Searches for transverse momentum dependent flow vector fluctuations in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

Journal of High Energy Physics, Sep 2017

The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \) TeV and p-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02 \) TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the pseudorapidity region |η| < 0.8 as a function of centrality and transverse momentum p T using two observables, to search for evidence of p T-dependent flow vector fluctuations. For Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV, the measurements indicate that p T-dependent fluctuations are only present for the second order flow vector. Similar results have been found for p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event geometry fluctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions.

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Searches for transverse momentum dependent flow vector fluctuations in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

HJE Searches for transverse momentum dependent ow vector uctuations in Pb{Pb and p{Pb collisions at E-mail: 0 0 uctuations. For Pb 1 Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2.76 TeV and p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order ow vector in the pseudorapidity region j j < 0:8 as a function of centrality and transverse momentum pT using two observables, to search for evidence of pT-dependent ow vector the measurements indicate that pT-dependent uctuations are only present for the second order ow vector. Similar results have been found for p{Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event ge- Heavy Ion Experiments - ometry uctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Pb{Pb and p{Pb collisions. 1 Introduction 2 3 4 5 6 7 Experimental setup Event and track selection Systematic uncertainties Results and discussion 6.1 6.2 Pb{Pb collisions p{Pb collisions Summary The ALICE collaboration vn ein n , where vn is the ow coe cient, and n represents the azimuth of Vn in momentum space ( ow angle). For a uniform matter distribution in the initial stage of a heavy-ion collision, n for n 1 coincides with the reaction plane de ned by the beam direction and impact parameter. Due to event-by-event uctuations of the participating nucleons distribution inside the overlap region, the n may { 1 { deviate from the reaction plane and the odd ow coe cients v2n 1 are non-vanishing [8{14]. Large ow coe cients were observed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) [15{18] and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [19{29]. These measurements constrain the initial conditions (e.g. energy and entropy density) and transport coe cients of the system (such as shear viscosity over entropy density ratio, =s). The recent measurements of correlations between di erent order ow coe cients and ow angles [23, 30], together with the comparisons to theoretical calculations, indicate that the matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions behaves as a nearly perfect uid (almost zero =s) whose constituent particles interact strongly [31]. Traditionally the nal-state symmetry plane angles are estimated event-by-event from the particle azimuthal distribution over a large range in pT. However, hydrodynamic calculations indicate a pT dependence of the ow vector Vn due to event-by-event uctuations in the initial energy density of the nuclear collisions [32, 33]. These ow vector uctuations could be responsible for the experimentally observed breakdown of the factorisation [25, 27, 34]. They might also a ect the measured pT-di erential anisotropic ow vn(pT) [33]. Therefore, searches for pT-dependent ow vector uctuations become important and these measurements together with the comparisons to theoretical calculations not only constrain the transport properties, but also shed light on the initial conditions in heavy-ion collisions. Studies of azimuthal correlations are performed also in p{Pb collisions at the LHC. The original goal of p{Pb collisions was to provide reference data for the high energy Pb{Pb collisions. However, indications of collective behaviour have been discovered by the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb collaborations [35{46]. If the azimuthal correlations in small collision systems reveal the onset of hydrodynamic ow behaviour, the breakdown of factorisation should be expected in small collision systems and reproduced by hydrodynamic calculations as well. The rst experimental indication of pT-dependent ow vector uctuations was observed by ALICE in studies of the decomposition of Fourier harmonics of the two-particle azimuthal correlations [34]. Fits to the azimuthal correlations, assuming factorisation of the two-particle Fourier harmonics, agree well with data up to p a 3{4 GeV/c, deviations at higher pT are interpreted, as at least partially, due to away-side recoil jet contributions [34]. A systematic study of the factorisation of long-range two-particle Fourier harmonic into the ow coe cients is also performed in both Pb{Pb and p{Pb collisions by CMS [41, 47]. T In this paper, the pT-dependent ow vector uctuations are investigated in more detail using novel observables for azimuthal correlations, for charged particles in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2.76 TeV and p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector. The de nitions of the observables are given in section 2. The experimental setup is described in section 3. The results are reported in multiple centrality classes for Pb{Pb collisions and multiplicity classes for p{Pb collisions for several transverse momentum intervals. Details of the event and track selections are given in section 4. Section 5 shows the study of systematic uncertainties of the aforementioned observables. Section 6 presents results and discussions while section 7 summarizes and concludes this work. { 2 { The traditional approach used to measure anisotropic azimuthal correlations is as follows: rst, the ow coe cient of reference particles (RPs), called reference ow, is determined over a wide kinematic range, and then the transverse momentum di erential ow coe cient is calculated by correlating the particles of interest (POIs) with respect to the reference ow obtained in the rst step. Usually a pseudorapidity gap j j is applied between the two correlated particles to suppress non- ow e ects, which comprise azimuthal correlations not associated with ow symmetry planes, e.g. resonance decays and jet contributions. This approach has commonly been used to measure the anisotropic ow at the LHC [20, 25, 28]. Considering possible pT-dependent ow angle and/or magnitude uctuations and neglecting non- ow contributions, the ow coe cient from pT interval a measured with 2-particle correlations can be expressed as vnf2g(paT) = q hhcos [ n ('1a hhcos [ n ('1ref '2ref )]ii '2ref )]ii = hvn(pTa) vnref cos [ n ( n(pTa) n)]i : (2.1) q hvnref 2i Here, a single set of angular brackets denotes averaging over events, and a double set indicates averaging over both particles and events. The 'ref and 'a represent the azimuthal angle of RPs and POIs, respectively. The vnref stands for the reference ow, and denotes the pT di erential symmetry plane angle at pa , which might T uctuate around the pT integrated symmetry plane angle shows the e ects of the di erence between n. The cosine term hcos [ n ( n(pTa) n(pT) and n, due to the pT-dependent ow n(paT) n)]i q angle uctuations. Additionally, hvn(paT) vnref i cannot be factorised into the product of phvn(pTa)2i and hvnref 2i if there are pT-dependent ow coe cient uctuations. A new type of two-particle azimuthal correlations from pTa, denoted as vn[2](paT), is proposed in [33]: vn[2](pTa) = '2a)]ii = = q q q hhcos [ n ('1a hhcos [ n('1a hvn(pTa)2i: n(pTa)) n ('2a n(pTa))]ii The di erence between vnf2g(paT) and vn[2](paT) is that the former takes the ow of RPs from a wide pT range and the POIs from a certain pT interval, while the latter is essentially the reference ow calculated within a narrow pT range. The ratio of vnf2g and vn[2] allows pT-dependent ow vector uctuations vn[2] vnf2g (pTa) = hvn(pTa) vnref cos [ n ( n(pTa) phvn(pTa) 2i hvnref 2i q n)]i : (2.2) (2.3) When the correlations are dominated by ow, a ratio value smaller than unity shall indicate the presence of pT-dependent ow vector uctuations. { 3 { Another observable to probe the pT-dependent ow vector uctuations is the factorisation ratio rn [32, 33]. It can be calculated using the two-particle Fourier harmonic as rn = Vn (pTa; p Tt) pVn (pTa; pTa) Vn (p Tt; p Tt) ; lations of triggered and associated particles from p Tt and pTa, and is calculated as where Vn (pTa; p Tt) is the nth-order Fourier harmonic of the two-particle azimuthal correVn (pTa; p Tt) = hhcos [ n ('1a '2t)]ii = hvn(pTa) vn(p Tt) cos [ n( n(pTa) n(p Tt))]i; (2.5) n(p Tt) represent the ow angles at pTa and p Tt, respectively. The subindicates that a pseudorapidity gap is usually applied to minimise contamination from non- ow e ects. If both triggered and associated particle are from the same pT interval ptT, eq. (2.5) reduces to (2.4) (2.6) (2.7) (2.8) Similarly, we have In the end rn is equivalent to Vn (pTa; pTa) = hhcos [ n ('1a '2a)]ii = hvn(pTa) 2i: Vn (p Tt; p Tt) = hhcos [ n ('1t '2t)]ii = hvn(p Tt) 2i : rn = hvn(pTa) vn(p Tt) cos [ n( n(pTa) phvn(pTa) 2ihvn(p Tt) 2i n(p Tt))]i : It can be seen that rn = 1 does not always hold true, i.e. most of the known sources of non- ow e ects do not factorise at low pT, which is con rmed by Monte Carlo studies [48]. In a ow-dominated system, rn 1 due to the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Factorisation implies rn = 1, while rn < 1 shows the breaking of factorisation, suggesting the presence of pT-dependent ow vector uctuations [32, 33]. Note that eqs. (2.3) and (2.8) look very similar. The ratios vnf2g=vn[2] include the pT integrated information and probe the pT-di erential ow vector with respect to the pT integrated ow vector. The rn carries more detailed information on the 2-particle correlation structure for triggered and associated particle from narrow pT intervals, and probe the uctuations of ow vector at paT and ptT; however, it also has larger statistical uncertainties. If the triggered particles are selected from a very wide kinematic range, the observable rn becomes identical with vnf2g=vn[2]. In this paper, we study vnf2g=vn[2] up to n = 4 and rn up to n = 3. 3 Experimental setup A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) [49] is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC designed to study strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities. It was built to cope with the large charged-particle multiplicity density in central Pb{Pb collisions at { 4 { the LHC, with several thousand tracks per unit of pseudorapidity. The ALICE apparatus consists of a central barrel that measures hadrons, electrons, muons and photons, and a forward spectrometer for the identi cation of muons. Several smaller detectors in the forward region are used for triggering and global event characterization. The central barrel is located inside a solenoidal magnet that provides a magnetic eld of up to 0.5 T. Charged tracks are reconstructed using the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) [49, 50] and the Inner Tracking System (ITS) [49, 51] with a track momentum resolution better than 2% for the momentum range 0:2 < pT < 5:0 GeV/c [52]. The TPC is the main tracking detector of the central barrel, su cient with full azimuthal coverage in the range of j j < 0:9. The ITS consists of six layers of silicon detectors placed at radii between 3.9 cm and 43 cm and matching the pseudorapidity acceptance of the TPC. Three di erent technologies are employed in the ITS: the two innermost layers are equipped with Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), the following two layers have Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and the two outer layers are double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). The V0 detector [49, 53] was used for triggering and the determination of the event centrality. It consists of two arrays called V0-A and V0-C, each built from 32 scintillator counters and providing full azimuthal coverage, positioned on each side of the interaction point. The V0-A is situated at z = 3:4 m (2:8 < < 5:1) and the V0-C is located at z = 0:9 m ( 3:7 < < 1:7). Each V0 counter provides the signal amplitude and timing information with a time resolution better than 1 ns [49, 53]. Two Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) [49] were used in the o ine event selection. The ZDCs are a pair of hadronic calorimeters, one for detecting non-interacting neutrons (ZN) and one for spectator protons (ZP), located at 112.5 m on either side of the interaction point. 4 Event and track selection The data samples analyzed in this article were recorded by ALICE during the 2010 Pb{ Pb and 2013 p{Pb runs of the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of psNN = 2:76 TeV and psNN = 5:02 TeV, respectively. The Pb{Pb run had equal beam energies, while the p{ Pb run had beam energies of 4 TeV for protons and 1.58 TeV per nucleon for lead nuclei, which resulted in a rapidity shift of 0:465 of the centre-of-mass system with respect to the ALICE laboratory system. In the following, all kinematic variables are reported in the laboratory system. Minimum bias Pb{Pb and p{Pb events were triggered by the coincidence of signals in both V0 detectors. The trigger e ciency is 99.7% for non-di ractive Pb{Pb collisions [54] and 99.2% for non-single-di ractive p{Pb collisions [55]. Beam background events were rejected in an o ine event selection for all data samples using the timing information from the V0 and ZDC detectors and by correlating reconstructed SPD clusters and tracklets. The remaining beam background was found to be smaller than 0.1% and was neglected. More details about the o ine event selection can be found in [52]. The fraction of pile-up events in the data sample is found to be negligible after applying dedicated pile-up removal criteria [52]. Only events with a reconstructed primary vertex within jzvtxj < 10 cm with respect to the nominal interaction point were selected. The position of the primary vertex was estimated using tracks reconstructed by the ITS and { 5 { distribution [54]. The dataset of p{Pb collisions is divided into several multiplicity classes de ned as fractions of the analysed event sample, based on the charge deposition in the V0-A detector. These multiplicity classes are denoted as \0{20%", \20{40%", \40{60%", and \60{100%", from the highest to the lowest multiplicity. About 13 million Pb{Pb and 92 million p{Pb minimum bias events passed all event selection criteria. This analysis used tracks that were reconstructed based on the combined information from the TPC and ITS detectors. Primary charged tracks were required to have a distance of closest approach to the primary vertex in the longitudinal (z) direction and transverse (xy) plane smaller than 3.2 cm and 2.4 cm, respectively. Tracks with 0.2 < pT < 5.0 GeV/c were selected in the pseudorapidity range j j < 0:8, in order to exclude non-uniformities due to the detector boundaries. Additional track quality cuts were applied to remove secondary particles (i.e. particles originating from weak decays, photon conversions and secondary hadronic interactions in the detector material) while maintaining good track reconstruction e ciency. Tracks were required to have at least 70 TPC space points out of the maximum of 159. The 2 of the track t per degree of freedom in the TPC reconstruction was required to be below 2. 5 Systematic uncertainties The evaluation of systematic uncertainties was performed by varying the event and track selection cuts and by studying the detector response with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For Pb{Pb, the track selection criteria were changed to only require tracks reconstructed in the TPC alone. This led to a signi cant di erence in most of the observables (up to 10 %), which was taken into account in the estimation of the systematic uncertainties. Altering the number of TPC space points from 70 to 80, 90 and 100 resulted in a maximum 0.5% variation of vn results. The variation of the vn results when using other detectors, e.g. the SPD or TPC, to determine the centrality, is less than 0.5%. No signi cant variation of the vn results was seen when altering the polarity of the magnetic eld of the ALICE detector, or when narrowing the nominal jzvtxj range from 10 cm to jzvtxj < 7, 8, and 9 cm. The contribution from pileup events to the nal systematic uncertainty was found to be negligible. Systematic uncertainties due to detector ine ciencies were investigated using HIJING [56] and AMPT [57] MC simulations. The calculations for a sample at the event generator level (i.e. without invoking either the detector geometry or the reconstruction algorithm) were compared with the results of the analysis of the output of the full reconstruction with a GEANT3 [58] detector model, in a procedure referred to as an MC closure test. A di erence of up to 4% for vn is observed, which is included in the nal systematic uncertainty. Most of the systematic uncertainties described above cancelled out for vnf2g=vn[2] and rn as indicated in table 2. For p{Pb collisions, the approach used to evaluate the systematic uncertainty is similar. Di erent track quality cuts are applied, including varying the number of TPC space points, and using tracks reconstructed with the required TPC detector only instead of combined information from TPC and ITS. This leads to a systematic uncertainty of up to { 6 { Pb{Pb sources Track type MC closure Total Pb{Pb sources Track type MC closure Total p{Pb sources Track type MC closure Total < 4% < 4% < 8% < 4% < 9% r2 < 2% < 1% < 2.2% v2f2g=v2[2] < 1% | < 1% < 10% < 4% 6% depending on the multiplicity and pT range. It was also found that varying the event selection, which includes the cut on the jzvtxj, and the cuts to reject pileup events, yields negligible contributions to the nal systematic uncertainty. The analysis was repeated using the energy deposited in the neutron ZDC (ZNA) which is located at 112.5 m from the interaction point, instead of using V0-A for the event classes determination. The observed di erences with respect to the one using V0-A for event class determination is not included as systematic uncertainty, following the previous paper [36]. In addition, the MC closure is investigated with DPMJET simulations [59] combined with GEANT3; this leads to a systematic uncertainty of less than 9% for pT < 0:8 GeV/c and 2% for higher pT. The dominant sources of systematic uncertainty are summarized in tables 1, 2 and 3. The systematic uncertainties evaluated for each of the sources mentioned above were added in quadrature to obtain the total systematic uncertainty of the measurements. 6 6.1 Results and discussion Pb{Pb collisions Figures 1 and 2 show the pT dependence of v2f2g and v2[2] with three di erent pseudorapidity gaps, for centrality classes from 0{5% to 70{80%. The analysed events are divided into two sub-events A and B, separated by a pseudorapidity gap. Note that j j > 0 suggests that there is no separation in pseudorapidity between the two sub-events. Short-range correlations, one of the main sources of non- ow e ects, are expected to be suppressed { 7 { 0.2 0.1 0 2 0.1 0 2 0.1 0 0 0 0 various centrality classes in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2:76 TeV. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33], with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. when using a large pseudorapidity gap. It is observed that v2f2g and v2[2] using various pseudorapidity gaps do not change signi cantly for central and semi-central collisions. The decrease of v2 with larger pseudorapidity gaps is more prominent in the most peripheral collisions, mainly due to the suppression of non- ow e ects. The results are also compared to the original predictions within the VISH2+1 hydrodynamic framework with: 1) Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glauber) initial conditions and =s = 0.08; 2) Monte Carlo KharzeevLevin-Nardi (MC-KLN) initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33]. In addition, the comparisons to recently released calculations from the iEBE-VISHNU hydrodynamic framework with: 1) Trento initial conditions, temperature dependent shear and bulk viscosities, =s(T) and (T); and 2) AMPT initial conditions with =s = 0.08 [60] are also presented. These combinations of various initial conditions and =s are chosen due to the fact that they give the best descriptions of the particle spectra and the integrated ow measurements [60, 61]. The four hydrodynamic calculations describe the v2f2g very well up to pT 2 GeV/c at least for central and semi-central collisions, as do the calculations with MC-Glauber, MC-KLN and AMPT initial conditions for the v2[2]. For central and mid-central collisions, calculations with MC-KLN and AMPT initial conditions predict both v2f2g and v2[2] better for higher pT than those with MC-Glauber and Trento initial conditions. For more peripheral collisions, the experimental v2 data in both cases fall between the four sets of predictions. In order to probe the pT-dependent ow vector uctuations quantitatively, the ratio j > 0:8] using eq. (2.3) is presented as a function of pT for { 8 { 0.2 0.1 0 2 0.1 0 2 0.1 0 0 0 0 40-50% Glauber initial conditions [33] and =s = 0.08, with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dashed and orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. di erent centrality classes in gure 3. This ratio is consistent with unity up to pT 2 GeV/c and starts to deviate from unity in the higher pT region in the most central collisions. The deviations from unity are weak and within 10% in non-central collisions in the presented pT range. To better understand whether such deviations from unity are caused by non- ow e ects, the like-sign technique, which suppresses contributions from resonance decays by correlating only particles with same charge, is applied. The di erences of the measured v2f2; j j > 0:8] from like-sign and all charged particles are found to be less than 0.5%. This shows that deviations of v2f2; j j > 0:8] from unity cannot be explained solely by non- ow e ects from resonance decays. It is also seen in gure 3 that the hydrodynamic calculations with MC-KLN, Trento and AMPT initial conditions describe the data fairly well for all centrality classes except for the most peripheral collisions, while MC-Glauber calculations reproduce the data only for mid-central and peripheral collisions. This indicates that hydrodynamic calculations with AMPT and MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 not only generate reasonable v2 values, but also reproduce the measured v2f2; j The higher order anisotropic ow coe cients, which were rst measured in [20], are shown to be more sensitive to the initial conditions and =s [12]. In gures 4 and 5, v3f2g and v3[2] are shown with three di erent pseudorapidity gaps for several centrality classes. Similar to what was presented in gures 1 and 2, both v3f2g and v3[2] show a decreasing { 9 { ALICE Pb-Pb sNN = 2.76 TeV 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 [v2 1 } {20.9 2 ]2 0 ]2 0 The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33], with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dashed and orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. trend as the pseudorapidity gap increases, in particular in more peripheral collisions. Only a weak centrality dependence is observed for both v3f2g and v3[2]. The comparison to hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that although hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber and MC-KLN initial conditions roughly describe v2f2g and v2[2], they cannot describe v3f2g and v3[2] over the full pT range and for all centrality classes, and tend to overpredict or underpredict the data. Similar as v2, the hydrodynamic calculation with Trento initial conditions overestimates both v3f2g and v3[2] measurements, while the one with AMPT initial conditions quantitatively describe the measured v3 for presented pT and centrality intervals. The ratio v3f2; j j > 0:8] is shown together with hydrodynamic calculations in gure 6. Wider pT intervals were used for the ratio than for the individual v3 measurements in order to suppress statistical uctuations. It was found that the ratio agrees with unity over a wide pT range, as opposed to v2f2; j j > 0:8]. No clear indication of pT-dependent V3 ow vector uctuations are observed for the presented centrality and pT regions within the large uncertainties. Despite the fact that the hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber and MC-KLN initial conditions cannot reproduce the magnitude of v3f2g and v3[2], the validity of the two sets of initial conditions could be examined also by the comparison of the predicted v3f2g=v3[2] ratio to data, which should be independent of the magnitude of v3. Hydrodynamic calculations from VISH2+1, 0.15 0.1 20-30% 0v.15 0.1 v3 {2} (MC-KLN, η/s=0.20) v3{2} (Trento, η/s(T)) v3{2} (AMPT, η/s=0.08) v3 {2,|Δη|>0} j > 0:8g are represented by circles, diamonds and squares, respectively. The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33], with MC-KLN =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. squares, respectively. The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. 10-20% 1 2 3 4 HJEP09(217)3 [231.05 ALICE Pb-Pb sNN = 2.76 TeV1.05 ] v3{2,|Δη|>0.8}/v3[2,|Δη|>0.8] v3{2}/v3[2] (MC-Glauber, η/s =10.0.058) v3{2}/v3[2] (MC-KLN, η/s = 0.20) v3{2}/v3[2] (Trento, η/s(T)) v3{2}/v3[2] (AMPT, η/s = 0.08) v / 3 v The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. especially the one with MC-KLN initial conditions, overestimate the possible pT-dependent V3 ow vector uctuations, despite the good description for the second harmonic. A good agreement between data and hydrodynamic calculations from iEBE-VISHNU is found for all centrality intervals. This is expected for AMPT initial conditions as the calculations quantitatively reproduce both measured v3f2g and v3[2] as discussed above. However, the calculations with Trento initial conditions, which overestimate both v3f2g and v3[2], are consistent with the measured v3f2; j agreement needs further investigations in the iEBE-VISHNU framework to understand the physics mechanism responsible for this behaviour. The centrality dependence of v4f2g and v4[2] with three di erent pseudorapidity gaps are shown in gures 7 and 8. Decreasing trends with increasing j j gaps and a weak centrality dependence are observed for both measurements. The hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber and Trento initial conditions overestimate the measurements of v4f2g and v4[2], while the calculations with MC-KLN initial conditions underestimate the measurements, similar to what was seen for the v3 observables. On the other hand, the hydrodynamic calculations from AMPT initial conditions agree with the measurements of v4f2g and v4[2]. Moreover, the ratio v4f2; j is in agreement with unity albeit with large uncertainties for the presented pT range and centrality classes. The validity of the hydrodynamic calculations cannot be judged due to the large uncertainties of the v4f2; j Alternatively, one can search for pT-dependent ow vector uctuations via the measurement of the factorisation ratio, rn. The results of r2 and r3 are presented in gures 10 v 4{2,|Δη|>0} v 4{2,|Δη|>0.4} v 4{2,|Δη|>0.8} 1 1 v 4[2,|Δη|>0] v 4[2,|Δη|>0.4] v 4[2,|Δη|>0.8] 1 2 1 2 2 2 0-5% 3 20-30% 3 20-30% 3 3 3 3 3 iEBE-VISHNU v 4{2} (MC-Glauber, η/s=0.080).15 v 4{2} (MC-KLN, η/s=0.20) v4{2} (Trento, η/s(T)) v4{2} (AMPT, η/s=0.08) 0v.15 j > 0:8g are represented by circles, diamonds, and squares, respectively. The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33], with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. 0v.15 ALICE Pb-Pb sNN = 2.76 TeV0.15 4 VISH2+1 j > 0:8] are represented by circles, diamonds, and squares, respectively. The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. 5-10% 10-20% 30-40% 0.9 0.8 v4{2,|Δη|>0.8}/v4[2,|Δη|>0.8] 1.1 v4{2}/v4[2] (MC-Glauber, η/s = 0.08) v4{2}/v4[2] (MC-KLN, η/s = 0.201).1 v4{2}/v4[2] (Trento, η/s(T)) v4{2}/v4[2] (AMPT, η/s = 0.08) 3 3 1 0.9 0.8 The di erent panels show the centrality evolution of the measurements. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and =s = 0.20 [33], with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. and 11 as a function of ptT and pTa with j j > 0:8 for three centrality classes in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2.76 TeV. By construction, rn = 1 when the triggered and associated particles are from the same pT interval. In contrast to the previous analysis [34], there is no pt T pTa cut applied here to avoid auto-correlations (taking the same particle as both triggered and associated particles in the two-particle azimuthal correlations). The triggered particles are always selected from the negative pseudorapidity region and the associated particles are from the positive pseudorapidity region. The r2 value deviates signi cantly from unity for the most central collisions. This e ect becomes stronger with an increasing di erence between ptT and p a. The previous results indicated that factorisa T tion holds approximately for n 2 and pT below 4 GeV/c, while deviations emerging at higher pT were ascribed to recoil jet contributions [34]. This analysis, however, shows that factorisation breaks down at lower pT when the more sensitive observable, r2, is used. The deviation reaches 10% for the lowest pTa in the 0{5% centrality range, for 2.5 < p t T < 3 GeV/c. One explanation from [32] is that this deviation is due to the pT-dependent V2 ow vector uctuations, which originate from initial event-by-event geometry uctuations. Hydrodynamic calculations [33] are compared to data for the presented centrality classes and for selected pT bins. Both hydrodynamic calculations from VISH2+1 and iEBE-VISHNU frameworks qualitatively predict the trend of r2, while the data agree quantitatively better with iEBE-VISHNU. In addition, the CMS measurements [41, 47] are consistent with our measurements. For r3, the results are compatible with unity, and can be described by hydrodynamic calculations from both VISH2+1 and iEBE-VISHNU frameworks, albeit with large statistical 10-20% 1 2 3 4 HJEP09(217)3 2 r 1 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 1 1 1 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.8 0-5% 2 0 00.6.5< p1t <11.5.0 G2eV2/c.5 30 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 r 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 30 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 T T T 40{50% centralities in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2:76 TeV, is presented (solid circles). CMS measurements are presented by open square [41]. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. uncertainties. The factorisation is valid over a wider range of pTa, ptT and centrality ranges, as opposed to r2. The possible breakdown of factorisation, if it exists, is within 10% when both pTa and p tT are below 3 GeV/c. The CMS measurements [41, 47] are consistent with the r3 results presented here despite the fact that the pseudorapidity gaps are di erent between the two measurements. Better agreements with hydrodynamic calculations are observed with VISH2+1. 2.0 < pTt < 2.5 GeV/c 0.8 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 30 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 2.5 < pTt < 3.0 GeV/c 0.8 T 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 30 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.8 1 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.8 40{50% centralities in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2:76 TeV, is presented (solid circles). CMS measurements [41] are presented by open squares. Hydrodynamic calculations with MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [33] and with MC-KLN initial conditions and with Trento initial conditions and temperature dependent =s [60] and AMPT initial conditions and =s = 0.08 [60] are shown in green dot-dash, orange dashed curves, and magenta and grey shaded areas, respectively. 6.2 p{Pb collisions Figure 12 presents v2f2g and v2[2] with j j > 0:8 for various multiplicity classes in p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV. It is shown that, after applying the pseudorapidity gap j j > 0.8, both v2f2g and v2[2] decrease substantially, in particular for more peripheral collisions, mainly due to the reduction of non- ow e ects. The ratio gure 13, displays hints of deviations from 0.4 0.2 v2[2,|Δη|>0] v2[2,|Δη|>0.8] v2{2,|Δη|>0} v2{2,|Δη|>0.8} 0 0 1 2 v2[2,|Δη|>0.8] v2{2,|Δη|>0.8} multiplicity classes of p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV. DPMJET calculations are presented by red shaded lines for v2f2; j j > 0:8g and blue shaded lines for v2[2; j j > 0:8]. Hydrodynamic calculations (MUSIC) [62] with modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 for v2f2g and v2[2] are shown in solid blue and dashed red lines. 2 GeV/c, but the statistical uncertainties are still too large to draw a rm conclusion. The DPMJET model [59], which is an implementation of the two-component Dual Parton Model for the description of interactions involving nuclei, and contains no collective e ects, has been used as a benchmark to study the in uence of non- ow in p{Pb collisions [38]. The calculations based on DPMJET simulations are compared to data. It is observed in gure 12 that DPMJET overestimates v2 signi cantly for the presented multiplicity classes, and generates higher v2 coe cients in lower multiplicity regions. Meanwhile, gure 13 shows that for v2f2g=v2[2] the agreement between data and DPMJET is better in low multiplicity p{Pb collisions, where no evidence of anisotropic collectivity is achieved from previous measurements [36, 38]. In addition, the hydrodynamic calculations [62] from MUSIC v2.0 using a modi ed MC-Glauber initial state and =s = 0.08 are also presented in gures 12 and 13. These calculations in general underpredict the measured v2 coe cients but agree better with the data in high multiplicity than in low multiplicity classes. It should be emphasized that in contrast to hydrodynamic calculations, the measured v2f2g and v2[2] increase (albeit very slightly in particular when the j j gap is applied) from 0{20% to 40{60% multiplicity classes, which indicates that non- ow e ects might play a more important role in low multiplicity events. This could explain the increasing deviation between data and hydrodynamic calculations with pT and towards lower multiplicity classes, shown in gure 12. The hydrodynamic calculations reproduce the v2f2g=v2[2] measurements in the 0{20 % multiplicity class, which seems to indicate that hydrodynamic collectivity is present in high multiplicity p{Pb collisions. However, it is still unclear at the moment why the measured ratio is still reproduced by hydrodynamic calculations for multiplicity class above 20%, where no signi cant ow signal is expected to be produced [38]. The agreement might be accidental since the DPMJET and hydrodynamic calculations also agree with each other in this class. psNN = 5:02 TeV are shown in crease with pT and also with decreasing multiplicity. The measured v3f2g and v3[2] with a pseudorapidity gap of j j > 0:8 are much smaller than those with j j > 0, with the The v3f2g and v3[2] measured with j j > 0:8 in p{Pb collisions at gure 14. Both v3f2; j j > 0g and v3[2; j j > 0] in0.9 ALICE p-Pb sNN = 5.02 TeV v2{2,|Δη|>0.8}/v2[2,|Δη|>0.8] 0.7 0 1 2 v2{2}/v2[2] (Kozlov et.al.) v2{2,|Δη|>0.8}/v2[2,|Δη|>0.8] (DPMJET) 3 Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV. DPMJET calculations are presented by green shaded lines. Hydrodynamic calculations (MUSIC) [62] with modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = multiplicity classes in p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV. Hydrodynamic calculations (MUSIC) [62] with modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 for v2f2g and v2[2] are shown as solid blue and dashed red lines. deviation increasing as a function of pT. The relative in uence of non- ow e ects appears to be stronger in v3 than in v2 measurements. A similar qualitative behaviour was observed for pT-integrated two-particle cumulants c2f2g and c3f2g in p{Pb collisions, measured as functions of multiplicity for di erent j j gaps [36]. It might be worth noting that part of the remaining non- ow contamination with j j > 0:8, the recoil jet ridge, has a positive sign contribution for v2 and a negative sign one for v3 for pT > 2 GeV/c. In addition, it is found that hydrodynamic calculations describe the data better at high multiplicity than at low multiplicity, while DPMJET generates negative (v3[2])2 values for all multiplicity classes and thus cannot be shown here for comparison. Furthermore, the deviations between v3f2; j j > 0:8g and v3[2; j j > 0:8] are not observed for the presented pT region. There is no indication of pT-dependent V3 ow vector uctuations in p{Pb collisions. Figure 15 shows r2(j j > 0:8) measurements as a function of pTa in three ptT intervals for multiplicity classes 0{20%, 20{40% and 40{60% in p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV. The r2(j j > 0:8) deviates from unity when the p Tt and pTa are well away from each other (most pronouncedly in the lowest and highest p Tt bins) with the trend being similar for all multiplicity classes. As mentioned earlier, the deviation is more signi cant at high multiplicity. In overlapping p Tt and pTa intervals, the r2 measurements in the highest multiplicity p{Pb events are consistent with those made by CMS collaboration [47]. The breakdown of factorisation is more pronounced in high multiplicity p{Pb collisions than in the 40{50% centrality class in Pb{Pb collisions (see gure 10). The DPMJET calculations are presented for comparison. It is clearly seen that DPMJET overestimates the deviations of r2 from unity in the high multiplicity region, nevertheless, the calculation describes the data better in low multiplicity events in which non- ow e ects are dominant. At the same time, these measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic calculations using modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08. When selecting the triggered particles from 0.6 < p Tt <1.0 GeV/c or 1.0 < p Tt < 1.5 GeV/c, the trend of r2 looks similar to that of v2f2g=v2[2], mainly because the mean pT of charged particles is within 0.6 < hpTi < 1.0 GeV/c [63]. 7 Searches for pT-dependent ow vector uctuations are performed by measuring vnf2g=vn[2] and rn in Pb{Pb collisions at psNN = 2.76 TeV and p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5.02 TeV. In Pb{Pb collisions, both v2f2g=v2[2] and r2 show deviations from unity, and the r2 results are consistent with previous measurements from the CMS collaboration. These e ects are more pronounced in the most central collisions and cannot be explained solely by non- ow e ects. Therefore, these results suggest the presence of possible V2 vector Pb{Pb collisions. It further implies that the traditional v2f2g results should be interpreted precisely as the correlations of the azimuthal angle of produced particles with respect to the pT integrated ow vector over a certain kinematic region. Future comparisons between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements should be based on the same kinematic conditions. These comparisons, performed under carefully de ned precisely matching kinematic conditions, are crucial to constrain the initial conditions and precisely extract the transport properties of the produced matter, without possible bias from additional pTdependent ow vector uctuations. Meanwhile, no signi cant deviation of v3f2g=v3[2] or v4f2g=v4[2] from unity was observed, meaning that there is no indication of pT-dependent V3 and V4 vector uctuations. The comparison to hydrodynamic calculations shows only the calculations from iEBE-VISHNU with AMPT initial conditions could describe the data quantitatively. The measurements presented in this paper provide a unique approach to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties, e.g. shear viscosity over entropy density ratio =s of the QGP, complementing the previous anisotropic ow measurements. The results therefore bring new insights into the properties of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Similar studies were performed in various multiplicity classes in p{Pb collisions. Deviations of v2f2g=v2[2] and r2 from unity are observed, although with relatively large statistical uctuations. For the highest p{Pb multiplicity class, the deviations are signi cantly overestimated by DPMJET; however, they are compatible with hydrodynamic calculations using modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08. Meanwhile for low multiplicity p{Pb collisions, the data sits between calculations from DPMJET and hydrodynamics. Neither the DPMJET model, which does not incorporate anisotropic ow, HJEP09(217)3 0.2 < ptT < 0.6 GeV/0c.6 ALICE p-Pb sNN = 5.02 T0e.V6 0.6 < ptT < 1.0 GeV/0c.6 r2(|Δη|>0.8) (ALICE) 0.6 1.0 < ptT < 1.5 GeV/0c.6 r2 (Kozlov et.al.) 1.5 < ptT < 2.0 GeV/0c.6 r2(|Δη|>0.8) (DPMJET0).6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20{40% and 40{60% in p{Pb collisions at psNN = 5:02 TeV, are presented by solid magenta circles. DPMJET calculations are presented by pink shaded areas. Hydrodynamic calculations (MUSIC) with modi ed MC-Glauber initial conditions and =s = 0.08 are shown as magenta lines [62]. nor the hydrodynamic model, which does not include non- ow contributions, could provide a quantitative description of the data. Future theoretical developments together with comparisons to high-precision measurements are crucial to give a certain answer concerning pT-dependent vector Vn uctuations in p{Pb collisions. Acknowledgments The ALICE collaboration would like to thank all its engineers and technicians for their invaluable contributions to the construction of the experiment and the CERN accelerator teams for the outstanding performance of the LHC complex. The ALICE collaboration gratefully acknowledges the resources and support provided by all Grid centres and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) collaboration. The ALICE collaboration acknowledges the following funding agencies for their support in building and running the ALICE detector: A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) Foundation (ANSL), State Committee of Science and World Federation of Scientists (WFS), Armenia; Austrian Academy of Sciences and Nationalstiftung fur Forschung, Technologie und Entwicklung, Austria; Ministry of Communications and High Technologies, National Nuclear Research Center, Azerbaijan; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient co e Tecnologico (CNPq), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Finep) and Fundac~ao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sa~o Paulo (FAPESP), Brazil; Ministry of Science & Technology of China (MSTC), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and Ministry of Education of China (MOEC) , China; Ministry of Science, Education and Sport and Croatian Science Foundation, Croatia; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic; The Danish Council for Independent Research | Natural Sciences, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF), Denmark; Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), Finland; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3) and Centre National de la Recherche Scienti que (CNRS), France; Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Germany; General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Ministry of Education, Research and Religions, Greece; National Research, Development and Innovation O ce, Hungary; Department of Atomic Energy Government of India (DAE) and Council of Scienti c and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India; Indonesian Institute of Science, Indonesia; Centro Fermi | Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy; Institute for Innovative Science and Technology , Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science (IIST), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI and Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia (CONACYT) y Tecnolog a, through Fondo de Cooperacion Internacional en Ciencia y Tecnolog a (FONCICYT) and Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico (DGAPA), Mexico; Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Netherlands; The Research Council of Norway, Norway; Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (COMSATS), Pakistan; Ponti cia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru; Ministry of Science and Higher Education and National Science Centre, Poland; Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Republic of Korea; Ministry of Education and Scienti c Research, Institute of Atomic Physics and Romanian National Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Romania; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Russia; Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic, Slovakia; National Research Foundation of South Africa, South Africa; Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Cubaenerg a, Cuba, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion and Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Spain; Swedish Research Council (VR) and Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW), Sweden; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland; National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSDTA), Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) and O ce of the Higher Education Commission under NRU project of Thailand, Thailand; Turkish Atomic Energy Agency (TAEK), Turkey; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine; Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), United Kingdom; National Science Foundation of the United States of America (NSF) and United States Department of Energy, O ce of Nuclear Physics (DOE NP), United States of America. 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Vodopyanov78, M.A. Volkl106,105, K. Voloshin65, S.A. Voloshin141, G. Volpe33, B. von Haller35, I. Vorobyev36,107, D. Voscek119, D. Vranic35,109, J. Vrlakova40, B. Wagner22, H. Wang64, M. Wang7, D. Watanabe133, Y. Watanabe132, M. Weber116, S.G. Weber109, D.F. Weiser106, S.C. Wenzel35, J.P. Wessels72, U. Westerho 72, A.M. Whitehead102, J. Wiechula71, J. Wikne21, G. Wilk88, J. Wilkinson106,54, G.A. Willems72, M.C.S. Williams54, E. Willsher113, B. Windelband106, W.E. Witt130, S. Yalcin81, K. Yamakawa47, P. Yang7, S. Yano47, Z. Yin7, H. Yokoyama133,83, I.-K. Yoo35,19, J.H. Yoon61, V. Yurchenko3, V. Zaccolo59,93, A. Zaman15, C. Zampolli35, H.J.C. Zanoli124, N. Zardoshti113, A. Zarochentsev138, P. Zavada67, N. Zaviyalov111, H. Zbroszczyk140, M. Zhalov98, H. Zhang22,7, X. Zhang7, Y. Zhang7, C. Zhang64, Z. Zhang7,82, C. Zhao21, N. Zhigareva65, D. Zhou7, Y. Zhou93, Z. Zhou22, H. Zhu22, J. Zhu7, X. Zhu7, A. Zichichi12,27, A. Zimmermann106, M.B. Zimmermann35,72, G. Zinovjev3, J. Zmeskal116, S. Zou7 i Deceased Moscow, Russia ii Also at: Dipartimento DET del Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy iii Also at: Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States iv Also at: M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear, Physics, v Also at: Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India vi Also at: Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Poland 1 A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) Foundation, Yerevan, Armenia 2 Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico 3 Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine 4 Bose Institute, Department of Physics and Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science (CAPSS), Kolkata, India 5 Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia HJEP09(217)3 7 Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China 8 Centre de Calcul de l'IN2P3, Villeurbanne, Lyon, France 10 Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain 11 Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Merida, Mexico 13 Chicago State University, Chicago, Illinois, United States 14 China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, China 15 COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, Pakistan 16 Departamento de F sica de Part culas and IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain 17 Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 18 Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States 19 Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea 20 Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea 21 Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway 22 Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 23 Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita `La Sapienza' and Sezione INFN, Rome, Italy 24 Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy 25 Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy 26 Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy 27 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy 28 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy 29 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell'Universita and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy 30 Dipartimento di Fisica `E.R. Caianiello' dell'Universita and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy 31 Dipartimento DISAT del Politecnico and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy 32 Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica dell'Universita del Piemonte Orientale and INFN Sezione di Torino, Alessandria, Italy 33 Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica `M. Merlin' and Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy 34 Division of Experimental High Energy Physics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden 35 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland 36 Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany 37 Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway 38 Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia 39 Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic Frankfurt, Germany 40 Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia 41 Faculty of Technology, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Tonsberg, Norway 42 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt, 43 Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea 44 Gauhati University, Department of Physics, Guwahati, India 45 Helmholtz-Institut fur Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, Bonn, Germany 46 Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), Helsinki, Finland 47 Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan 48 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India 49 Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, India 50 Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia 51 INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italy 52 INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, Italy 53 INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari, Italy 55 INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy 56 INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania, Italy 57 INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova, Italy 58 INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome, Italy 59 INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin, Italy 60 INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste, Italy 61 Inha University, Incheon, South Korea 63 Institute for Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia 64 Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands 65 Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia 66 Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice, Slovakia 67 Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic 68 Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India 69 Institute of Space Science (ISS), Bucharest, Romania 70 Institut fur Informatik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany 71 Institut fur Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany 72 Institut fur Kernphysik, Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany 73 Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico 74 Instituto de F sica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil 75 Instituto de F sica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico 76 IRFU, CEA, Universite Paris-Saclay, Saclay, France 77 iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa 78 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia 79 Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea 80 Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon, South Korea 81 KTO Karatay University, Konya, Turkey 82 Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, 83 Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS-IN2P3, CNRS{IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand, France Grenoble, France 84 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States 85 Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia 86 Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki, Japan 87 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Physics Department, Athens, Greece 88 National Centre for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland 89 National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania 90 National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India 91 National Nuclear Research Center, Baku, Azerbaijan 92 National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia 93 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark 94 Nikhef, Nationaal instituut voor subatomaire fysica, Amsterdam, Netherlands 95 Nuclear Physics Group, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, United Kingdom 96 Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez u Prahy, Czech Republic 97 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States 98 Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia 99 Physics Department, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, United States 100 Physics department, Faculty of science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 101 Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India 102 Physics Department, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa 103 Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India 104 Physics Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India 106 Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany 107 Physik Department, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany 108 Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States 109 Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany 110 Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia 111 Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russia 112 Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India 113 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom 114 Seccion F sica, Departamento de Ciencias, Ponti cia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima, Peru 115 SSC IHEP of NRC Kurchatov institute, Protvino, Russia 116 Stefan Meyer Institut fur Subatomare Physik (SMI), Vienna, Austria 117 SUBATECH, IMT Atlantique, Universite de Nantes, CNRS-IN2P3, Nantes, France 118 Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand 119 Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia 120 Technical University of Split FESB, Split, Croatia 121 The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland 122 The University of Texas at Austin, Physics Department, Austin, Texas, United States 123 Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Mexico 124 Universidade de Sa~o Paulo (USP), Sa~o Paulo, Brazil 125 Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil 126 Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, Brazil 127 University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States 128 University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland 129 University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom 130 University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States 131 University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 132 University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 133 University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan 134 Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, Lyon, France 135 Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, F-67000 Strasbourg, France, Strasbourg, France 136 Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy 139 Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India 140 141 142 Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary 143 Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States 144 Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea 145 Zentrum fur Technologietransfer und Telekommunikation (ZTT), Fachhochschule Worms, Worms, Germany [1] E.V. Shuryak , Quark-gluon Plasma and Hadronic Production of Leptons, Photons and [32] F.G. Gardim , F. Grassi , M. Luzum and J.-Y. Ollitrault , Breaking of factorization of two-particle correlations in hydrodynamics , Phys. Rev. C 87 ( 2013 ) 031901 [33] U. Heinz , Z. Qiu and C. Shen , Fluctuating ow angles and anisotropic ow measurements , Phys. Rev. C 87 ( 2013 ) 034913 [arXiv: 1302 .3535] [INSPIRE]. [48] L. Xu , L. Yi , D. Kikola , J. Konzer , F. Wang and W. Xie , Model-independent decomposition of ow and non ow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions , Phys. Rev. C 86 ( 2012 ) 024910 [49] ALICE collaboration , The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC , 2008 JINST 3 S08002 [50] J. Alme et al., The ALICE TPC , a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events , Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 622 ( 2010 ) 316 [arXiv: 1001 .1950] C. Furget83 , A. Furs63, M. Fusco Girard30 , J.J. Gaardh je93 , M. Gagliardi26 , A.M. Gago114 , K. Gajdosova93, M. Gallio26 , C.D. Galvan123 , P. Ganoti87, C. Gao7, C. Garabatos109 , E. Garcia-Solis13 , K. Garg28, P. Garg49, C. Gargiulo35, P. Gasik107 ,36, E.F. Gauger122 , M.B. Gay Ducati74 , M. Germain117 , J. Ghosh112 , P. Ghosh139, S.K. Ghosh4 , P. Gianotti51,


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