Improving the provision of OTC medication information in community pharmacies in Poland
Improving the provision of OTC medication information in community pharmacies in Poland
Anna Piecuch 0
Magdalena Makarewicz-Wujec 0
Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska 0
0 Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw , ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw , Poland
Background An informed or shared decisionmaking model is desirable to support the choice of overthe-counter (OTC) medications in pharmacies: it respects patient empowerment in self-medication. Such a model is achievable provided that pharmacists are a credible, competent information source open to patient needs. Objective To study the dependencies among selected factors that may influence the provision of OTC medication information. The study was conducted from the perspective of a community pharmacist. Method The study consisted of an auditorium survey with a self-administered questionnaire. We attempted to determine the relationships among three selected constructs: patient centredness (four items), competence (four items), and provision of OTC medication information (six items) as latent variables. We analysed hypothetical relationships among the observable variables and latent variables using structural equation modelling. Main outcome measure Selected factors that may influence the provision of OTC medication information. Results In all, 1496 pharmacists took part in the study. The model demonstrated adequate fit (v2 = 198.39, df = 64). The patient-centredness construct was demonstrated to have a strong direct positive impact on the provision of OTC medication information construct (b = 0.77, P \ 0.05). Provision of OTC medication information was also shown to have a strong direct effect on the competence variable (b = 0.90, P \ 0.05). Conclusion If a pharmacist is patient centred, there is a greater possibility that they will provide
Community pharmacy; Medicine information; Patient; Pharmacy services; Poland
information about OTC medicines; that may influence the
pharmacist’s feelings about their ability to cope with
patient initiatives and enhance the pharmacist’s
Impact of findings on practice
The patient-centred approach should be implemented
and supported in pharmacy practice in Poland.
Poland’s pharmacists should develop their professional
competencies for providing information on OTC
The Polish Pharmaceutical Chamber should support the
provision of OTC medication information by issuing
appropriate guidelines and advocating legal changes.
An informed or shared decision-making model is desirable
when choosing over-the-counter (OTC) medication in a
pharmacy : such a model respects patient empowerment
in self-medication  and results from patient-centred care
. The concept of shared decision making is based on
information exchange between a specialist (here, a
pharmacist) and a patient; it also involves mutual expression of
preferences and involvement of both the specialist and
patient in the decision-making process . With OTC
medications, the final decision about medication choice
rests with the patient, who is supported by the pharmacist
in responsible self-medication . To make informed
decisions about medications, the patient needs an adequate
range of clear information about both the risks and benefits
of a given product [2, 6]. The range of information and
manner of its communication by the pharmacist should
result in greater awareness and ability on the part of the
patient to help them make informed choices ; such
information should also ensure that the patient can obtain
the greatest benefit by using a given medication  and
avoid medication problems [7, 9].
To support a patient in meeting medication needs, a
pharmacist needs to be credible and competent; this
demands expertise and skilful information sharing with the
patient (which is part of the shared decision-making model
) as well as respecting the patient’s needs  (which
results from patient-centred care ). Having trust in the
pharmacist may be understood as, for example, perceiving
them to be a reliable source of information. Demonstrating
thorough interest in the patient may result in the patient
openly expressing their needs and problems as well as
asking pertinent questions .
The range and quality of information about dispensed
medicines during an encounter may depend on strict laws
and regulations . In Poland, OTC medications are
available at pharmacies , and they can be sold without
prior interview with or assessment by the patient. OTC
medications are also available at dispensaries  in rural
areas that lack community pharmacies . In addition,
some OTC medications may be sold in other retail outlets
, e.g. general stores. Legal requirements oblige people
who dispense medications in Polish pharmacies to provide,
if necessary, patients with information about given
medications—both prescription and OTC medications. Such
requirements particularly apply to the methods of
administration, storage conditions, pharmacological effects, and
possible interactions with other medications .
In practice, however, fulfilling this obligation markedly
differs among individual pharmacies; this is due to
generalized, ambiguous legal requirements that are particularly
questionable concerning the interpretation of the ‘‘if
necessary’’ wording. The kind of information supplied is
commonly limited to instructing the patient .
Interactions between pharmacists and patients in Poland tend to
brief and mainly product oriented, not patient centred.
Depending on the type of transaction, the content of
communication between a pharmacist and patient,
including the range of information provided by the pharmacist to
the patient, is determined by both participants in the
interaction . If the pharmacist waits for the patient to
make the initiative and start asking questions, the
pharmacist may fail and the patient will not obtain important
information . The most important information about a
medicinal product is provided in the package leaflet
[20, 21]. However, such written information should not
replace the communication between a pharmacist and
patient but supplement it . Verbal information provided
to patients should strictly correspond to their needs . It
is known that an adequate interview and assessment are
necessary to provide appropriate advice or medical referral;
however, there are no commonly accepted rules in Poland
concerning the patient interview at a pharmacy .
A pharmacist in Poland can influence the choice and use
of OTC medications by a patient. The focus of the present
study is self-medication.
Aim of the study
The objective of this study was to explore the interplay
between selected constructs (pharmacist’s
patient-centredness and competence) that may influence the provision of
medication information by pharmacists. The study was
conducted from the perspective of a community
Ethics approval was not required for this study. According
to Polish regulations, non-interventional studies do not
require ethical approval .
We distributed a self-administered questionnaire among
4537 pharmacists, between 3 March and 24 November
2012. No incentives were offered to participants.
The sample covered pharmacists who took part in an
ongoing education course in geriatric pharmaceutical care,
delivered by the Centre of Postgraduate Training of the
Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy. The
course was directed at pharmacists working at pharmacies,
dispensaries, and pharmaceutical wholesalers. The course
was a 1-day symposium. One of the lectures addressed the
potential for collaboration between a pharmacy and a
patient as well as selected issues concerning OTC
medicines and self-medication. The course was free of
charge and open to all eligible pharmacists who had made a
prior registration. The course was delivered according to
the same curriculum and by the same lecturers in 16 cities
across Poland. Continuing education of pharmacists is
compulsory in Poland, and this particular symposium was
very well attended by community pharmacists. The course
was not held in the area covered by four regional
pharmaceutical chambers: S´ rodkowopomorska, Kaliska,
Beskidzka, and Cze˛stochowska regional pharmaceutical
chambers, which account for 20% of all such chambers in
The inclusion criteria for study participants were as
follows: licensed pharmacists working at community
pharmacies; licensed pharmacists working at dispensaries.
The exclusion criteria were as follows: licensed
pharmacists working at hospital pharmacies; licensed pharmacists
working at pharmaceutical wholesalers; non-pharmacists,
including owners of pharmacies who did not hold a
master’s degree in pharmacy, students of pharmacy, and
pharmacy technicians; and incomplete data (missing
responses to over three items in the 14-item scale).
The study questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first
part included questions about the relationship between
pharmacists and physician and will be discussed in more
detail in a subsequent report. The second part addressed
pharmacist-patient communication. The third part
covered socio-demographic questions.
With the survey, we attempted to explore the interplay
among three selected constructs. Discussions within the
research team resulted in the development of the initial
constructs and indicators. The indicators were then further
developed based on in-depth interviews with a convenience
sample of eight pharmacists. One of the researchers took
notes of the pharmacists’ opinions. The pharmacists talked
about the kind of information they provided and, in their
opinion, should be provided to patients when selling OTC
medications. The pharmacists also spoke about when
patients could ask them for help, how they demonstrated
their interest in the patient’s welfare, and how they dealt
with their own credibility. The patient-centredness
construct (PAT) consisted of four items (with one
reversecoded item); the competence construct (COM) was also
made up of four items; and the provision of medication
information construct (INF) was based on six items (with
one reverse-coded item). We applied a five-point Likert
scale in the survey, the total score being the sum of all item
scores. A respondent had to answer at least 80% of the
items. Missing values for one to three items were replaced
with the mean score calculated from items completed by
An additional question addressed general
self-assessment concerning relations between the pharmacist and
patient (using a five-point scale from ‘‘very good’’ to ‘‘very
Patient-centredness. In this study, PAT was considered in
terms of taking care of the patient’s needs as well as acting
with good intention and in the patient’s best interest.
Competence. COM was defined as the pharmacist’s
expertise in OTC medications and their openness to
medication needs and patient questions.
Provision of medication information. INF was understood
as providing patients with basic information necessary to
ensure safety and efficacy with self-medication (i.e.
method of administration, storage conditions,
contraindications, possible side effects, and interactions).
We used Statistica 10 software for statistical analysis.
Structural equation modelling using LISREL 8.80 was
performed by an external service provider.
Of 1722 completed questionnaires (response rate, 38.0%),
226 were rejected as incomplete or failed to comply with
the inclusion criteria. Thus, 1496 responses qualified for
further analysis, accounting for 33.0% of the originally
distributed questionnaires. A summary of the
socio-demographic characteristics of participants is provided in
Table 1. With reference to data from Poland’s Central
Statistical Office , the proportion of female respondents
was slightly higher than in the general population of
pharmacists (88 vs. 84%). We found no statistically
significant differentiation with regard to socio-demographic
factors (P \ 0.05).
The median (interquartile range) numbers and
proportions of responses to the study items are listed in Table 2.
Estimation of the parameters and the fit of the structural
equation model indicated good fit of the data to the
proposed model. The Chi square test to test the absence of a
perfect data-model fit hypothesis was statistically
significant: v (64) = 198.39, P \ 0.001). The model actually
fitted the data very well, as evidenced in the root mean
square error of approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.038. It
was evident that the latent variables introduced into the
model were strongly positively intercorrelated. All the
relationships between the observable and latent variables
were statistically significant; if they were eliminated, the fit
of the model would be negatively affected.
We calculated skewness and kurtosis for the observable
variables. Since the variants did not meet the consistency
condition with a normal distribution, we used a weighted
least-squares estimator. Spearman’s rank correlation matrix
Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample
n = 1496 (%)
40 ± 11 years
a Answers do not sum up to 100% as multiple answers were possible
analysis revealed no collinearity among the analysed
variables. All the correlations were statistically significant
(P \ 0.05).
The close-fit hypothesis was confirmed and accepted for
the designed model : RMSEA = 0.038 was within the
range of (0.0; 0.5) for good-fit acceptance; the 90%
confidence interval for the RMSEA population value (0.032;
0.044) was within the range of (0.0; 0.5) for good-fit
acceptance; and the P value for the close-fit hypothesis
(RMSEA \ 0.05) equalled 1.
In the structural submodel, PAT was not a dependent
variable. PAT had a strong direct positive impact on INF
(b = 0.77, P \ 0.05). PAT was also shown to have a
strong direct effect on COM (b = 0.90, P \ 0.05), which
means that PAT had an indirect impact on COM by means
of INF (Fig. 1). Table 3 presents the results of confirmative
factor analysis of the model.
The patient-centred pharmacist can facilitate
self-medication by providing information about OTC medications,
dealing with patients’ questions and concerns, and being
open to patients’ needs . Many factors can influence the
provision of information to patients at a pharmacy: whether
any information is provided, the kind of information, its
range, and its manner of presentation . The provision of
information depends on the pharmacist but also on the
patients themselves , their needs related to the type of
medication being dispensed, their health problems ,
and various external factors. With the final item, the
following factors may be of importance: legal conditions and
applicable guidelines ; and the system or organization
of pharmacy activities . In this paper, we examined
only two selected constructs that may have an effect on the
provision of information related to OTC medication.
Owing to differences in the factors that can influence the
provision of information to patients, our findings may not
apply to other countries.
The analysis of the model showed that pharmacists who
consider the position of the patient are more involved in
providing OTC medication information; this in turn helps
consolidate the pharmacist’s self-perceived competence. In
Poland, patients generally base their OTC drug choices on
past experience; however, the possibility of consultation
with a pharmacist is important for those who select a
pharmacy when making an OTC purchase . Previous
studies on patient preferences in Poland have demonstrated
that a pharmacy’s location as well as the price and
availability of drugs are considered more important than the
possibility of consultation with a pharmacist ; around
50% of Poles use OTC medication for the first time without
consulting a physician or pharmacist . These results
can be accounted for by the passive behaviour of
pharmacists , the limited perceived reliability of pharmacist
advice regarding medications, and the lack of
confidentiality in a pharmacy setting [34, 36, 37]. In the present
study, the overall score of PAT was reduced by
pharmacists who responded that they would intentionally
recommend a drug that would bring them a higher profit; this
indicates that the social fear of mercantilism among
pharmacies is not entirely unfounded. However, the character
of the pharmacist plays a primary role as to whether they
are regarded as an ordinary salesman or a trustworthy
% % % % % % % % % % % %
y 0 9 4 % 9 7 5 6 1 7 % 9 8 8
on lg (8 (7 (7 (2 (8 (6 (3 (3 (5 (2 (2 (1 (1 (6
ti n e 7 6 5 2 7 5 2 5 7 8 0 0 2 2
a ro re 9 8 0 3 2 9 2 3 6 9 3 9 7 2
ic t g 1 1 1 3 9 5 5 7 3 2 2 0
d S a 1 1 1 1 1
m n ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ]
C ia ] –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –5 –4 –5 –5
d R 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4
T e Q [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [
M[ 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5
Fig. 1 Structural equation
model showing relationships
among the study constructs:
competence, and provision of
OTC medication information.
v2 = 198.39, df = 64,
P \ 0.001, root mean square of
approximation = 0.038 COM—
competence INF—provision of
OTC medication information
Table 3 Confirmative factor
analysis of the individual items
representing study constructs
SRC Standardized regression coefficient, URW unstandardized regression weight, SE standard error, AVE
average variance extracted
The pharmacists rated their competence and ethical
conduct relatively highly. However, the responses of some
pharmacists suggest that they may not provide
comprehensive information to patients who buy OTC medications.
The results of this study would appear to be consistent with
those of investigations that have indicated that pharmacists
in Poland do not always provide adequate, complete
information to patients, especially when unsolicited
[36, 37]. This may be explained by the fact that
pharmacists simply lack the necessary practical skills and
selfassurance. Another explanation is that COM was affected
by lower ratings of self-perceived expertise in drugs and
the ability to respond to patient questions. A further
possible issue is that owing to legal requirements, pharmacists
were not sufficiently motivated to properly support patient
This study consisted of an auditorium survey with a
selfadministered questionnaire, which had some inherent
limitations . The questionnaire was self-administered, but
the respondents were able to see and even communicate
with one another.
Measurement error was another possible limitation. The
main probable cause was the data collection method, in
which respondents self-reported their beliefs and
behaviours. The study results could have been exposed to an
error attributed to social expectations. Respondents may
have been compelled to respond in a socially desirable
manner rather than truthfully. With a relatively low
response rate, error attributed to non-responses cannot be
excluded. Moreover, it should be noted that the study
covered a period of 9 months; during that time, some
factors affecting the studied relationships could have
The pharmacist perspective was adopted in this study.
Future research should also compare how patients respond to
the same questions.
If a pharmacist is patient centred and considers the
patient’s welfare, there is a greater possibility that they will
provide information about OTC medicines; that may
influence the pharmacist’s feeling about their ability to
cope with patients’ initiatives and enhance the pharmacist’s
Funding This study was conducted as part of a research project
implemented in 2012–14 under grant no. FW25A/PM31D/12 at the
Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Warsaw.
Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://crea
tivecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give
appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a
link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were
1. Wirtz V , Cribb A , Barber N. Patient-doctor decision-making about treatment within the consultation-a critical analysis of models . Soc Sci Med . 2006 ; 62 ( 1 ): 116 - 24 .
2. Aslani P. Patient empowerment and informed decision-making . Int J Pharm Pract . 2013 ; 21 ( 6 ): 347 - 8 .
3. Mead N , Bower P. Patient-centredness: a conceptual framework and review of the empirical literature . Soc Sci Med . 2000 ; 51 ( 7 ): 1087 - 110 .
4. Murray E , Charles C , Gafni A , Shared decision-making in primary care: tailoring the Charles , et al. model to fit the context of general practice . Patient Educ Couns . 2006 ; 62 ( 2 ): 205 - 11 .
5. WHO . The Role of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication. Report of the 4th WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist . The Hague, The Netherlands: World Health Organization , 1998 (cited: 23 Feb 2016 ). http://apps.who.int/ medicinedocs/en/d/Jwhozip32e/.
6. Gaissmaier W , Gigerenzer G . Statistical illiteracy undermines informed shared decision making . Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes . 2008 ; 102 ( 7 ): 411 - 3 .
7. Ryan R , Santesso N , Lowe D , Hill S , Grimshaw J , Prictor M , Kaufman C , Cowie G , Taylor M. Interventions to improve safe and effective medicines use by consumers: an overview of systematic reviews . Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2014 . doi:10. 1002/14651858.CD007768.pub3.
8. Joint FIP / WHO guidelines on good pharmacy practice: standards for quality of pharmacy services . WHO Technical Report Series , No. 961 , 2011 . Geneva: World Health Organization ; 2011 .
9. Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe. Classification for Drug related problems . V6.2. (revised: January 2010 , cited: 22 Feb 2016 ) [Internet]. http://www.pcne.org/upload/files/11_ PCNE_ classification_V6-2 .pdf.
10. Berger BA . Building an effective therapeutic alliance: competence, trustworthiness, and caring . Am J Hosp Pharm . 1993 ; 50 ( 11 ): 2399 - 403 .
11. Kimberlin CL , Jamison AN , Linden S , Winterstein AG. Patient counseling practices in U.S. pharmacies: effects of having pharmacists hand the medication to the patient and state regulations on pharmacist counseling . J Am Pharm Assoc ( 2003 ). 2011 ; 51 ( 4 ): 527 - 34 .
12. Pharmaceutical Law Act of 6 September 2001 , Journal of Laws . 2008 ; No 45, item 271, art. 96 par. 1.
13. Pharmaceutical Law Act of 6 September 2001 , Journal of Laws . 2008 ; No 45, item 271, art. 70 par. 1.
14. Pharmaceutical Law Act of 6 September 2001 , Journal of Laws . 2008 ; No 45, item 271, art. 70 par. 3.
15. Pharmaceutical Law Act of 6 September 2001 , Journal of Laws . 2008 ; No 45, item 271, art. 71 par. 1.
16. Regulation of the Minister for Health of 18 October 2002 on selling medicinal products and medical devices in pharmacies , Journal of Laws . 2002 ; No. 183, item 1531, art. 2 par. 1 point 3 .
17. Pilnick A. ,,Patient counseling'' by pharmacists: Advice, information, or instruction? Sociol Quart . 1999 ; 40 : 613 - 22 .
18. Shah B , Chewning B. Conceptualizing and measuring pharmacist-patient communication: a review of published studies . Res Social Adm Pharm . 2006 ; 2 ( 2 ): 153 - 85 .
19. Krueger JL , Hermansen-Kobulnicky CJ . Patient perspective of medication information desired and barriers to asking pharmacists questions . J Am Pharm Assoc . 2011 ; 51 ( 4 ): 510 - 9 .
20. Regulation of the Minister for Health of 20 February 2009 on the requirements for medicinal product labelling and package leaflet content , Journal of Laws . 2009 ; No 39, item 321, as amended.
21. Directive 2001 /83/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use (Consolidated version: 2012 Nov 16): 2001 . OJ L 311 , p. 67 .
22. Nathan JP , Zerilli T , Cicero LA , Rosenberg JM . Patients' use and perception of medication information leaflets . Ann Pharmacother . 2007 ; 41 ( 5 ): 777 - 82 .
23. Duggan C , Bates I. Medicine information needs of patients: the relationships between information needs, diagnosis and disease . Qual Saf Health Care . 2008 ; 17 ( 2 ): 85 - 9 .
24. Schneider CR , Everett AW , Geelhoed E , Kendall PA , Murray K , Garnett P , Salama M , Clifford RM . Provision of primary care to patients with chronic cough in the community pharmacy setting . Ann Pharmacother . 2011 ; 45 ( 3 ): 402 - 8 .
25. Pharmaceutical Law Act of 6 September 2001 , Journal of Laws . 2008 ; No. 45, item 271, art. 37al.
26. Central Statistical Office. Zdrowie i ochrona zdrowia w 2013 r. [Health and Health Care in 2013] . Warszawa: GUS ; 2014 . http:// stat.gov. pl/obszary-tematyczne/zdrowie/zdrowie/zdrowie-iochrona-zdrowia-w-2013-r -, 1 ,4.html. Accessed on 31 March 2016 ). Polish.
27. Konarski R. Modele ro´wnan´ strukturalnych . Teoria i praktyka . Modele ro´wnan´ strukturalnych . Teoria i praktyka. [Structural Equation Modelling . Theory and Practice]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN ; 2010 (Polish).
28. Rutter P. Role of community pharmacists in patients' self-care and self-medication . Integr Pharm Res Pract . 2015 ; 4 : 57 - 65 .
29. Sabater-Galindo M , Fernandez-Llimos F , Sabater-Herna´ndez D , Mart´ınez-Mart´ınez F, Benrimoj SI . Healthcare professionalpatient relationships: systematic review of theoretical models from a community pharmacy perspective . Patient Educ Couns . 2016 ; 99 ( 3 ): 339 - 47 .
30. Kaae S , Traulsen JM , Nørgaard LS . Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter-Why do they exist? Res Social Adm Pharm . 2012 ; 8 ( 3 ): 253 - 7 .
31. Duggan C , Bates I. Medicine information needs of patients: the relationships between information needs, diagnosis and disease . Qual Saf Health Care . 2008 ; 17 ( 2 ): 85 - 9 .
32. Urbonas G , Kubilien e_ L, Kubilius R , Urboniene_ A. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach . BMC Health Serv Res . 2015 ; 15 : 82 .
33. Federacja Konsumento´w. Leki bez recepty: Raport z badania. [Over-the-counter medications: Report from the study] [Internet]. Warszawa , 2015 . http://www.federacja-konsumentow. org.pl/ s ,1288, leki-bez-recepty-zwyczaje-i-preferencje-konsumentowmaterialy .html. Accessed on 01 April 2016 . Polish.
34. Piecuch A , Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M. Self-medication in Poland: the pharmacist's advisory role in Warsaw . Int J Clin Pharm . 2013 ; 35 : 225 - 9 .
35. Roguska B , Feliksiak M. Stosowanie leko´ w doste˛pnych bez recepty. [The use of non-prescription medicines] [Internet]. Warszawa: CBOS ; 2010 . Document no . BS/143/2010. http:// badanie.cbos. pl/details.asp?q=a1&id=4382. Accessed on 06 April 2016 . Polish.
36. Bułas ´ L, Skowron A , Olczyk P , Jurczyk A , Ulz Z. Ocena doradztwa farmaceutycznego w samoleczeniu w wybranych aptekach wojewo´dztwa s´la˛skiego [Evaluation of self treatment pharmaceutical consulting in selected pharmacies in Silesia province] . Farm Pol . 2011 ; 67 ( 2 ): 73 -7 (Polish).
37. Drozd M , Kijewska A , Jaremek-Kudła J , Skowron A. Ocena porady farmaceuty w procesie samoleczenia [The estimate of pharmaceutical advice in self-medication] . Farm Pol . 2011 ; 67 ( 10 ): 650 -5 (Polish).
38. Szeinbach SL . Images of pharmacists and pharmacies . In: Smith MC, Wertheimer AI , editors. Social and behavioral aspects of pharmaceutical care . Milton Park: Taylor & Francis; 1996 . p. 85 - 98 .
39. Z_ mijewska-Je˛drzejczyk T, Dyjas-Pokorska A. Ankiety audytoryjne. [Self-administered questionnaires] . In: Fieldwork jest sztuka˛. Jak dobrac´ respondenta, skłonic´ do udziału w wywiadzie, rzetelnie i sprawnie zrealizowac´ badanie. [Fieldwork is an art. How to select a respondent, convince respondents to take part in the interview, and reliably and effectively conduct the study] . Warszawa: IFIS; 2005 . p. 299 - 316 (Polish).