Efficacy of wearing compression garments during post-exercise period after two repeated bouts of strenuous exercise: a randomized crossover design in healthy, active males
Goto et al. Sports Medicine - Open
Efficacy of wearing compression garments during post-exercise period after two repeated bouts of strenuous exercise: a randomized crossover design in healthy, active males
Kazushige Goto 0 1
Sahiro Mizuno 0
Ayaka Mori 0
0 Graduate School of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University , Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8574 , Japan
1 Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Ritsumeikan University , 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 , Japan
Background: The efficacy of wearing [a] compression garment (CG) between repeated bouts of exercise within a same day has not been fully understood. The present study determined the effect of wearing a CG after strenuous exercise sessions (consisting of sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) twice a day on exercise performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory responses. Methods: Eleven physically active males (age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height, 175.7 ± 6.7 cm; body mass, 73.6 ± 10.2 kg; BMI, 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2) performed two trials (a randomized crossover design), consisting of the trial with either wearing a whole-body CG during post-exercise period (CG trial) or the trial with wearing a normal garment without specific pressure (CON trial). Two exercise sessions were conducted in the morning (09:00-10:00, Ex1) and afternoon (14:00-15:00, Ex2). Immediately after completing 60 min of each exercise, the subjects in the CG trial changed into a whole-body CG. Time-course changes in exercise performance (bench press power, jump performances, repeated sprint ability), blood variables (lactate, glucose, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, leptin), and scores of subjective feeling (fatigue, muscle soreness) were compared between the CG and CON trials before Ex1 (8:40), immediately before Ex2 (14:00, 4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2 (19:00), and 24 h after the onset of Ex1 (9:00). (Continued on next page)
(Continued from previous page)
Results: Two bouts of exercise significantly decreased performances of counter movement jump (main effect for
time: P = 0.04, F = 3.75, partial η2 = 0.27) and rebound jump (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F = 12.22, partial η2 = 0.55)
, while no significant difference was observed between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.10, F = 1.96, partial η2 = 0.16
for counter movement jump, P = 0.93, F = 0.01, partial η2 = 0.001 for rebound jump). Repeated sprint ability (power
output during 10 × 6 s maximal sprint, 30-s rest periods between sprints) did not differ significantly between the
two trials at any time points. Power output during bench press exercise was not significantly different between the
two trials (interaction: P = 0.46, F = 0.99, partial η2 = 0.09 for Ex1, P = 0.74, F = 0.38, partial η2 = 0.04 for Ex2, P = 0.22, F
= 1.54, partial η2 = 0.13 for 24 h after the onset of Ex1). Serum myoglobin, creatine kinase, leptin, and plasma
interleukin-6 were not significantly different between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.16, F = 2.23, partial η2 = 0.18
for myoglobin; P = 0.39, F = 0.81, partial η2 = 0.08 for creatine kinase; P = 0.28, F = 1.30, partial η2 = 0.13 for leptin; P =
0.34, F = 1.05, partial η2 = 0.12 for interleukin-6). Muscle soreness at 24 h during post-exercise period was
significantly lower in the CG trial than in the CON trial for pectoralis major muscle (P = 0.04), while the value was
inversely lower in the CON trial for hamstring (P = 0.047).
Conclusions: Wearing a whole-body CG during the post-exercise period after two bouts of strenuous exercise
sessions separated with 4 h of rest did not promote recovery of muscle function for lower limb muscles nor did it
attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage in physically active males.
Wearing a whole-body compression garment during
the post-exercise period did not markedly affect
recovery of muscular strength.
Indirect muscle damage markers in blood (e.g., serum
myoglobin, creatine kinase) were not influenced by
wearing a compression garment during the
It was likely that the use of compression garments
during the post-exercise period may have had some
favorable effect on recovery of power output for
upper body muscles.
Since athletes commonly perform intensive physical
training or competitions on consecutive days,
facilitation of recovery process is important to maximize
competitive success and to prevent excessive fatigue
]. Several strategies are currently employed on sports
fields to aid the recovery process, including massage
], active recovery [
], water immersion [
], and hyperbaric oxygen supply [
addition, the use of compression garments (CG) during
post-exercise period has been recently increasing
attention as a novel option to promote muscular strength
recovery and to attenuate exercise-induced muscle
Although some evidences exist for beneficial effects of
wearing a CG during exercise [
], majority of
previous studies failed to support the performance-enhancing
effect of the use of a CG during exercise [
]. In a
latest review [
], CG did not reveal positive effects on
running performance, maximal and submaximal oxygen
uptake, or the performance of strength-related tasks
after running. In addition, MacRae et al. [
that the use of CG may have had some help for certain
aspects of jump performance in some situations [
However, only limited evidence [
] showed the
beneficial effects of CG on the performance of other exercise
types (e.g., pedaling exercise, running). Alternatively,
improvement of recovery by wearing a CG during
postexercise period is more apparent [
6, 7, 10, 21–24
et al. [
] demonstrated that wearing a whole-body CG for
24 h after resistance training caused rapid recovery of
power output for the bench press throw and attenuated
muscle soreness with lower creatine kinase (CK)
concentration on the following morning. Jakeman et al. [
reported that the recovery of jump performance following
100 plyometric drop jumps was significantly improved
when the subjects wore a CG during post-exercise period.
Furthermore, we have previously reported that recovery of
muscular strength for upper limb muscles was
significantly improved during early phase (3–8 h) of
postresistance exercise period by wearing whole-body CG.
However, for the lower limb muscle, a significantly faster
recovery of muscular strength occurred at 24 h after
exercise . In a previous study using endurance
exercise, wearing CG for 24 h after 30 min of downhill
running promoted significantly recovery of counter
movement jump height [
]. Potential factor for promoted
recovery by CG during post-exercise period is suggested
to be reductions of venous blood pooling and subsequent
swelling in muscles [
]. In addition, Born et al. [
pointed out that the use of CG during post-exercise may
assist performance recovery.
Athletes are often required to conduct strenuous
exercise or competition twice a day, separated with several
hours (12 h <) of rest. However, the influence of wearing
CG between the repeated bouts of exercise within a
same day has not been fully understood. Duffield et al.
] reported that combined treatment of cold water
immersion (15 min at 10 °C) and wearing CG (during
3 h) after the tennis specific drill and match play
sessions promoted recovery of counter movement jump
(CMJ) height at the beginning of subsequent match play.
However, due to the recovery enhancing effect by cold
water immersion [
], the impact of the use of CG
itself has not been identified.
Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to
determine effect of the CG during post-exercise period
after two repeated bouts of exercise (including repeated
sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) on
exercise performance (e.g., power output during bench press
exercise, jump height, rebound jump index), muscle
damage, and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized
that the use of CG during post-exercise period after the
two repeated bouts of exercise would promote recovery
of muscle function.
Eleven men (mean ± SD: age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height,
175.7 ± 6.7 cm; body weight, 73.6 ± 10.2 kg; BMI, 23.8 ±
2.7 kg/m ) participated in the present study. None of
them was taking part in any regular training program at
the start of the experiment (with exercising
recreationally once per week). However, all subjects had several
years of experience performing strenuous resistance
training. The inclusion criteria for subject selection were
experience with strenuous resistance training at least a
year, no habit of wearing CG in daily sport activities.
The subjects were informed about the purpose of the
study and the experimental procedures, and they
provided a written informed consent. The present study was
approved by the Ethics Committee for Human
Experiments at Ritsumeikan University, Japan, in accordance
with the Helsinki Declaration.
The present study was performed with a randomized
crossover design. The subjects visited the laboratory four
times throughout the experimental period. On the first
visit, all subjects provided a written informed consent.
On the second visit, one-repetition maximum (1RM) for
four exercises was measured to determine the weights to
be used for each exercise on the experimental days. The
subjects also conducted a familiarization session of
exercise protocol, consisting of 10 × 6 s all-out sprint
separated with 30-s rest between the sprints under 7.5% of
each body weight, 10 × 3 sets resistance exercise for four
exercises, and 5 × 10 drop jumps (50 jumps in total).
On the third and fourth visits, the subjects completed
two experimental trials, either with the use of a CG (CG
trial) or without the use of a CG (CON trial) during
post-exercise period after performing two repeated bouts
of exercise, separated with 4 h of rest (Ex1: 9:00–10:00,
Ex2: 14:00–15:00). The CG and CON trials were
conducted in a random order separated by a month.
Immediately after completing 60 min of each exercise, the
subjects in the CG trial changed into a whole-body CG
(Recharge; Under Armour, Baltimore, MD) [
pressure levels applied for the present CG were
previously reported , 11.5 ± 0.6 hPa for thigh and 17.6 ±
1.8 hPa for calf. In the CON trial, the subjects wore a
non-CG, identical type of sports wear without specific
compression. The appropriate size of the CG for each
subject was chosen on the basis of the garment’s
instruction manual and involved measurements of the height,
chest, waist, and ankle circumferences. The subjects
wore the prescribed garments throughout the whole
recovery period (4 h after Ex1 and approximately 18 h
after Ex2), except during two repeated bouts of exercise
(60 min for each exercise), during measurements of
exercise performances, blood drawing, and showering at
night. Time courses of changes in upper and lower body
muscular strength and power, blood metabolites,
hormone and cytokine levels, and scores of muscle soreness
and fatigue were monitored during 24 h after the onset
of Ex1 (Fig. 1).
On the experimental days, all subjects stayed at the
same facility located in the university. They spent time
by reading books, listening music, or watching DVD.
They were allowed to consume water ad libitum. The
subjects were given identical lunch (12:00) and dinner
(19:00) in both trials. The sleep duration on exercise
days was controlled from 23:00 to 07:00.
Strenuous exercise session
Exercise consisted of three different exercises to mimic
regular training for improving fitness levels among team
sport athletes, including repeated sprint exercise,
resistance exercise, and drop jump. We selected this protocol
because all exercises are commonly used for daily
training on sport fields. For the repeated sprint exercise, the
subjects completed 10 × 6 s all-out sprint separated with
30 s rest between the sprints using an
electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer (Power Max VIII; Konami
Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The resistance of pedaling
was set at 7.5% of each body weight. Resistance exercise
consisted of four exercises: three exercises for upper
body muscles (chest press, lat pull down, shoulder press)
and an exercise for lower limb muscles (bilateral leg
press) using weight stack machines (Life Fitness, Ltd.,
Tokyo, Japan). Each exercise involved 10 repetitions,
with five sets for chest press and lat pull down and three
sets for shoulder press and bilateral leg press. The
resistance was set as 75% of 1RM for each exercise. The
subjects rested for 2 min between sets and exercises. Before
the training session in each trial, the subjects performed
warm-up sets comprising 10 repetitions at 50% of the
1RM and stretching of the major muscle groups targeted
by the exercises. For drop jump, the subjects completed
5 × 10 drop jumps (50 jumps in total) from a height of
40 cm. All jumps were performed with placing hands on
hips. After landing, they are requested to pause at a
squatting position, with hand on hips and knees flexed
to approximately 90° and subsequently conducted
vertical jump with maximal effort [
]. Each exercise
session including repeated sprint exercise, resistance
exercise, and drop jump lasted 60 min. The exercise
session was repeated twice in the morning (9:00–10:00,
Ex1) and afternoon (14:00-15:00, Ex2) under supervision
by laboratory staff.
Before Ex1 (8:40), immediately after Ex1 (10:00),
immediately before Ex2 (14:00, 4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2
(19:00), and 24 h after the onset of Ex1 (9:00), maximal
power for bench press, jump performance, blood
variables, scores of fatigue, and muscle soreness were
evaluated. The repeated sprint ability was also evaluated three
times: during Ex1, during Ex2, and at 24 h during
postexercise period (Fig. 1).
Evaluation of repeated sprint ability
To evaluate repeated sprint ability, the subjects
performed repeated sprint exercise, comprising 10 × 6 s
allout sprint with a 30-s rest period between sprints. Before
the exercise, the subjects completed a standardized
warm-up on an electromagnetically braked cycle
ergometer (Power Max VIII; Konami Corporation, Tokyo,
Japan). The applied load for the repeated sprint test was
equivalent to 7.5% of the subjects’ body weight. The
mean power outputs during each set of sprint were
recorded by a computer (Edge E420, Lenovo, Beijing,
China) every 0.1 s using specially designed software
(Konami, Tokyo, Japan). The power output decrement
(%) was calculated by percentage reduction of power
output over the 10 sprints.
For the indication of muscular power output for upper
and lower limb muscles, bench press power output and
jump performances were evaluated. Power output for
bench press power output during concentric phase
(elevating phase) was determined using an accelerometer
(Myotest SPORT, Myotest SA, Sion, Switzerland)
connective to a bench press bar [
]. After the beep, the
subjects completed bench press exercise during
concentric (elevating) phase as fast as possible. The weight of
the exercise was set equivalent to 40% of 1RM, and
mean power output (MPO) during the elevating phase
was calculated. The measurement was repeated three
times, and the maximal value was adopted.
Jump performance was evaluated using two types of
jump tests. For the CMJ test, the subjects performed a
maximal vertical jump on a platform (CT-916, Takei
Scientific Instruments Co. Ltd., Niigata, Japan) that was
connected to a personal computer. Subjects were
instructed to perform a maximal jump while placing
hands on the lumbar division to eliminate upper limb
effects. The vertical jump flight time was recorded. From
the flight time, the CMJ height was calculated using the
formula [(Jump height (m) = 1/8 (flight time)2 × (the
gravity constant)]. The rebound jump (RJ) test was then
performed to evaluate stretch shortening ability for
lower limb muscles. The subjects were instructed five
repeated maximal jumps on a platform with minimum
contact time, and the jump height, contact time, and RJ
index (jump height/contact time) were calculated [
From the obtained results from the five jumps, the
average value among three values except the highest and
lowest values was adopted for further analysis.
Venous blood samples were obtained from an
antecubital vein before Ex1, immediately after Ex1, immediately
before Ex2 (4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2, and 24 h after
the onset of Ex1 to determine blood glucose and lactate
concentrations. Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin
(Mb), leptin, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6)
concentrations were also evaluated before Ex1 and at 24 h after
the onset of Ex1. Serum and plasma samples were
obtained by centrifuging for 10 min and were stored at
−80 °C until analysis. Serum CK and Mb concentrations
were measured at a clinical laboratory (SRL Inc., Tokyo,
Japan). The intra-assay CVs were 3.4% for CK and 6.0%
for Mb measurements. Serum leptin and plasma IL-6
concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using kits from R&D
Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA). The intra-assay CV was
9.5% for leptin and 8.2% for IL-6, respectively.
The blood glucose and lactate concentrations were
measured immediately after blood collection using an
automatic glucose analyzer (Free Style, Nipro
Corporation, Osaka, Japan) and lactate analyzer (Lactate Pro2;
Arkray Inc. Kyoto, Japan), respectively.
Scores of fatigue and muscle soreness
Scores of subjective fatigue and vitality were evaluated
six times (before Ex1, immediately after Ex1, before Ex2,
immediately after Ex2, 4 h after Ex2, 24 h after the onset
of Ex1) using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS),
where 0 mm represented “no fatigue (or “filled vitality”)
at all” and 100 mm represented “unbearable fatigue (or
“no vitality at all”)” [
]. At 24 h after the onset of Ex1,
muscle soreness was assessed using a 100-mm VAS,
where 0 mm represented “no pain at all” and 100 mm
represented “unbearable pain”. The subjects were asked
to rate the feeling experienced by making the line.
Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD).
For comparisons of time-course changes in exercise
performance, blood variables, and subjective feeling of
fatigue, a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with
repeated measures was initially applied. When the
ANOVA revealed a significant interaction or main effect,
a Tukey-Kramer test was performed for post hoc
analyses. For comparison of scores of subjective feeling
evaluated at 24 h after the onset of Ex1, a paired t test was
applied. For all tests, P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Figure 2 presents time course of change in MPO during
bench press. No significant interaction (P = 0.65, F =
0.67, partial η2 = 0.06) or main effect for trial (P = 0.14,
F = 2.63, partial η2 = 0.21) was observed, and there was a
significant main effect for time (P = 0.00, F = 24.60,
partial η2 = 0.71). In the CON trial, the MPO during bench
press remained significantly lower from baseline value
(Pre) at all time points during post-exercise period.
However, in the CG trial, there was no significant
difference from baseline value at 5 h (4 h after Ex1) and 10 h
(4 h after Ex2) for the MPO. When the peak power
output during the elevating phase of bench press exercise
was compared, the CON trial showed significantly lower
values from baseline value (Pre) at all points during
post-exercise period (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F =
22.86, partial η2 = 0.70). However, in the CG trial, there
was no significant difference from the baseline value at
5 h (4 h after Ex1) and 10 h (4 h after Ex2), which were
similar results from those for MPO.
Figure 3 presents time course of change in jump
performance for CMJ and RJ. Exercise significantly reduced
CMJ height during post-exercise period (main effect for
time: P = 0.04, F = 3.75, partial η2 = 0.27), with no
significant interaction between trial and time (P = 0.10, F = 1.96,
partial η2 = 0.16). There was a significant main effect of
time for all variables for RJ (RJ height: P = 0.02, F = 4.17,
partial η2 = 0.29, contract time: P = 0.00, F = 13.37, η2 =
0.57, index: P = 0.00, F = 12.22, partial η2 = 0.55). However,
no significant interaction (RJ height: P = 0.66, F = 0.40, η2
= 0.04, contract time: P = 0.42, F = 0.93, partial η2 = 0.09,
index: P = 0.17, F = 1.65, partial η2 = 0.14) or main effect
for trial (RJ height: P = 0.24, F = 1.58, partial η2 = 0.14,
contract time: P = 0.34, F = 0.99, partial η2 = 0.09, index: P =
0.93, F = 0.01, partial η2 = 0.001) was observed for any
Figure 4 presents time course of changes in power
output during repeated sprint test during Ex1 and Ex2
and at 24 h during the post-exercise period. Power
output during repeated sprint test markedly decreased with
progress of number of sprints (main effect for set: P =
0.00, F = 93.7, partial η2 = 0.90 for Ex1, P = 0.00, F = 81.1,
partial η2 = 0.89 for Ex2, P = 0.00, F = 27.6, partial η2 =
0.73 for 24 h). However, no significant interaction (trial ×
sprint) or main effect for trial was observed during Ex1
(interaction: P = 0.46, F = 0.99, partial η2 = 0.09, main
effect for trial: P = 0.72, F = 0.14, partial η2 = 0.01), during
Ex2 (interaction: P = 0.74, F = 0.38, partial η2 = 0.04, main
effect for trial: P = 0.42, F = 0.70, partial η2 = 0.07), or at
24 h (interaction: P = 0.22, F = 1.54, partial η2 = 0.13,
main effect for trial: P = 0.65, F = 0.22, partial η2 = 0.73)
during the post-exercise period. Furthermore, power
output decrement did not differ significantly between
the two trials during Ex1, during Ex2, or at 24 h during
post-exercise period (P > 0.05).
Blood lactate concentrations were markedly increased
after Ex1 and Ex2 (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F =
73.5, partial η2 = 0.88). However, there responses were
similar between the CG and CON trials, and no
significant difference between the trials was not observed at
any time points (interaction: P = 0.38, F = 0.93, partial η2
Fig. 4 Power output during repeated sprint test. Values are means ± SD. *P < 0.05 vs. the value in the first sprint (CG); #P < 0.05 vs. the value in the
first sprint (CON)
= 0.09). Similarly, exercise increased significantly blood
glucose concentration (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F
= 19.2, partial η2 = 0.66), with no significant difference
between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.18, F = 1.61,
partial η2 = 0.14, main effect for trial: P = 0.40, F = 0.76,
partial η2 = 0.07).
Table 1 presents changes in blood variables before
exercise and at 24 h of post-exercise period. Before the
exercise, there was no significant difference for any blood
variables between the two trials. Serum Mb
concentration did not change significantly after exercise (P = 0.16,
F = 2.23, partial η2 = 0.18), with no significant difference
between the trials (interaction: P = 0.32, F = 1.09, partial
η2 = 0.10). Serum CK concentration significantly
increased at 24 h during post-exercise period (main effect
for time: P = 0.046, F = 5.17, partial η2 = 0.34), and no
significant interaction (trial × time) or main effect for
trial was observed (interaction: P = 0.39, F = 0.81, partial
η2 = 0.08, main effect for trial: P = 0.26, F = 1.45, partial
η2 = 0.13). Plasma IL-6 and serum leptin concentrations
did not change significantly at 24 h during post-exercise
period (interaction: P = 0.34, F = 1.05, partial η2 = 0.12
for plasma IL-6, P = 0.28, F = 1.30, partial η2 = 0.13 for
The score of subjective muscle soreness at 24 h during
post-exercise period was significantly lower in the CG
trial than in the CON trial for pectoral major muscle
[CG: 33 ± 21 mm, CON: 48 ± 25 mm, P = 0.04, d = 0.65],
while the value was inversely lower in the CON trial
than in the CG trial for hamstring [CG: 43 ± 24 mm,
CON: 34 ± 26 mm, P = 0.047, d = 0.36]. There was no
significant difference in scores of subjective muscle
soreness for biceps branch, triceps brachii, or quadriceps
femoris. Exercise significantly increased score of
subjective fatigue (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F = 64.26,
partial η2 = 0.87). However, time course of change in
subjective fatigue was not significantly different
between the two trials during post-exercise period
(interaction: P = 0.52, F = 0.85, partial η2 = 0.08, main effect
for trial: P = 0.75, F = 0.11, partial η2 = 0.01).
In the present study, we have determined influence of
wearing CG during post-exercise period on changes in
exercise performance and exercise-induced muscle
damage markers in response to two repeated bouts of
training sessions separated with 4 h of rest period.
Consequently, time-course changes in exercise performances
for lower limb muscles or muscle damage markers in
blood were similar between CG and CON trials. For the
upper body muscles, no significant interaction (trial ×
time) or main effect for trial was found for MPO during
bench press exercise. However, the use of CG revealed
faster recovery of the MPO 4 h after the first bout (Ex1)
and second bout (Ex2) of exercise sessions (P > 0.05 vs.
baseline value), whereas in the CON trial, the MPO
remained significantly lower throughout 24 h of
The height of CMJ and performance variables for RJ
did not differ significantly between CG and CON trials
over 24 h of post-exercise period. Moreover, no
significant difference in repeated sprint ability was observed
between the two trials at any time points. These results
differ from the findings from earlier studies in which
wearing CG during post-exercise period promoted
recovery of CMJ height [
], MVC [
isokinetic strength for lower limb muscles [
maximal power output during 5 min of pedaling [
the present study, all subjects started wearing the CG
from immediately after completing first bout of exercise
(Ex1), and we have tested whether the recovery of
muscle function was improved even during the early
phase (4 h) of post-exercise period. In a previous study
by Jakemen et al. [
], the subjects wore the CG for 12 h
after 100 drop jumps. Consequently, recovery of
performances for squat jump and CMJ was significantly
improved by wearing CG at 24 h, but not at 1 h during
post-exercise period. We have previously observed that
wearing CG during post-exercise period facilitated
significantly recovery of MVC for lower limb muscles at
24 h after resistance exercise. However, improved
recovery of MVC was not observed at 1, 3, 5, and 8 h after
the exercise [
]. Therefore, 4 h of wearing CG after the
first exercise session may be insufficient to assist
recovery of muscle function for lower limb muscles.
Moreover, repeated sprint ability did not differ significantly
between the two trials during Ex2 (at 4 h after
completing Ex1) or at 24 h during post-exercise period. Because
exercise-induced muscle damage impairs repeated sprint
ability and sprint running performance [
], the use of
CG during post-exercise period was expected to
attenuate impairment of repeated sprint ability. The absence of
improved repeated spring ability in the CG trial was
inconsistent with a report [
] that showed increased
performance for repeated sprint performance (10 × 40 m
run) by wearing CG during 24 h of post-exercise period
in rugby players. However, in the present study, repeated
sprint ability during Ex2 and at 24 h during
postexercise period did not differ significantly from the value
during Ex1 (baseline value) in either trial, suggesting
that the exercise-induced decrement of power output
was not evident during post-exercise period.
The MPO during bench press exercise significantly
decreased immediately after Ex1 and Ex2 in both trials.
However, in the CG trial, the MPO was recovered to
baseline value following wearing CG for 4 h after both Ex1 and
Ex2, while the values at the same time points remained
significantly lower from baseline value in the CON trial.
Influence of wearing CG on recovery of muscle function for
upper body muscles has not been fully elucidated, but bench
press throw power was significantly higher at 24 h after
resistance exercise when the subjects wore the whole-body
CG during post-exercise period. In contrast, promoted
recovery of muscle function was not observed for lower limb
]. We have also shown that recovery of 1RM for
chest press was significantly improved at 3, 5, and 8 h after
the resistance exercise by wearing whole-body CG during
post-exercise period [
]. Although somewhat inconsistent
results exist [
], it is likely that wearing whole-body CG
elicits recovery for upper body muscle function rather than
for lower body muscles. However, in the present study, the
recovery enhancing effect for upper body muscle function
by wearing CG was smaller compared with two previous
studies using resistance exercise protocols [
different outcome may be explained by difference in number
of resistance exercise employed (four to six exercises in the
previous studies vs. three exercises in the present study).
According to a recent systematic review and
metaanalysis by Hill et al. [
], the use of CG after damaging
exercise had a moderate effect in reducing the severity of
muscle soreness and CK elevation and promoting recovery
of muscle strength and power. In fact, 66% of the subjects
analyzed (205 subjects in total from different studies)
experienced reduced elevation of CK concentration. Similarly,
Kraemer et al. [
] revealed that serum CK concentration at
24 h after resistance exercise was significantly lower after
wearing whole-body CG during post-exercise period than
the value after wearing non-compression garment. The
score of muscle soreness for pectoral major muscle was
significantly lower in the CG trial at 24 h during
postexercise period. Although mechanism for reduced muscle
damage markers by wearing CG is still speculative, applied
pressure by the garments generates an external pressure
gradient that attenuates changes in osmotic pressure and
reduces the space available for swelling and hematoma to
]. A reduction of osmotic pressure with
attenuating swelling may provide impaired inflammatory action and
experience of soreness. In contrast, there were no
significant differences between the two trials at 24 h during
postexercise period for serum CK, Mb, leptin, and plasma IL-6
concentrations. This result is not surprising, because the
finding corresponds to previous reports presenting no
influence of CG during post-exercise period on muscle
damage markers in blood (e.g., CK, Mb, IL-6, C-reactive
24, 34, 35
Some limitations in the present study need to be
considered carefully. In the present study, a psychological
effect cannot be excluded because it is difficult to use
CG in completely blinded conditions. However, we did
not display detailed information of the prescribed CG,
including expected outcomes and hypothesis.
Furthermore, blood variables in the present study reflect
physiological responses for both upper and lower body
muscles, and we cannot clarify the differences in muscle
damage and inflammatory responses between upper
body and lower body muscles. Finally, we were not able
to measure the pressure levels applied for the present
subjects, although we have previously determined the
pressure levels of the same CG among different subjects
]. Therefore, it is possible that inter-individual
differences of pressure levels and/or insufficient levels of
pressure may have masked efficacy of the CG.
From practical viewpoints, the present findings may
provide information regarding post-exercise treatment
to promote recovery of maximal power output during
training schedule with strenuous training sessions twice
a day. The facilitation of recovery of muscular power
output will be important to improve quality of
subsequent training session, and wearing the CG during
postexercise period may have had some positive effects on
recovery. Further researches are required to determine
the efficacy of combined effects of CG and other
traditional treatments (e.g., cold water immersion) on
recovery of exercise performance in competitive athletes.
In conclusion, wearing whole-body CG during
postexercise period after two bouts of exercise sessions
separated with 4 h of rest period did not promote recovery
of muscle function for lower limb muscles or did not
affect exercise-induced muscle damage markers in blood
among physically active males. However, it was likely
that the use of CG during post-exercise period may have
had some favorable effect on recovery of power output
and severity of muscle soreness for upper body muscles.
1RM: One-repetition maximum; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; CG trial: Trial with
wearing compression garment during post-exercise period; CK: Creatine kinase;
CMJ: Counter movement jump; CON trial: Trial without wearing compression
garment during post-exercise period; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay; IL-6: Interleukin-6; Mb: Myoglobin; MPO: Mean power output;
RJ: Rebound jump; SD: Standard deviation; VAS: Visual analogue scale
The present study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We would like to thank
all of the subjects who participated in the study.
This study is funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
KG contributed to the study design, data collection, analysis, and manuscript
writing. SM contributed to the data collection, analysis, and manuscript
writing. AM contributed to the study design, data collection, and analysis.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
There is no conflict of interest to be declared by any of the authors.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in
accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national
research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later
amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
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