Nurses’ perceptions, acceptance, and use of a novel in-room pediatric ICU technology: testing an expanded technology acceptance model
Holden et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Nurses' perceptions, acceptance, and use of a novel in-room pediatric ICU technology: testing an expanded technology acceptance model
Richard J. Holden 2
Onur Asan 0
Erica M. Wozniak 0
Kathryn E. Flynn 0
Matthew C. Scanlon 1
0 Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, WI 53226 , USA
1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, WI , USA
2 Department of BioHealth Informatics, Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing , Indianapolis, IN , USA
Background: The value of health information technology (IT) ultimately depends on end users accepting and appropriately using it for patient care. This study examined pediatric intensive care unit nurses' perceptions, acceptance, and use of a novel health IT, the Large Customizable Interactive Monitor. Methods: An expanded technology acceptance model was tested by applying stepwise linear regression to data from a standardized survey of 167 nurses. Results: Nurses reported low-moderate ratings of the novel IT's ease of use and low to very low ratings of usefulness, social influence, and training. Perceived ease of use, usefulness for patient/family involvement, and usefulness for care delivery were associated with system satisfaction (R2 = 70%). Perceived usefulness for care delivery and patient/family social influence were associated with intention to use the system (R2 = 65%). Satisfaction and intention were associated with actual system use (R2 = 51%). Conclusions: The findings have implications for research, design, implementation, and policies for nursing informatics, particularly novel nursing IT. Several changes are recommended to improve the design and implementation of the studied IT.
Technology acceptance model; Pediatric intensive care; Nursing informatics; Usability; Human-computer interaction
“Oh, people will come, Ray. People will most definitely
come.” – A character in the film Field of Dreams (1989),
assures Iowa farmer Ray Kinsella if he builds a baseball
diamond in his cornfield, fans will come to watch the game.
The field of dreams fallacy  applied to health
information technology (IT) states it is not the case that “If you
build IT, will they come (to use it)” . Decades of
research linking health IT to improved quality, efficiency,
and patient safety are tempered by numerous findings that
health IT’s intended end-users are at times dissatisfied
with implemented IT, do not accept or use it, use a small
portion of available features, work around it, and actively
resist or even abandon it [3–8]. End-user perception,
acceptance, and use of health IT have received increasing
attention and are unavoidable in light of recent reports of
provider dissatisfaction with aspects of electronic health
record (EHR) systems [9–11]. While health IT has
undoubtedly become more commonplace and increased in
functionality, its value ultimately depends on end users
perceiving it favorably, accepting it, and appropriately
using it for patient care [12, 13].
Nurses’ perceptions, acceptance, and use of new health
IT are particularly important because of: a) the variety of
systems, including EHR, used by nurses  and b)
nurses’ pivotal role in care delivery . Thus, thought
leaders and others in nursing informatics urge research
© The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
on nurses’ acceptance and other implementation issues
[16, 17]. However, relatively few studies assess nurses’
health IT perceptions or acceptance, as illustrated in
various reviews [18, 19]. For example, Strudwick’s 2015 review
of articles published 2000–2013 identified only 13 journal
articles of this kind . Notable examples are Carayon
et al.’s  study of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses’ EHR
perceptions and acceptance three and twelve months after
EHR implementation; Holden et al.’s  modeling study
of pediatric hospital nurses’ acceptance of bar-coded
medication administration; Mailett et al.’s  acceptance
modeling study of 616 nurses using electronic patient records
in four Canadian hospitals; and Laerum et al.’s  study
of use of, performance with, and satisfaction with a new
electronic medical records system. Those studies all found
variation in nurses’ IT acceptance and multiple predictors
of acceptance, including the IT’s perceived usefulness and
ease of use. Those and other studies of nurses’ IT
acceptance urge continued research and the need to:
Use established models of IT acceptance, such as the
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), as the
foundation for nursing informatics research, design,
Extend existing models such as TAM to include
additional variables such as social influence to use
the system; and
Contextualize existing models such as TAM to the
unique case of nursing care, for example,
operationalizing perceived usefulness of an IT as
perceived usefulness for direct patient care
[17, 20, 22, 23, 25–28].
In accordance with these recommendations, the present
study applies an extended, contextualized TAM to
examine pediatric ICU nurses’ perceptions, acceptance, and use
of a novel health IT, the Large Customizable Interactive
Monitor. This IT, henceforth shortened to Interactive
Monitor, is an in-room, wall mounted screen displaying
EHR data for clinician and patient/family use. To our
knowledge, its acceptance and use have never before been
studied. Our study took place in the first pediatric ICU in
the US to implement the Interactive Monitor. It therefore
represents an important step in assessing nurses’ response
to a novel IT with potential benefits to patient care. From
the perspective of technology acceptance modeling in the
domain of health IT or nursing informatics, the study is
novel in including variables specifically adapted to the
study context and examining the relationship between
acceptance and use.
The study was a cross-sectional survey of pediatric ICU
nurses. Data collection occurred in summer of 2015 and
was approved by the Medical College of Wisconsin
Institutional Review Board.
The study’s theoretical framework was adapted from
TAM,  a paradigmatic behavioral theory of IT
acceptance and the leading theory applied in health IT
acceptance research [26, 30]. TAM posits IT perceptions
lead to its acceptance and acceptance results in actual
use. TAM research variably defines acceptance as
satisfaction with an IT system or the intention to use it .
The two IT perceptions canonically associated with
acceptance are IT ease of use and usefulness, but
perceptions of social influence to use IT, facilitating conditions,
and motivation have also been included as predictors of
acceptance in the literature [32, 33]. Holden and
colleagues have argued the classic TAM is not suitable for
explaining contemporary health IT acceptance and note
various revisions of TAM in the IT acceptance literature,
[32–35] as well as inconsistencies between how TAM
constructs are operationalized and the unique nature of
healthcare [12, 22, 25, 26, 36–39]. In particular, they
argue the following five points:
Expanding the concept of perceived ease of use.
Perceive ease of use of health IT involves more than
low mental effort, as it is traditionally defined; ease
of use also includes specific aspects of usability such
as learnability and ease of navigation [12, 38]. For
this study, we hypothesized an expanded measure of
perceived ease of use will have good internal
consistency and will be associated with IT
acceptance (Hypothesis 1, H1).
Contextualizing the concept of perceived usefulness.
Perceived usefulness of health IT is more than its
impact on productivity, as traditionally defined, and
includes specific benefits for healthcare delivery
such as improved safety, more effective patient care,
or patient engagement [12, 22, 38]. For this study,
we hypothesized that contextualized measures of
perceived usefulness, related to patient care and
patient engagement, would be associated with IT
acceptance (Hypothesis 2a, H2a), but a traditional
perceived usefulness measure would not
(Hypothesis 2b, H2b).
Adding the concept of social influence. Health IT
acceptance and use behavior are shaped by internal
and external social forces; clinicians experience social
influence from colleagues, patients, organizational
leaders, and entities outside the organization;
perceived social influence should be included when
studying acceptance of health IT [22, 36]. For this
study, we hypothesized that measures of social
influence, related to the institution and patients/
families would be associated with IT acceptance
(Hypothesis 3, H3).
Adding the concept of barriers and facilitators.
Health IT acceptance and use behavior are
constrained or enabled by a variety of barriers or
facilitators such as training and technical support;
perceived barriers and facilitators should be included
in models of health IT acceptance [22, 37]. For this
study, we hypothesized that the facilitator of training
on the system would be associated with IT
acceptance (Hypothesis 4, H4).
Examining satisfaction, intention to use, and the
nature of health IT use. Health IT acceptance can be
conceptualized as a combination of intention to use
the health IT and satisfaction with the IT, as
intention may result in baseline use, but satisfaction
may influence the completeness of health IT use and
potential workarounds [22, 25, 39]. For this study,
we hypothesized that nurses’ beliefs would be
associated with both satisfaction with IT and intention
to use IT (Hypotheses 5a and 5b, H5a and H5b).
Further, we hypothesized that satisfaction and
intention to use would be associated with a measure
of how completely the IT is used (Hypothesis 6, H6).
Accordingly, this study tests an adapted TAM, with
constructs added based on newer versions of TAM and
adapted to the healthcare context. Specifically, this study: 1)
expanded traditional measures of perceived ease of use to
include learnability and navigability; 2) supplemented
traditional measures of perceived usefulness with variables of
perceived usefulness for patient/family engagement and care
delivery; 3) added measures of social influence from the
institution and patients and families; 4) added a measure of
perceived training on the system; and 5) measured intention,
satisfaction, and completeness of use. Figure 1 shows the
measured variables and hypothesized relationships.
The study was performed in the 72-bed pediatric ICU of a
freestanding children’s hospital in a mid-sized Midwestern
city. The pediatric ICU had three floors with 24-beds each
for cardiac, surgical, and medical ICU subunits.
The interactive monitor
The hospital implemented a new EHR system in 2012
and at the same time became the third hospital—and the
very first pediatric hospital—in the nation to install this
IT using Epic Monitor technology (v 2010, Epic
Systems Corporation, Verona, WI). This system was a 42”
(diagonal) flat panel touch screen monitor displaying
validated view-only patient information chosen by the
hospital, including vital signs, laboratory results,
medications, and interventions recorded in the EHR.
Physiologic measures were only displayed if they were reviewed
by a nurse, distinguishing the system from physiologic
monitors. These systems were mounted in every
patient room in the pediatric ICU, were accessible without
repeated log-in, and were intended for use by clinicians
and patients or their families. A novel aspect of the system
was that the displayed information could be configured by
the hospital and would be populated directly from the
EHR. Any new data element in the EHR could therefore
also be eventually displayed on the monitor. Another
novel aspect was its interactive nature, namely, offering
the ability to scroll, expand, or “drill down” to access
additional content. More information on this system along
with photographs are provided in Appendix A.
Every nurse in the unit, unless still in training, received
a paper survey June-August, 2015. The goal for
recruitment was to include as many of the nurses in the unit as
possible, with a minimum sample size to perform our
modeling analysis using a ratio of 10 participants for
Fig. 1 Study conceptual model, adapted from Technology Acceptance Model based on proposed extensions in Holden et al. [12, 22, 25, 26]
every model variable. The survey had 50 items about the
system, of which 28 were used in the present analysis
(Table 1 and Appendix B). Per Table 1, most survey
items and scales were drawn from prior work, but some
were newly created for the study to further explore
technology acceptance model development. Each survey item
used a 7-point intensity response scale with response
categories as follows: 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (some),
3 (a moderate amount), 4 (pretty much), 5 (quite a lot),
6 (a great deal), and don’t know. The scale was the same
one used in four prior or ongoing studies of health IT
acceptance among nurses, pharmacy workers, primary
care providers, and mental/behavioral health providers.
In those studies, responses have been reported across
all response categories, although lower responses have
been more likely. The average standard deviation has
been around 1.4-1.6 on the 7-point scale. Surveys were
supplemented by 10 hours of unstructured
observations of clinicians using the system and qualitative, and
semi-structured in-person clinician interviews (n = 39).
More detail on interview and observation data
collection and analysis methods is available elsewhere .
Observation and interview findings are not formally
reported here but contributed to our interpretation of
the survey findings and recommendations for system
Table 1 Survey scales and items, their source, and internal consistencies. (For precise item wording, see Appendix B)
Perceived usefulness for patient/family involvement,
contextualized (4 items)
Improves patient/family interaction
Improves sharing information with family
Improves communication with family
Improves family engagement
Perceived usefulness for care delivery,
contextualized (4 items)
Improves patient care
Improves information organization
Improves access to patient information
Improves sharing info with care team
Social influence, institutional (3 items)
Institution thinks I should use it
Supervisors think I should use it
Colleagues think I should use it
Social influence, patient/family (1 item)
Patients/families like that I use it
Perceived training on system (2 items)
Received adequate training
Training was clear
Satisfaction with system (2 items)
Satisfied with system
Would recommend it to others
Intention to use system (2 items)
Intend to use in next 6 months
Want to use it
Complete use of system (2 items)
Use all available features
Skip/ignore parts (reverse scored)
TAM; Venkatesh & Morris 
+ two new items created based on usability
definitions (learnability, navigability) 
TAM; Venkatesh & Morris 
Newly created for study, based on nursing
TAM; Holden et al. 
Nursing TAM; Holden et al., and adapted
to the study context
Modified from TAM research; Venkatesh et al.,
 based on normative IT use research; Holden 
Nursing TAM; Holden et al. 
Nursing TAM; Holden et al.,  based on Bailey &
Pearson,  and adapted to the study context
Nursing TAM; Holden et al.
TAM; Venkatesh & Morris ; 2 item version
based on Holden et al. 
TAM technology acceptance model; optimal Cronbach’s alpha value is > 0.70 and higher values are indicative of internal consistencies; the response scale was 0
(not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (some), 3 (a moderate amount), 4 (pretty much), 5 (quite a lot), 6 (a great deal), and don’t know [22, 25]
Table 2 (a) Respondent characteristics and descriptive statistics
for (b) perceptions, (c) acceptance, and (d) use
(a) Respondent characteristics (N = 167)
Survey items with high item nonresponse or “don’t know”
responses were eliminated, except in the case of the two
social influence measures, for which “don’t know” and
“not at all” responses were aggregated (under the
assumption that not knowing of others’ expectations produces no
social influence). Scale items were examined for missing
data. The mean rate of missing items was 3% and rates
did not differ much between perception scales (2-4%).
There were slightly more missing items for the satisfaction
(6%), intention (5%), and use (6%) scales. Scales were
constructed according to Table 1 by averaging items with a
floating denominator to address item nonresponse; thus
the range of scale scores could be between 0 and 6.
Internal consistencies among scale items were calculated
using Cronbach’s alpha; Cronbach alpha values were good
to excellent for all perception scales (all greater than 0.87)
and acceptance scales (all greater than 0.88), but lower
than optimal for the 2-item use scale (0.61).
The conceptual model in Fig. 1 was tested with separate
models for satisfaction and intention using stepwise linear
regression based on minimizing the Akaike information
criterion (AIC). We also fitted regression models based on
the same stepwise model selection process after
aggregating the two contextualized perceived usefulness scales as
well as the two social influence measures. All models
resulting from automated variable selection processes were
compared to full multiple regression models (i.e., no
variable removal). Results were similar across all models; thus
we report only the stepwise regression results of the
disaggregated model (Fig. 1). Linear regression was also used to
evaluate system use as an outcome with satisfaction and
intention as predictors. Log and square root
transformations of the outcomes did not substantially improve model
fit, and so the untransformed results are presented. The R
statistical package (R Foundation for Statistical Computing,
Vienna, Austria) was used for analysis.
A total of 167 out of 230 eligible nurses adequately
completed the survey, a response rate of 72.6%. Respondent
characteristics are reported in Table 2a.
Perceptions, acceptance, and use
Nurses’ perceptions of ease of use, usefulness, social
influence, and training are reported in Table 2b. On average,
respondents had moderate or higher ease of use ratings
but low ratings of usefulness, particularly for patient care.
Perceived institutional social influence to use the system
were variable but low on average, and many nurses
reported that patients and families had no opinion about
nurses’ use of the system. Perceptions about training were
particularly low, confirmed by our observations and
interviews with nurses (unpublished) and other providers .
EHR electronic health record system; The response scale for perceptions,
acceptance, and use was 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (some), 3 (a moderate
amount), 4 (pretty much), 5 (quite a lot), 6 (a great deal)
Acceptance, measured by satisfaction with and intention
to use the Interactive Monitor, was also low (Table 2c).
Nurses reported low satisfaction with and intention to use
the system over the next six months.
American Indian/Alaska Native
% Hispanic, of those responding
Years of experience with any EHR/current EHR
(b) Perceptions (N = 167)
Perceived ease of use, expanded
Perceived usefulness, traditional
Perceived usefulness for patient/family
Perceived usefulness for care
Social influence, institutional
Social influence, patient/family
(c) Acceptance (N = 167)
Satisfaction with system
Intention to use system
(d) Use (N = 167)
Complete use of system
Nurses’ self-reported use was also low (Table 2d). Nurses
generally reported not using features of the system and
skipping or ignoring parts of it.
Testing the adapted model of technology acceptance
Results of the stepwise regression test of the adapted
TAM are depicted in Fig. 2 and fully detailed in Tables 3
and 4. For satisfaction, the perceptions retained in the
final model were perceived ease of use, expanded (β =
0.31, p = 0.002, H1 supported), perceived usefulness for
patient/family involvement (β = 0.31, p = 0.004, H2a
supported), and perceived usefulness for care delivery (β = 0.45,
p < 0.0001, H2a supported) (Table 3). These three
perceptions explained 70% of the variance in satisfaction (model
F(3,93) = 75.87, H5a supported). For intention to use,
perceptions included in the model were perceived usefulness for
care delivery (β = 0.66, p < 0.0001, H2a supported) and
patient/family social influence (β = 0.13, p = 0.046, H3
supported) (Table 3). These two perceptions explained 65%
of the variance in intention to use the system (model
F(2,94) = 90.39, H5b supported). Traditional perceived
usefulness (H2b supported) and training perceptions (H4
rejected) were not retained in either model.
Satisfaction and intention to use explained 51% of the
variance in self-reported actual use (model F(2,154) = 83.57,
H6 supported). The association for satisfaction (β =
0.24, p = 0.0007) was smaller than for intention (β =
0.48, p < 0.0001) (Table 4).
Based on present findings and those published elsewhere,
we strongly refute the notion that implementing health IT
results in actual use (i.e., the field of dreams fallacy )
and endorse the statement that “the benefits of healthcare
technologies can only be attained if nurses accept and
intend to fully use them” . It is especially important to
explore the perceptions of nurses toward novel
technologies whose use is voluntary and investigate which
perceptions correlate with acceptance and use. This is because,
as we found, acceptance and use will vary. In the present
study, these outcomes not only varied, but were on
average quite low, putting in question the early returns on the
hospital’s investment in the technology.
Moreover, when specific antecedents of acceptance and
use are known, they can guide design, redesign,
implementation strategies, and policies to promote appropriate
acceptance and use [37, 38]. For example, we found that the
Interactive Monitor was perceived as moderately easy to
use and ease of use was associated with satisfaction, though
not with intention to use. This suggests satisfaction, which
correlates with actual use, could be improved through
usability engineering and training, both of which nurses rated
very poorly in this study. While early acceptance studies
with physicians argued ease of use may not predict
technology acceptance in healthcare, [41, 42] we have shown
here and elsewhere the significance of ease of use for
nurses’ satisfaction with health IT [22, 39]. Our perceived
ease of use scale contained two items, learnability and
navigability, not traditionally included in measures of the
construct. These items are based on two key components of
usability [43, 44] and we recommend their addition to
future measures of perceived ease of use. Indeed, another
recent study of nurses reported IT learnability as a
highpriority system attribute .
The strongest predictors of acceptance were the two
measures of perceived usefulness. Usefulness for patient
care was the stronger of the two and was the only
usefulness measure correlated with intention to use. This can be
interpreted as nurses’ high concern for providing optimal
patient care. Many nurses saw little or no value of the
system, either for patient/family involvement or care delivery.
In contrast, other studies have shown the objective
performance usefulness of integrated visual displays for ICU
nurses . Our findings promote further attention to the
usefulness of IT for care delivery in health IT acceptance.
Further, our measure of social influence from patients and
families—assessed as the degree to which nurses believed
patients/families liked them using the system—was
significantly, albeit weakly, associated with nurses’ intention to
use the Interactive Monitor. These findings concerning
Fig. 2 Stepwise regression results for the adapted model of technology acceptance. (Only retained model variables are shown)
Table 3 Stepwise linear regression results for the outcomes satisfaction and intention to usea
Perceived ease of use, expanded
Perceived usefulness for patient/family involvement
Perceived usefulness for care delivery
Social influence: Patients/Family
Adjusted R2 = 0.70
t = 3.20, p = 0.002
t = 2.93, p = 0.004
t = 4.41, p < 0.001
Adjusted R2 = 0.65
t = 9.13, p < 0.001
t = 2.02, p = 0.046
aPerceived usefulness, traditional; social influence, institutional; and perceived training on system were not significant in either model, and are not included in
bNot a statistically significant model covariate
patients and families are important because inpatients
desire more involvement and technology  and have
responded positively to large in-room information displays
. A recent review of inpatient technologies, including
ones displaying patient-specific information, extolled the
virtues of such systems for patient engagement .
However, to achieve actual value, nurses may need to agree
about the system’s usefulness and actively facilitate patient
and family use.
The findings validated our two novel, contextualized
measures of perceived usefulness. Usefulness for patient/
family involvement was newly created for the study and
usefulness for care delivery was created in a prior study
of nursing IT and adapted for this study. These new
measures define usefulness based on both the
hypothetical value of the Interactive Monitor and the meaning of
“usefulness” in nursing care. Holden and colleagues have
previously argued for conceptualizing usefulness this
way, rather than the traditional TAM definition (as
generally useful for workplace productivity); the latter
measure was not correlated with acceptance in the present
study when the contextualized measures were included.
Lastly, we note that social influence from the institution
and perceptions of system training were not associated
with nurses’ system acceptance, contrary to our
hypotheses. A possible explanation for both is the restriction of
range in nurses’ responses to these items, particularly
regarding training. Nurses may also have weighed their
personal, professional opinions of the system much more
than the expectations of their supervisors, colleagues, and
Table 4 Stepwise linear regression results for the outcome
complete system use
Adjusted R2 = 0.51
t = 3.45, p < 0.001
t = 6.65, p < 0.001
the institution. The influence of perceptions of training
may also have been mediated by the conceptually related
perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.
As expected for a technology whose use was voluntary,
 self-reported intention to use the studied IT was
associated with actual use, and more strongly so than was
satisfaction, the other measure of acceptance. Both
acceptance measures were significantly associated with use, an
important finding given that acceptance studies do not
always assess actual use and in some cases find no correlation
with acceptance . Use in this study was conceptualized
and measured in a novel manner: as complete use of the
system, incorporating items on using all available features
and skipping or ignoring parts of the system. Other
technology acceptance researchers have argued for developing
measures of use beyond “use/non-use,” including the
completeness of system use [51, 52].
Having found low perceptions, satisfaction with, intention
to use, and actual use of the Interactive Monitor, we suggest
at the time of the study that this IT did not produce the
results expected by the hospital or product vendor. A
thorough exploration of the reasons for this is beyond the scope
of this quantitative modeling study. However, based on
observations and interviews, Table 5 provides several
suggestions for improving the design and implementation of this
technology toward achieving more favorable end-user
perceptions, acceptance, and use.
Study strengths and limitations
Study strengths included a focus on the sometimes
neglected areas of nursing and pediatric health IT, 
quantitative assessment of perceptions and acceptance,
strong theoretical basis, and relatively large response rate.
The study sample size was relatively large for health IT
acceptance research and was greater than that of 63% of
technology acceptance studies with nurses . The use of
standard construct definitions and measurements, as well
as theory-driven expansions of these, was a strength and we
urge others to reuse and build on these (see Appendix B
for verbatim survey items). Limitations were studying a
Table 5 Recommendations for improving the Large Customizable
Interactive Monitor, based on observations and interviews with
Incorporate whiteboard-like features: goals of the day, parent information
(e.g., phone number, preferences), parents’ questions and concerns
Add due dates or task lists for pending tasks (e.g., dressing change)
Provide screen saver mode for glanceable information frequently
accessed by families (e.g., photos of the medical team)
Train nurses on the purpose of the Interactive Monitor, procedures for
its use, recommendations for use, and basic information (e.g., origin of
data in the system)
Eliminate functions not useful for nurses
Update the problem list more frequently
Customize display to accommodate needs of nurses in the unit instead
of generic information
Consolidate flowsheet, drips, labs, and urine output, on single timeline
Show interventions on a timeline to facilitate identification of
interventionrelated effects and trends
Functionality showing the interventions that happened and how they
affected the vital signs on a trended scale
Incorporate a synopsis screen
PICU at a single children’s hospital, the use of self-report to
measure actual use, and the cross-sectional design. The
scale measure of use had only two items and demonstrated
lower than desirable internal consistency. The measure of
social influence from patients/families was a single item
and was worded as patient and families liking as opposed
to wanting nurses’ use of the system. Further, additional
variables could have been added to predict acceptance and
use. The novelty of the technology and the very few
hospitals implementing it precluded a multisite study. Although
the survey was not designed to learn nurses’ reasons for
system perceptions, we may speculate low perceived
usefulness stemmed from the view-only nature of the system,
meaning nurses could not enter or edit content through
the system and did not directly control which content their
unit displayed. Physicians,’ nurses,’ and families’ non-use of
the system may have further reduced its usefulness. The
novelty of the system, minimal training, and system lag
may also have shaped nurses’ perceptions.
Future research is needed to address three
methodological issues from this study. First, as new measures and
concepts related to health IT acceptance are proposed
and studied, a more rigorous assessment of the
psychometric properties of individual items and scales will be
necessary. This is somewhat limited by our
recommendation that conceptualization and measurement be
contextualized to the specific users, IT, tasks, and settings of
use being studied. However, some conceptual and
measurement standardization will be needed and this is
demonstrated in the present study’s slight adaptation of prior
research with nurses and pharmacy workers. Second, as
measures are standardized and health IT acceptance models
are solidified over multiple studies, analytic methods must
shift from exploratory to confirmatory. Thus, for example,
although the present study used stepwise linear regression,
future work testing similar hypothesized relationships
between health IT perceptions, acceptance, and use, could
apply structural equation modeling or similar techniques.
Third, this study’s conceptual model builds on TAM and
subsequent iterations (TAM2, TAM3). In 2003, Venkatesh
and colleagues combined TAM and other models to form
the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology
(UTAUT) . Although criticized for being less
parsimonious than TAM, UTAUT includes additional constructs
and relationships which may help understand health IT
acceptance and use. UTAUT has been fruitfully applied in the
domain of health IT  but to be tested fully would
require a larger sample size than the one in this study.
Overall, this study appropriately contextualized a strong
theory to measure pediatric ICU nurses’ perceptions,
acceptance, and use of a novel voluntary health IT. It yielded
important findings about the relationships between these
constructs, lending insight into future design,
implementation, and research on similar technologies. It also produced
insights about measuring health IT perceptions, acceptance,
and use. We encourage further theory-based examination
of both in-room inpatient IT like the Large Customizable
Interactive Monitor and other novel systems intended to
improve care delivery and patient engagement.
Additional description and illustration of the Large
Customizable Interactive Monitor (LCIM).
This study would not have been possible without the nurses and leadership
team support. We thank Kathy Murkowski, Yushi Yang, Laila Azam, Chelsea
La Berge and Mary Lynn Kasch for their help in survey dissemination. We
thank three reviewers for their helpful comments.
We acknowledge the financial support provided by the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality (Grant # 1R21HS023626-01) for this study. RJH is supported
by grant K01AG044439 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA) of the
US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (K01AG044439). The content is solely the
responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official
views of the NIH.
(1) assisted with conception and design, acquisition of data: OA, RH, MS, KF;
(2) analysis and interpretation of data: EW, RH, OA; (3) drafted the article or
revised it critically for important intellectual content: RH, OA, EW, KF. All
authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study received ethical approval from the Medical College of Wisconsin
Institutional Review Board (IRB). The first page of the survey informed
participants that the study was voluntary and described their rights as
human subjects. Consent was implied by returning the survey, as approved
by the IRB.
1. Karsh B , Weinger MB , Abbott PA , Wears RL . Health information technology: fallacies and sober realities . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2010 ; 17 : 617 - 23 .
2. Holden RJ , Karsh B. A theoretical model of health information technology usage behaviour with implications for patient safety . Behav Inf Technol . 2009 ; 28 : 21 - 38 .
3. Halbesleben JRB , Wakefield DS , Wakefield BJ . Work-arounds in health care settings: literature review and research agenda . Health Care Manage Rev . 2008 ; 33 : 2 - 12 .
4. Saleem JJ , Russ AL , Neddo A , Blades PT , Doebbeling BN , Foresman BH . Paper persistence, workarounds, and communication breakdowns in computerized consultation management . Int J Med Inform . 2011 ; 80 : 466 - 79 .
5. Koppel R , Wetterneck TB , Telles JL , Karsh B. Workarounds to barcode medication administration systems: their occurrences, causes, and threats to patient safety . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2008 ; 15 : 408 - 23 .
6. Simon SR , Soran CS , Kaushal R , et al. Physicians' use of key functions in electronic health records from 2005 to 2007: a statewide survey . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2009 ; 16 : 465 - 70 .
7. Friedman A , Crosson JC , Howard J , et al. A typology of electronic health record workarounds in small-to-medium size primary care practices . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2014 ; 21 (e1): e78 - 83 .
8. Lapointe L , Rivard S. Getting physicians to accept new information technology: insights from case studies . CMAJ . 2006 ; 174 : 1573 - 8 .
9. Friedberg MW , Chen PG , Aunon FM , et al. Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems, and health policy: rand corporation . 2013 .
10. Edsall RL , The AKG. EHR user satisfaction survey . Fam Pract Manag . 2012 ; 2011 (Nov/Dec): 23 - 30 .
11. Abramson EL , Patel V , Malhotra S , et al. Physician experiences transitioning between an older versus newer electronic health record for electronic prescribing . Int J Med Inform . 2012 ; 81 ( 8 ): 539 - 48 .
12. Holden RJ . Physicians' beliefs about using EMR and CPOE: in pursuit of a contextualized understanding of health IT use behavior . Int J Med Inform . 2010 ; 79 : 71 - 80 .
13. Patel VL , Kannampallil T. Human factors and health information technology: current challenges and future directions . Yearb Med Inform . 2014 ; 9 ( 1 ): 58 .
14. Saba VK , McCormick KA . Essentials of Nursing Informatics . 6th ed . New York : McGraw-Hill ; 2015 .
15. McGonigle D , Mastrian K. Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge . 3rd ed. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2014 .
16. Effken JA , McGonigle D , Mastrian K. The human-technology interface . In: McGonigle D, Mastrian K , editors. Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge . 3rd ed. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2014 . p. 201 - 16 .
17. Schoville RR , Titler MG . Guiding healthcare technology implementation: a new integrated technology implementation model . Comput Inform Nurs . 2015 ; 33 ( 3 ): 99 - 107 .
18. Carrington JM . Summary of the nursing informatics year in review 2014 . Nurs Adm Q. 2015 ; 39 ( 2 ): 183 - 4 .
19. Carrington JM , Tiase VL . Nursing informatics year in review . Nurs Adm Q . 2013 ; 37 ( 2 ): 136 - 43 .
20. Strudwick G . Predicting nurses' use of healthcare technology using the technology acceptance model: an integrative review . Comput Inform Nurs . 2015 ; 33 ( 5 ): 189 - 98 .
21. Carayon P , Cartmill R , Blosky MA , et al. ICU nurses' acceptance of electronic health records . J Am Inform Assoc . 2011 ; 18 : 812 - 9 .
22. Holden RJ , Brown RL , Scanlon MC , Karsh B. Modeling nurses' acceptance of bar coded medication administration technology at a pediatric hospital . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2012 ; 19 : 1050 - 8 .
23. Maillet É , Mathieu L , Sicotte C. Modeling factors explaining the acceptance, actual use and satisfaction of nurses using an electronic patient record in acute care settings: an extension of the UTAUT . Int J Med Inform . 2015 ; 84 ( 1 ): 36 - 47 .
24. Laerum H , Karlsen TH , Faxvaag A. Use of and attitudes to a hospital information system by medical secretaries, nurses and physicians deprived of the paper-based medical record: a case report . BMC Med Inform Decis Mak . 2004 ; 4 ( 18 ): http://bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral. com/articles/ 10.1186/1472-6947-4-18.
25. Holden RJ , Brown RL , Scanlon MC , Karsh B. Pharmacy employees' perceptions and acceptance of bar-coded medication technology in a pediatric hospital . Res Social Adm Pharm . 2012 ; 8 : 509 - 22 .
26. Holden RJ , Karsh B. The Technology Acceptance Model: Its past and its future in health care . J Biomed Inform . 2010 ; 43 : 159 - 72 .
27. Tung F-C , Chang S-C , Chou C-M. An extension of trust and TAM model with IDT in the adoption of the electronic logistics information system in HIS in the medical industry . Int J Med Inform . 2008 ; 77 : 324 - 35 .
28. Kuo K-M , Liu C-F , Ma C-C. An investigation of the effect of nurses' technology readiness on the acceptance of mobile electronic medical record systems . BMC Med Inform Decis Mak . 2013 ; 13 ( 1 ): 1 .
29. Davis FD , Bagozzi RP , Warshaw PR . User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of 2 theoretical models . Manage Sci . 1989 ; 35 : 982 - 1003 .
30. Yarbrough AK , Smith TB. Technology acceptance among physicians . Med Care Res Rev . 2007 ; 64 : 650 - 72 .
31. Brown SA , Massey AP , Montoya-Weiss MM , Burkman JR . Do I really have to? User acceptance of mandated technology . Eur J Inf Syst . 2002 ; 11 : 283 - 95 .
32. Venkatesh V , Bala H. Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions . Decis Sci . 2008 ; 39 : 273 - 315 .
33. Venkatesh V , Morris MG , Davis GB , Davis FD . User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view . MIS Quart . 2003 ; 27 : 425 - 78 .
34. Venkatesh V , Sykes TA , Zhang X. Just what the doctor ordered: A revised UTAUT for EMR system adoption and use by doctors . 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences ; 2011 ; Manoa, HI ; 2011 .
35. Venkatesh V , Davis FD . A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies . Manage Sci . 2000 ; 46 : 186 - 204 .
36. Holden RJ . Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: towards a more robust social ergonomics . Theor Issues Ergon Sci . 2012 ; 13 : 546 - 69 .
37. Holden RJ . What stands in the way of technology-mediated patient safety improvements? A study of facilitators and barriers to physicians' use of electronic health records . J Patient Saf . 2011 ; 7 : 193 - 203 .
38. Holden RJ . Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: an application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety . Cogn Technol Work . 2011 ; 13 : 11 - 29 .
39. Holden RJ , Brown RL , Alper SJ , Scanlon MC , Patel NR , Karsh B. That's nice, but what does IT do? Evaluating the impact of bar coded medication administration by measuring changes in the process of care . Int J Ind Ergon . 2011 ; 41 : 370 - 9 .
40. Asan O , Holden RJ , Flynn KE , Yang Y , Azam L , Scanlon MC . Provider use of a novel ehr display in the pediatric intensive care unit . Large Customizable Interactive Monitor (LCIM). Appl Clin Inform . 2016 ; 7 ( 3 ): 682 - 92 .
41. Hu PJH , Chau PYK , Sheng ORL , Tam KY . Examining the technology acceptance model using physician acceptance of telemedicine technology . J MIS . 1999 ; 16 : 91 - 112 .
42. Chau PYK , Hu PJH . Examining a model of information technology acceptance by individual professionals: an exploratory study . J MIS . 2002 ; 18 : 191 - 229 .
43. Nielsen J . Usability Engineering. Boston: Academic Press ; 1993 .
44. Holden RJ , Voida S , Savoy A , Jones JF , Kulanthaivel A. Human Factors Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction: Supporting User Performance and Experience . In: Finnell J, Dixon BE, editors. Clinical Informatics Study Guide. Switzerland: Springer; 2016 . p. 287 - 307 .
45. Cohen JF , Coleman E , Kangethe MJ. An importance-performance analysis of hospital information system attributes: a nurses' perspective . Int J Med Inform . 2016 ; 86 : 82 - 90 .
46. Koch SH , Weir C , Westenskow D , et al. Evaluation of the effect of information integration in displays for ICU nurses on situation awareness and task completion time: a prospective randomized controlled study . Int J Med Inform . 2013 ; 82 ( 8 ): 665 - 75 .
47. Skeels M , Tan DS . Identifying opportunities for inpatient-centric technology . Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Health Informatics Symposium ; 2010 : ACM; 2010 . p. 580 - 9 .
48. Wilcox L , Morris D , Tan D , Gatewood J. Designing patient-centric information displays for hospitals . Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2010: ACM; 2010 . p. 2123 - 32 .
49. Prey JE , Woollen J , Wilcox L , et al. Patient engagement in the inpatient setting: a systematic review . J Am Med Inform Assoc . 2014 ; 21 ( 4 ): 742 - 50 .
50. Turner M , Kitchenham B , Brereton P , Charters S , Budgen D. Does the technology acceptance model predict actual use? A systematic literature review . Inform Softw Technol . 2010 ; 52 ( 5 ): 463 - 79 .
51. Straub D , Limayem M , Karahanna-Evaristo E. Measuring system usage: implications for IS theory testing . Manage Sci . 1995 ; 41 ( 8 ): 1328 - 42 .
52. Wu J , Du H. Toward a better understanding of behavioral intention and system usage constructs . Eur J Inf Syst . 2012 ; 21 ( 6 ): 680 - 98 .
53. Lehmann CU , Weinberg ST , Alexander GM , et al. Pediatric aspects of inpatient health information technology systems . Pediatrics . 2015 ; 135 ( 3 ): e756 - e68 .
54. Vanneste D , Vermeulen B , Declercq A. Healthcare professionals' acceptance of BelRAI, a web-based system enabling person-centred recording and data sharing across care settings with interRAI instruments: a UTAUT analysis . BMC Med Inform Decis Mak . 2013 ; 13 ( 129 ): http://bmcmedinformdecismak. biomedcentral. com/articles/10.1186/1472-6947-13-129.
55. Venkatesh V , Morris MG . Why don't men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior . MIS Quart . 2000 ; 24 : 115 - 39 .
56. Venkatesh V , Morris MG , Ackerman PL. A longitudinal field investigation of gender differences in individual technology adoption decision-making processes . Organ Behav Hum Decis Process . 2000 ; 83 : 33 - 60 .
57. Bailey JE , Pearson SW . Development of a tool for measuring and analyzing computer user satisfaction . Manage Sci . 1983 ; 29 : 530 - 45 .