Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

European Journal of Epidemiology, Apr 2017

With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose–response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99; I2 = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95–1.00; I2 = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral associations between dairy products and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. For future studies it is important to investigate in more detail how dairy products can be replaced by other foods.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10654-017-0243-1.pdf

Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies Jing Guo 0 1 2 3 4 Arne Astrup 0 1 2 3 4 Julie A. Lovegrove 0 1 2 3 4 Lieke Gijsbers 0 1 2 3 4 David I. Givens 0 1 2 3 4 Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu 0 1 2 3 4 Jing Guo 0 1 2 3 4 0 Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research , 6708 WE Wageningen , The Netherlands 1 Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading , Reading RG6 6AP , UK 2 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen , 2200 Copenhagen , Denmark 3 Institute for Food , Nutrition and Health , University of Reading , Reading RG6 6AR , UK 4 Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose-response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose-response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/ low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I2 = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I2 = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00; I2 = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral associations between dairy products and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. For future studies it is important to investigate in more detail how dairy products can be replaced by other foods. Dairy; Milk; Fermented dairy; All-cause mortality; Cardiovascular disease; Dose-response meta- analysis - Introduction Methods Literature search and study selection Data extraction and quality assessment Statistical analysis PubMed 5248 Embase 6182 Scopus 9179 Extra references through hand search 3 articles Full-text selection: data available to conduct pooled analyses (RR, OR) Title and abstract selection 57 articles (undoubled) 60 articles full articles Available for metaanalyses 29 articles Title selection Exclusion criteria (manual): - Animal studies - Children (age?18) - Prior CVD, diabetes, or other chronic diseases Abstract selection Inclusion criteria (manual): - prospective cohort study - general population - men or women - original article - determinants dairy/milk - CVD outcomes/mortality Total, high-fat, and low-fat dairy 3 C 87 IH tily se in ilssy see tra yp d an eh o t e a C m y d - , ro ira lcu tae lik D in m M l ta n s , fa ) o th 122 lta D D 8 la n l) 2 6 D t d ta 350 ead (1 fa CV 89 CH ,44 IH (fa an fa 2 1 s i s , p i a oLw ,iray se se in ly ry t y d an a f itry leud t-aa tlad i-gh ,iray tad eeh a c e o H d f C , ry t ow ,y ta t e ed ow d iad -fa ,L ira -f en ,L ten , se y d h y y e tla igh ira ta ig rem ira ta rem ira eh o H d f H f d f f d C d ta d 1 V C fa n a 0 ( a f 77 (6 C 3 1 e d e r e n ab nd th an t la tread tfco itcevp tiraov icnu seA isnd ,Japd llIIa ,inU om ion teg jeo so seb -on omm isea ren eg teh dy gd a I P P O N c D T A ih tuS inK t n r r C ta 4 184 ead 180 ttao CV 130 ttao CH 93 ed 17 C d H ea 1 8 m d isy ily / ru d a k it , n e nd rad loh hp am D f ae ae itan ay tgn lcao ,I f H ,n rb ,t iitc e , BM and fC iso ,se fee rgy m g o n l f e ,teehn loyp inko ,teak itityv trsyo treepy taeebg ,scoh ltean m m n ca ih h v fi to g e s i s i s , w se in ly y p i t oL iry r tirayy lecddu t-aaaen ltaado if-ahg ,irayd tfaad D in m T H 4 C 4 C , ts tw r x d ie e a en an ed - , ev rg h on its r ah lc ,s ,s lte n is en ,s c ca te w p d v o ll is i a ie m se an y hp ac ld ed cfi rv co ir tlf(aaD t;lt)saud tllreeay ll-upow itsapoh tsandm titrceah iti-ennk ii-sacny itsaenno H f y fo fo ils d o p q a e e f h u s i s , w se in ly ry t p i a oL iry y d an a f t e a d - , a iry ldu t-a lta igh iray tad a c e o H d f ) 1 th 8 h 1 h 8 h 4 a 7 t m D ,1 ta 6 t m D ,5 e 52 ea ro V 0 e 45 ea ro V 5 d ( d f C 1 d ( d f C 1 , d litraady it-fagh ,iryoLw ,irady treenm ,iry ,seee trug teend ,ry ,trgu seee o H d f F d C Y rem iad oY hC a ta e a h o T F No studies Mean (populations) age (years) Dairy type (increment g/day) Total dairy (per 200 g/day) High-fat dairy (per 200 g/day) Low-fat dairy (per 200 g/day) Milk (per 244 g/day) Fermented dairy (per 20 g/day) Cheese (per 10 g/day) Yogurt (per 50 g/day) median intake range (g/day) 323 (0?713) 360 (20?828) 339 (0?713) 113 (20?339) 151 (19?586) 130 (8?414) 217 (0?554) 234 (0?825) 211 (0?604) 268 (0?878) 227 (0?877) 245 (0?878) 70 (0?500) 96 (0?417) 105 (0?627) 25 (1?70) 34 (3?192) 34 (0?103) 46 (0?145) 60 (0?145) 147 (0?627) Total N RR (95% CI) Heterogeneity I2 (%), P 175,063 21,222 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 62.2, 0.005 330,350 8298 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 38.9, 0.081 76,207 5525 0.97 (0.91, 1.02) 59.9, 0.015 47,126 3407 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 0.0, 0.603 171,627 6661 0.99 (0.93, 1.05) 22.9, 0.240 95,242 5408 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 37.4, 0.143 167,978 19,543 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 0.0, 0.734 262,228 6244 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 27.3, 0.193 95,242 5408 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) 0.0, 0.769 268,570 69,355 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) 97.4, \0.001 230,621 8612 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 45.5, 0.043 249,779 21,580 1.01 (0.93, 1.10) 92.4, \0.001 378,058 98,536 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 94.4, \0.001 256,091 5667 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 44.6, 0.037 271,071 33,980 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 87.5, \0.001 342,120 54,125 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) 93.3, \0.001 256,091 4022 0.99 (0.97, 1.02) 40.3, 0.089 234,447 15,519 0.98 (0.95, 1.00) 82.6, \0.001 40,460 2850 0.97 (0.85, 1.11) 65.8, 0.054 98,936 1143 1.03 (0.97, 1.09) 0.0, 0.685 36,624 817 1.03 (0.97, 1.09) 0.0, 0.499 year exposure NOTE: Weights are from random effects analysis Relative risk Total fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt year exposure NOTE: Weights are from random effects analysis Relative risk represent the pooled relative risk and 95% CIs. By excluding the Swedish study [6] of women?s results for cheese, RR = 0.99 (95% CI 0.99?1.00), I2 = 23.8% (P = 0.19) Discussion year exposure 2009 Cheese Panagiotakos 2009 Cheese Van Aerde 2013 Cheese 2010 Full-fat cheese Women/Men 2011 Cheese 2012 cheese 2013 Low-fat cheese Women/Men 2013 High-fat cheese Women/Men Michaelsson 2014 Cheese Michaelsson 2014 Cheese 2015 Cheese Women/Men NOTE: Weights are from random effects analysis Women/Men Women/Men Women/Men Women/Men Women/Men risk (95% CI) 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 10.85 0.95 (0.83, 1.08) 3.20 0.86 (0.65, 1.15) 0.78 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 17.13 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 12.94 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 3.88 1.00 (0.77, 1.29) 0.96 1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 1.82 0.93 (0.92, 0.94) 17.65 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 17.76 0.96 (0.93, 1.00) 13.04 0.98 (0.95, 1.00) 100.00 Relative risk relative risk and 95% Cis. By excluding the Swedish study [6] of women?s results for cheese, RR = 0.99 (0.98?0.99), I2 = 0% (P = 0.84) Acknowledgements We are grateful to Professor Johanna M. Geleijnse for reviewing the paper and for suggestions and to Dr. A? gnes Fekete for her help with determining study quality using the NOS scoring system. Authors? contributions JG, AA, DIG, JAL, and SSSM designed the research. JG performed the literature search, extracted data. JG, SSSM checked data. JG performed the analyses and drafted the paper. AA, DIG, JAL, SSSM critically reviewed and improved it. JG is guarantor. Compliance with ethical standards References 1. Naghavi M , Wang H , Lozano R , Davis A , Liang X , Zhou M , Vollset SE , Ozgoren AA , Abdalla S , Abd-Allah F , et al. Global , regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and causespecific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 . Lancet 2015 ; 385 : 117 - 71 . 2. Mozaffarian D. Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: a comprehensive review . Circulation . 2016 ; 133 : 187 - 225 . 3. Lamarche B , Givens DI , Soedamah-Muthu S , Krauss RM , Jakobsen MU , Bischoff-Ferrari HA , Pan A , Despre?s JP. Does milk consumption contribute to cardiometabolic health and overall diet quality? Can J Cardiol . 2016 ; 32 : 1026 - 32 . 4. Alexander DD , Bylsma LC , Vargas AJ , Cohen SS , Doucette A , Mohamed M , Irvin SR , Miller PE , Watson H , Fryzek JP . Dairy consumption and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Br J Nutr . 2016 ; 115 : 737 - 50 . 5. Soedamah-Muthu SS , Ding EL , Al-Delaimy WK , Hu FB , Engberink MF , Willett WC , Geleijnse JM . Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies . Am J Clin Nutr . 2011 ; 93 : 158 - 71 . 6. Michaelsson K , Wolk A , Langenskiold S , Basu S , Warensjo Lemming E , Melhus H , Byberg L. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies . BMJ . 2014 ; 349 :g6015. 7. Astrup A , Givens DI . Confusing message about dairy from Sweden . 2014 . http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015/rr/ 790591. Accessed 31 Aug 2016 . 8. Labos C , Brophy J. Statistical problems with study on milk intake and mortality and fractures . BMJ . 2014 ; 349 :g6991. 9. de Goede J , Soedamah-Muthu SS , Pan A , Gijsbers L , Geleijnse JM . Dairy consumption and risk of stroke: a systematic review and updated dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies . J Am Heart Assoc . 2016 ; 5 : e002787 . 10. Pimpin L , Wu JH , Haskelberg H , Del Gobbo L , Mozaffarian D. Is butter back? A systematic review and meta-analysis of butter consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and total mortality . PLoS ONE . 2016 ; 11 :e0158118. 11. Stroup DF , Berlin JA , Morton SC , Olkin I , Williamson GD , Rennie D , Moher D , Becker BJ , Sipe TA , Thacker SB . Metaanalysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting . JAMA . 2000 ; 283 : 2008 - 12 . 12. Kahn HA , Phillips RL , Snowdon DA , Choi W. Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality-21-year follow-up on 27,530 adult 7th-day adventists . Am J Epidemiol . 1984 ; 119 : 775 - 87 . 13. Mann JI , Appleby PN , Key TJ , Thorogood M. Dietary determinants of ischaemic heart disease in health conscious individuals . Heart . 1997 ; 78 : 450 - 5 . 14. Appleby PN , Thorogood M , Mann JI , Key TJ . The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview . Am J Clin Nutr . 1999 ; 70 :525s31s. 15. Bostick RM , Kushi LH , Wu Y , Meyer KA , Sellers TA , Folsom AR . Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to ischemic heart disease mortality among postmenopausal women . Am J Epidemiol . 1999 ; 149 : 151 - 61 . 16. Hu FB , Stampfer MJ , Manson JE , Ascherio A , Colditz GA , Speizer FE , Hennekens CH , Willett WC . Dietary saturated fats and their food sources in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease in women . Am J Clin Nutr . 1999 ; 70 : 1001 - 8 . 17. Fortes C , Forastiere F , Farchi S , Rapiti E , Pastori G , Perucci CA . Diet and overall survival in a cohort of very elderly people . Epidemiology . 2000 ; 11 : 440 - 5 . 18. Ness AR , Smith GD , Hart C. Milk , coronary heart disease and mortality . J Epidemiol Commun Health . 2001 ; 55 : 379 - 82 . 19. Al-Delaimy WK , Rimm E , Willett WC , Stampfer MJ , Hu FB . A prospective study of calcium intake from diet and supplements and risk of ischemic heart disease among men . Am J Clin Nutr . 2003 ; 77 : 814 - 8 . 20. Elwood PC , Pickering JE , Fehily AM , Hughes J , Ness AR . Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke I. Evidence from the Caerphilly cohort . Eur J Clin Nutr . 2004 ; 58 : 711 - 7 . 21. Knoops KT , de Groot LC , Fidanza F , Alberti-Fidanza A , Kromhout D , van Staveren WA . Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project . Eur J Clin Nutr . 2006 ; 60 : 746 - 55 . 22. Paganini-Hill A , Kawas CH , Corrada MM . Non-alcoholic beverage and caffeine consumption and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study . Prev Med . 2007 ; 44 : 305 - 10 . 23. Panagiotakos D , Pitsavos C , Chrysohoou C , Palliou K , Lentzas I , Skoumas I , Stefanadis C. Dietary patterns and 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease: a multivariate analysis of the ATTICA study . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2009 ; 19 : 253 - 63 . 24. Bonthuis M , Hughes MC , Ibiebele TI , Green AC , van der Pols JC . Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults . Eur J Clin Nutr . 2010 ; 64 : 569 - 77 . 25. Goldbohm RA , Chorus AM , Galindo Garre F , Schouten LJ , van den Brandt PA. Dairy consumption and 10-y total and cardiovascular mortality: a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands . Am J Clin Nutr . 2011 ; 93 : 615 - 27 . 26. Sonestedt E , Wirfa?lt E, Wallstro?m P, Gullberg B , Orho-Melander M , Hedblad B. Dairy products and its association with incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmo? diet and cancer cohort . Eur J Epidemiol . 2011 ; 26 : 609 - 18 . 27. Dalmeijer GW , Struijk EA , Van Der Schouw YT , SoedamahMuthu SS , Verschuren WMM , Boer JMA , Geleijnse JM , Beulens JWJ . Dairy intake and coronary heart disease or stroke-a population-based cohort study . Int J Cardiol . 2013 ; 167 : 925 - 9 . 28. Kondo I , Ojima T , Nakamura M , Hayasaka S , Hozawa A , Saitoh S , Ohnishi H , Akasaka H , Hayakawa T , Murakami Y , Okuda N , Miura K , Okayama A , Ueshima H. Consumption of dairy products and death from cardiovascular disease in the Japanese general population: the NIPPON DATA80 . J Epidemiol. 2013 ; 23 : 47 - 54 . 29. Louie JC , Flood VM , Burlutsky G , Rangan AM , Gill TP , Mitchell P. Dairy consumption and the risk of 15-year cardiovascular disease mortality in a cohort of older Australians . Nutrients. 2013 ; 5 : 441 - 54 . 30. Patterson E , Larsson SC , Wolk A , Akesson A. Association between dairy food consumption and risk of myocardial infarction in women differs by type of dairy food . J Nutr . 2013 ; 143 : 74 - 9 . 31. Soedamah-Muthu SS , Masset G , Verberne L , Geleijnse JM , Brunner EJ . Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes, CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study . Br J Nutr . 2013 ; 109 : 718 - 26 . 32. van Aerde MA , Soedamah-Muthu SS , Geleijnse JM , Snijder MB , Nijpels G , Stehouwer CD , Dekker JM . Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study . Eur J Nutr . 2013 ; 52 : 609 - 16 . 33. von Ruesten A , Feller S , Bergmann MM , Boeing H. Diet and risk of chronic diseases: results from the first 8 years of follow-up in the EPIC-Potsdam study . Eur J Clin Nutr . 2013 ; 67 : 412 - 9 . 34. Haring B , Gronroos N , Nettleton JA , Wyler Von Ballmoos MC , Selvin E , Alonso A. Dietary protein intake and coronary heart disease in a large community based cohort: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study . PLoS ONE . 2014 ; 9 : e109552 . 35. Huang LY , Wahlqvist ML , Huang YC , Lee MS . Optimal dairy intake is predicated on total, cardiovascular, and stroke mortalities in a Taiwanese cohort . J Am Coll Nutr . 2014 ; 33 : 426 - 36 . 36. Bergholdt HK , Nordestgaard BG , Varbo A. Ellervi k C. Milk intake is not associated with ischaemic heart disease in observational or Mendelian randomization analyses in 98,529 Danish adults . Int J Epidemiol . 2015 ; 44 : 587 - 603 . 37. Praagman J , Franco OH , Ikram MA , Soedamah-Muthu SS , Engberink MF , van Rooij FJ , Hofman A , Geleijnse JM . Dairy products and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study . Eur J Nutr . 2015 ; 54 : 981 - 90 . 38. Praagman J , Dalmeijer GW , van der Schouw YT , SoedamahMuthu SS , Monique Verschuren WM , Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H , Geleijnse JM , Beulens JW . The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort . Br J Nutr . 2015 ; 113 : 498 - 506 . 39. Wang C , Yatsuya H , Tamakoshi K , Iso H , Tamakoshi A. Milk drinking and mortality: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study . J Epidemiol . 2015 ; 25 : 66 - 73 . 40. Engberink MF , Soedaman-Muthu SS , Boessenkool-Pape J , van Rooij FJA , Hofman A , Witteman JCM , Geleijnse JM . Dairy intake in relation to all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Rotterdam Study . American Heart Association , San Francisco. 2010 (poster 71). 41. Food Standards Agency. Food portion sizes . 3rd ed. Norwich: TSO; 2005 . 42. United States Department of Agriculture. Food and nutrient database for dietary studies , 2006 . http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/ site_main.htm?modecode= 80 - 40 - 05 -30. Accessed 31 Aug 2016 . 43. Wells GASB , O'Connell D , Peterson J , Welch V , Losos M , Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses . 2016 . http:// www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed 31 Aug 2016 . 44. Bauer SR , Hankinson SE , Bertone-Johnson ER , Ding EL . Plasma vitamin D levels, menopause, and risk of breast cancer: doseresponse meta-analysis of prospective studies . Medicine . 2013 ; 92 : 123 - 31 . 45. Higgins JPT , Thompson SG . Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis . Stat Med . 2002 ; 21 : 1539 - 58 . 46. Egger M , Davey Smith G , Schneider M , Minder C. Bias in metaanalysis detected by a simple, graphical test . BMJ . 1997 ; 315 : 629 - 34 . 47. Larsson SC , Crippa A , Orsini N , Wolk A , Michaelsson K. Milk consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Nutrients . 2015 ; 7 : 7749 - 63 . 48. Mullie P , Pizot C , Autier P. Daily milk consumption and allcause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies . BMC Public Health . 2016 ; 1 : 1236 . 49. Drouin-Chartier J-P , Brassard D , Tessier-Grenier M , Co?te? JA , Labonte ? M-E` , Desroches S , Couture P , Lamarche B. Systematic review of the association between dairy product consumption and risk of cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes . Adv Nutr . 2016 ; 7 : 1026 - 40 . 50. Chen M , Li Y , Sun Q , Pan A , Manson JE , Rexrode KM , Willett WC , Rimm EB , Hu FB . Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults . Am J Clin Nutr . 2016 ; 104 : 1209 - 17 . 51. NHS. Milk and dairy in your diet . 2015 . http://www.nhs.uk/ Livewell/Goodfood/ Pages/milk-dairy-foods .aspx. Accessed 31 Aug 2016 . 52. Qin LQ , Xu JY , Han SF , Zhang ZL , Zhao YY , Szeto IM . Dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: an updated metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies . Asia Pac J Clin Nutr . 2015 ; 24 : 90 - 100 . 53. Drehmer M , Pereira MA , Schmidt MI , Alvim S , Lotufo PA , Luft VC , Duncan BB . Total and full-fat, but not low-fat, dairy product intakes are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in adults . J Nutr . 2016 ; 146 : 81 - 9 . 54. Kratz M , Baars T , Guyenet S. The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease . Eur J Nutr . 2013 ; 52 : 1 - 24 . 55. Larsson SC , Bergkvist L , Wolk A. High-fat dairy food and conjugated linoleic acid intakes in relation to colorectal cancer incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort . Am J Clin Nutr . 2005 ; 82 : 894 - 900 . 56. Beverley Bates AL , Chris Bates , Gillian Swan . National Diet and Nutrition Survey . 2012 . https://www.gov.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/207708/ NDNS-Y3- report_All-TEXT-docs-combined .pdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2016 . 57. Adebamowo SN , Spiegelman D , Flint AJ , Willett WC , Rexrode KM . Intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and the risk of stroke among men . Int J Stroke . 2015 ; 10 : 1093 - 100 . 58. Tian DY , Tian J , Shi CH , Song B , Wu J , Ji Y , Wang RH , Mao CY , Sun SL , Xu YM . Calcium intake and the risk of stroke: an up-dated meta-analysis of prospective studies . Asia Pac J Clin Nutr . 2015 ; 24 : 245 - 52 . 59. Lorenzen JK , Jensen SK , Astrup A. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study . Br J Nutr . 2014 ; 111 : 1412 - 20 . 60. Lorenzen JK , Astrup A. Dairy calcium intake modifies responsiveness of fat metabolism and blood lipids to a high-fat diet . Br J Nutr . 2011 ; 105 : 1823 - 31 . 61. Chen GC , Wang Y , Tong X , Szeto IM , Smit G , Li ZN , Qin LQ . Cheese consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a metaanalysis of prospective studies . Eur J Nutr . 2016 . doi:10.1007/ s00394- 016 - 1292 -z. 62. Astrup A. Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases: epidemiologic and experimental studies . Am J Clin Nutr . 2014 ; 99 : 1235S - 42S . 63. Gijsbers L , Ding EL , Malik VS , de Goede J , Geleijnse JM , Soedamah-Muthu SS . Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies . Am J Clin Nutr . 2016 ; 103 : 1111 - 24 . 64. Veiga P , Pons N , Agrawal A , Oozeer R , Faurie JM , van Hylckama Vlieg JE , Houghton LA , Whorwell PJ , Ehrlich SD , Kennedy SP . Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product . Sci Rep . 2014 ; 4 : 6328 . 65. van Hylckama Vlieg JE , Veiga P , Zhang C , Derrien M , Zhao L. Impact of microbial transformation of food on health-from fermented foods to fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract . Curr Opin Biotechnol . 2011 ; 22 : 211 - 9 . 66. Yang QH , Zhang ZF , Gregg EW , Flanders WD , Merritt R , Hu FB . Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults . JAMA Intern Med . 2014 ; 174 : 516 - 24 . 67. Micha R , Wallace SK , Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. A systematic review and meta-analysis . Circulation . 2010 ; 121 : 2271 - 83 . 68. Chen GC , Lv DB , Pang Z , Liu QF . Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies . Eur J Clin Nutr . 2013 ; 67 : 91 - 5 .


This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10654-017-0243-1.pdf

Jing Guo, Arne Astrup, Julie A. Lovegrove, Lieke Gijsbers, David I. Givens, Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, European Journal of Epidemiology, 2017, 269-287, DOI: 10.1007/s10654-017-0243-1