Experimental investigations of control principles of involuntary movement: a comprehensive review of the Kohnstamm phenomenon

Experimental Brain Research, Apr 2017

The Kohnstamm phenomenon refers to the observation that if one pushes the arm hard outwards against a fixed surface for about 30 s, and then moves away from the surface and relaxes, an involuntary movement of the arm occurs, accompanied by a feeling of lightness. Central, peripheral and hybrid theories of the Kohnstamm phenomenon have been advanced. Afferent signals may be irrelevant if purely central theories hold. Alternatively, according to peripheral accounts, altered afferent signalling actually drives the involuntary movement. Hybrid theories suggest afferent signals control a centrally-programmed aftercontraction via negative position feedback control or positive force feedback control. The Kohnstamm phenomenon has provided an important scientific method for comparing voluntary with involuntary movement, both with respect to subjective experience, and for investigating whether involuntary movements can be brought under voluntary control. A full review of the literature reveals that a hybrid model best explains the Kohnstamm phenomenon. On this model, a central adaptation interacts with afferent signals at multiple levels of the motor hierarchy. The model assumes that a Kohnstamm generator sends output via the same pathways as voluntary movement, yet the resulting movement feels involuntary due to a lack of an efference copy to cancel against sensory inflow. This organisation suggests the Kohnstamm phenomenon could represent an amplification of neuromotor processes normally involved in automatic postural maintenance. Future work should determine which afferent signals contribute to the Kohnstamm phenomenon, the location of the Kohnstamm generator, and the principle of feedback control operating during the aftercontraction.

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Experimental investigations of control principles of involuntary movement: a comprehensive review of the Kohnstamm phenomenon

Experimental investigations of?control principles of?involuntary movement: a?comprehensive review of?the?Kohnstamm phenomenon Jack?De?Havas 0 1 Hiroaki?Gomi 0 1 Patrick?Haggard 0 1 0 NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation , Wakamiya 3-1, Morinosato, Atsugi, Kanagawa-Pref. 243-0198 , Japan 1 Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London , Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR , UK The Kohnstamm phenomenon refers to the observation that if one pushes the arm hard outwards against a fixed surface for about 30?s, and then moves away from the surface and relaxes, an involuntary movement of the arm occurs, accompanied by a feeling of lightness. Central, peripheral and hybrid theories of the Kohnstamm phenomenon have been advanced. Afferent signals may be irrelevant if purely central theories hold. Alternatively, according to peripheral accounts, altered afferent signalling actually drives the involuntary movement. Hybrid theories suggest afferent signals control a centrally-programmed aftercontraction via negative position feedback control or positive force feedback control. The Kohnstamm phenomenon has provided an important scientific method for comparing voluntary with involuntary movement, both with respect to subjective experience, and for investigating whether involuntary movements can be brought under voluntary control. A full review of the literature reveals that a hybrid model best explains the Kohnstamm phenomenon. On this model, a central adaptation interacts with afferent signals at multiple levels of the motor hierarchy. The model assumes that a Kohnstamm generator sends output via the same pathways as voluntary movement, yet the resulting movement feels involuntary due to a lack of an efference copy to cancel against sensory inflow. This organisation suggests the Kohnstamm phenomenon could represent an amplification of neuromotor processes normally involved in automatic postural maintenance. Future work should determine which afferent signals contribute to the Kohnstamm phenomenon, the location of the Kohnstamm generator, and the principle of feedback control operating during the aftercontraction. Keyword Involuntary movement?? Action inhibition?? Posture?? Aftercontraction?? Muscle afferents?? Action awareness - Introduction What is?the?Kohnstamm phenomenon? 1 3 1 3 Previous literature Summary of?table 1 3 Research themes What is?happening at?the?muscle during?the?Kohnstamm phenomenon? h ly ig f n s ,t w d tr ra ra ou en tsn o d ev i l p rm upw ith r ag li re w o a w o e q 1 3 m eu o r t u a reu inq tg sau igh d ,F ion s in e e rm C ta ) ae ch ed r m w a A z d e s p e M T u S 1 3 . - t ten iss lleu apdw seov itse ,tgh ea am av s v d r i a h a k re e se nd ig p p u m by ilf li d H n e 1 3 1 3 tw ts te e in end th u n h cn tr o ia ig a o p ig h g e la p s e s a w b p su w u u P S , s , -n , -ch ,t tsen ting th u y ta n h a ig s l r e o e s ov ta ed m lig lf w lo 1 3 , s ) - - g r a u sc to le la s tr r ti ac tab tb tic -o ,) is fd a tr s h a m ph in o u ig e em ro j m y a m n in (p ad ew acn ien (K rg ad tio , ,e sse ,g , t n -n n n d u io e irs tnh ita ev ow rcco tiho isc tin n 1 3 1 3 t le , n ti ) s te e s n gn -su eed se ic e m eu u i d t m ) rsaeeu ichnq ed leg troo recod itranm lraun ltreco ,GM ieanm igono n m r ( c e E k ( d e s i e M T u S 1 3 G r , s - e G n tic m EM lev ith laeb r-e th M io a io ,) t w e t E ta em on r ov m ov uno ieg ,I rb in (g te i r R i e p a m c w v 1 3 What sensory signals reach the?brain? 1 3 1 3 What is?changing in?the?brain? 1 3 1 3 What is?the?relationship between?this involuntary movement and?voluntary control? 1 3 Control principles underlying the?Kohnstamm phenomenon 1 3 Persistence of?motor activity Negative position feedback 1 3 1 3 g ad s y e b ittin leo ang to ted h th h n ic c ly m in e s ed s ttrsebonog iltrfrseungo tirsecduno ltrecadhbyg titraceonodn irenpEGM tltirreeohno und lsan edby w rc a c i o s o s te re k fo ig c e f c c G ts ud lsc ag ind abd M en re u in e e E r e m r n fe e b u i n f n d ta n itco fay tod le tico tu lse ssu itio tran ebd san scu tran lipn tsca teh sop rco lta lce em rco au ob ce iev tfe odu tsa th tfe isv ing oud tag .A m o o .A in tt r e b n i p n 1 2 H negative position control is associated with the Kohnstamm phenomenon. Positive force feedback 1 3 1 3 1 3 Fig. 4 Brain regions active during Aftercontraction and TVR. Brain regions showing a significant increase in BOLD-signal in 11 subjects during a voluntary induction contraction of wrist extensor muscle, b vibration of wrist extensor tendon, c involuntary aftercontraction of wrist extensor muscle (here referred to as a post-contraction), and d post-vibration response (more commonly known as TVR) in contrast with a rest period (no movement; false discovery rate, P < 0.005). Note the large regions of sensorimotor cortex active during the Kohnstamm aftercontraction (Adapted from Duclos et?al. 2007). (Color figure online) 1 3 Fig. 8 Reduced aftercontraction EMG in response to decreased muscle loading. Participants pushed upwards against the force transducer (60% MVC, 60?s) to induce an aftercontraction of the anterior deltoid muscle (a). A movable counter-weight attached to the arm via a lever allowed the loading on the muscle to be systematically reduced across conditions. EMG and arm angle results of a single participant are shown (b), including the last 10?s of the induction and the entire aftercontraction. Group average results of reducing the muscle load on EMG across joint angles are shown (c). A load of 1 means that the arm was of normal weight, while a load of 0 meant that the counterweight perfectly balanced the arm weight, meaning that there should have been negligible loading on anterior deltoid. Reducing the load from 1 down to 0 produced a reliable decrease in aftercontraction EMG across joint angles (Adapted from Parkinson and McDonagh 2006) Outstanding questions 1 3 Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest The authors declare no competing financial interests. Adamson G , McDonagh M ( 2004 ) Human involuntary postural aftercontractions are strongly modulated by limb position . 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Jack De Havas, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard. Experimental investigations of control principles of involuntary movement: a comprehensive review of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, Experimental Brain Research, 2017, 1953-1997, DOI: 10.1007/s00221-017-4950-3