regulatory nodes in the transcriptional network of systemic acquired resistance in plants . PLoS Pathogens 2 , e123 . Wang Y , Liu Y , He P , Chen J , Lamikanra O , Lu J. 1995 . Evaluation of foliar resistance to Uncinula necator in Chinese wild Vitis species . Vitis 34 , 159 - 164 . Wang Y. 1993 . Genetic studies on resistance to powdery mildew, Uncinula necator (ScHw.) BuRR., of wild Chinese Vitis species . PhD Dissertation , Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, PR China. [in Chinese] Welter LJ, Göktürk-Baydar N , Akkurt M , Maul E , Eibach R , Töpfer R , Zyprian EM . 2007 . Genetic mapping and localization of quantitative trait loci affecting fungal disease resistance and leaf morphology in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) . Molecular Breeding 20 , 359 - 374 . Wen Y , Wang W , Feng J , Luo MC , Tsuda K , Katagiri F , Bauchan G , Xiao S. 2011 . Identification and utilization of a sow thistle powdery mildew as a poorly adapted pathogen to dissect post-invasion non-host resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis . Journal of Experimental Botany 62 , 2117 - 2129 . Xiao S , Brown S , Patrick E , Brearley C , Turner JG . 2003 . Enhanced transcription of the Arabidopsis disease resistance genes RPW8.1 and RPW8.2 via a salicylic acid-dependent amplification circuit is required for hypersensitive cell death . The Plant Cell 15 , 33 - 45 . Xiao S , Ellwood S , Findlay K , Oliver RP , Turner JG . 1997 . Characterization of three loci controlling resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana accession Ms-0 to two powdery mildew diseases . The Plant Journal 12 , 757 - 768 . Xu W , Yu Y , Ding J , Hua Z , Wang Y. 2010 . Characterization of a novel stilbene synthase promoter involved in pathogen- and stress-inducible expression from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata . Planta 231 , 475 - 487 . 2011. Expression pattern, genomic structure, and promoter analysis of the gene encoding stilbene synthase from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata . Journal of Experimental Botany 62 , 2745 - 2761 . Xu W , Zhang N , Jiao Y , Li R , Xiao D , Wang Z. 2014 . The grapevine basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor positively modulates CBF-pathway and confers tolerance to cold-stress in Arabidopsis. Molecular Biology Reports 41 , 5329 - 5342 . Xue GP . 2002 . Characterisation of the DNA-binding profile of barley HvCBF1 using an enzymatic method for rapid, quantitative and highthroughput analysis of the DNA-binding activity . Nucleic Acids Research 30 , e77 - e77 . Yu D , Chen C , Chen Z. 2001 . Evidence for an important role of WRKY DNA binding proteins in the regulation of NPR1 gene expression . The Plant Cell 13 , 1527 - 1539 . Zhang S , Liu Y. 2001 . Activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase, a mitogen-activated protein kinase, induces multiple defense responses in tobacco . The Plant Cell 13 , 1877 - 1889 . Zhang X , Dai Y , Xiong Y , DeFraia C , Li J , Dong X , Mou Z. 2007 . Overexpression of Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7 leads to activation of plant basal and systemic acquired resistance . The Plant Journal 52 , 1066 - 1079 .

This is a preview of a remote PDF: http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/67/19/5841.full.pdf

Yuntong Jiao, Weirong Xu, Dong Duan, Yuejin Wang, Peter Nick. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence, Journal of Experimental Botany, 2016, 5841-5856, DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erw351