Solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving the critical Sobolev exponent

Journal of Inequalities and Applications, Sep 2017

In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving critical Sobolev exponent and a Hardy term. The main tools adopted in our proofs are the concentration compactness principle and Nehari manifold.

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Solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving the critical Sobolev exponent

Sang and Guo Journal of Inequalities and Applications Solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving the critical Sobolev Yanbin Sang 0 1 2 3 Siman Guo 0 1 2 3 0 of China , Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 , China 1 School of Science, North University 2 Department of Mathematics 3 ,p In this paper, we use the following norm of W and Nehari manifold. In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving critical Sobolev exponent and a Hardy term. The main tools adopted in our proofs are the concentration compactness principle ,p Definition . The function u ∈ W ( ) is called a weak solution of (.) if u satisfies quasi-linear elliptic problems; Nehari manifold; positive solution; best 1 Introduction In this article, we consider the following quasi-linear elliptic problem: ⎧ ⎨ – pu – μ |u||xp|–pu = |u|p∗–u + β|x|α–p|u|p–u + λ|u|q–u in , ⎩ u =  on ∂ , – pu – μ |u||xp|–pu = |x|α–p|u|p–u under Dirichlet boundary condition). where ⊂ RN (N ≥ ) is a bounded domain with the smooth boundary ∂ such that  ∈ . pu = div(|∇u|p–∇u) is the p-Laplacian operator of u,  < p < N , λ >  is a positive real number.  ≤ μ < μ (μ = (N–pp)p is the best Hardy constant).  < q < p and p∗ = NN–pp is the critical Sobolev exponent.  < α < p – ,  < β < β (β is the first eigenvalue that |∇u|p–∇u · ∇v – μ |u|p–uv dx = |u|p∗–uv + β|x|α–p|u|p–uv + λ|u|q–uv dx ,p for all v ∈ W ( ). |u|p |x|p dx  p (.) (.) By the Hardy inequality (see [, ])  so this norm is equivalent to ( |∇u|p dx) p , the usual norm in W,p( ).  The norm in Lp( ) is represented by u p = ( |u|p dx) p . According to Hardy inequality, the following best Sobolev constant is well defined for  < p < N , and  ≤ μ < μ: (.) (.) (.) Sμ, = inf u∈W,p( )\{} (|∇u|p – μ ||ux||pp ) dx p ( |u|p∗ dx) p∗ . The quasi-linear problems on Hardy inequality have been studied extensively, either in the smooth bounded domain or in the whole space RN . More and more excellent results have been obtained, which provide us opportunities to understand the singular problems. However, compared with the semilinear case, the quasi-linear problems related to Hardy inequality are more complicated [–]. Abdellaoui, Felli and Peral [] considered the extremal function which achieves the best constant Sμ,, and gave the properties of the extremal functions. The conclusions obtained in [] can be applied in the problems with critical Sobolev exponent and Hardy term. Wang, Wei and Kang [] investigated the following problem: ⎧⎨ – pu – λ |u|p– |x|p u = μf (x)|u|q–u + g(x)|u|p∗–u, x ∈ , ⎩ u(x) = , x ∈ ∂ , where  < q < p, μ > , f and g are non-negative functions and p∗ = NN–pp is the critical Sobolev exponent. The property of the Nehari manifold was used to prove the existence of multiple positive solutions for (.). Furthermore, Hsu [, ] improved and complemented the main results obtained in []. Recently, Goyal and Sreenadh [] investigated a class of singular N -Laplacian problems with exponential nonlinearities in RN . Very recently, Xiang [] established the asymptotic estimates of weak solutions for p-Laplacian equation with Hardy term and critical Sobolev exponent. We should mention that Liu, Guo and Lei [] studied the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions of Kirchhoff equation with critical exponential nonlinearity. Inspired by [, ], we study the problem (.) on critical Sobolev exponent. Comparing with the main results obtained in [, , –], in this paper, on the one hand, we will analysis the effect of β|x|α–p|u|p–u, and the more careful estimates are needed. On the other hand, we establish an lower bound for λ∗ (λ∗ is defined in Theorem .). Define the energy functional associated to problem (.) as follows:  u p – p β p |u|p|x|α–p dx –  p∗ λ q Theorem . Suppose that  < q < p,  < α < p – . Then there exists λ∗ >  such that problem (.) admits at least two solutions and one of the solutions is a ground state solution for all λ ∈ (, λ∗). (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) 2 Preliminaries Firstly, we introduce the Nehari manifold ,p Nλ = u ∈ W ( )\{} : Iλ(u), u =  . Furthermore u ∈ Nλ if and only if Let then u p – |u|p∗ dx – β |u|p|x|α–p dx – λ Nλ can be divided into the following three parts: Nλ+ = u ∈ Nλ : p u p – pβ |x|α–p|u|p dx – p∗ |u|p∗ dx – qλ |u|q dx >  , Nλ = u ∈ Nλ : p u p – pβ |x|α–p|u|p dx – p∗ |u|p∗ dx – qλ |u|q dx =  , Nλ– = u ∈ Nλ : p u p – pβ |x|α–p|u|p dx – p∗ |u|p∗ dx – qλ |u|q dx <  . ,p Applying the Hölder inequality and the Sobolev inequality, for all u ∈ W ( )\{} we have |u|q dx ≤ |u| q· pq∗ dx q p∗  dx – pq∗ p∗–q = | | p∗ |u|p∗ dx q p∗ . Lemma . Assume that λ ∈ (, T) with T = q–p∗ ( (β–β)(p–p∗) ) p–p∗ ( q–p β(q–p∗) p–p∗ q–p q–p∗ p–p∗ ) p–p∗ Sμ, p∗–q | | p∗ . Then (i) Nλ± = ∅, and (ii) Nλ = ∅. Proof (i) We define a function ∈ C(R+, R) by |u|p∗ dx) pq∗ ] pq––pp∗ –  p∗–q p–p∗ [λ| | p∗ ] q–p ( u p p |u|p∗ dx) p∗ |u|p∗ dx where  < λ < T. Thus, there exist constants s+ and s– such that  < s+ = s (u) < smax < s = s (u), s u ∈ Nλ+ and s u ∈ Nλ . + – – + – – (ii) We prove that Nλ = ∅ for all λ ∈ (, T). By contradiction, assume that there exists  u =  such that u ∈ Nλ . From (.), we have u p – p∗ |u| dx – β |u|p|x|α–p dx – λ |u|q dx = , combining with (.), we obtain Equations (.) and (.) imply that p – p∗ u p = p – p∗ β |u|p|x|α–p dx + p∗ – q λ |u|q dx. (p – q) u p – (p – q)β |u|p|x|α–p dx = p∗ – q p∗ |u| dx, that is, Similarly, that is, p∗ |u| dx ≥ p – q u It follows from (.) and (.) that = ≤ = < , Proof For u ∈ Nλ, we can deduce from (.) and (.) that |u|p∗ dx < p – q p∗ – q  – β β p u . (.) u p – p – q β u p – (q – p) qp – qp∗ p∗ – q u p Therefore, we have κλ ≤ κλ+ < . Lemma . For u ∈ Nλ, there exist ε >  and a differentiable function f = f (ω) : B(, ε) ⊂ W,p( ) −→ R+ such that Lemma . tells us that Fs(, ) = . Thus, by the implicit function theorem at the point (, ), there exist ε > , and a differentiable function f : B(, ε) ⊂ W,p( ) −→ R+ Proof It follows from Lemma . that Iλ is coercive on Nλ. Using the Ekeland variational principle [], we can find a minimizing sequence {un} ⊂ Nλ of Iλ satisfying Without loss of generality, we can assume that un ≥ . By Lemma ., we know that {un} is bounded in W,p( ). As a consequence, there exist a subsequence (still denoted by {un}) and u∗ in W,p( ) such that ⎧⎪⎪ un u∗ weakly in W,p( ), ⎨ un → u∗ strongly in Lp( ) ( ≤ p < p∗), ⎪⎪⎩ un(x) → u∗(x) a.e. in . From Lemma ., for s >  sufficiently small and φ ∈ W,p( ), and set u = un, ω = sφ ∈ W,p( ), we can find that fn(s) = fn(sφ) such that fn() =  and fn(s)(un + sφ) ∈ Nλ. Since n fn(s) –  un + sfn(s) φ ≥ n fn(s)(un + sφ) – un ≥ Iλ(un) – Iλ fn(s)(un + sφ) . Notice that Therefore Iλ(un) – Iλ fn(s)(un + sφ) = p un p – fnpp(s) un p + fnpp∗∗(s) + λq fnq(s) |un + sφ|q dx – λ q |un + sφ|p∗ dx –  p∗ |un + sφ|q dx + βp fnp(s) |un + sφ|p∗ dx |x|α–p|un + sφ|p dx β – p – p∗ β + p + p∗ β + p + μ + λ |x|α–p|un + sφ|p dx + fnpp(s) un p – fnpp(s) un + sφ p + p∗ |un|p∗ dx + λ q |un + sφ|q dx – λ q |un + sφ|p∗ dx + λq fnq(s) –  |un + sφ|q dx un p – un + sφ p |un + sφ|q – |un|q dx Dividing by s >  and taking the limit for s → , combining with (.) and (.), we have |fn()| un + φ n ≥ –fn() un p + fn() |un|p∗ dx + λfn() |un|p–φ|x|α–p dx = – Iλ, φ . Consequently for every φ ∈ W,p( ). Note that (.) holds equally for –φ, we see that (.) holds. has radially symmetric ground states V (x) = p–N p Up,μ x = p–N p Up,μ |x| ∀ > , such that RN ∇V (x) p – μ |V (x)|p |x|p dx = RN N V (x) p∗ dx = Sμp,, where the function Up,μ(x) = Up,μ(|x|) is the unique radial solution of the above limiting problem with = –fn() un p – D = p –p q pp∗∗–qq | | p∗p∗–q Sμ–,pq βN–ββ – pq p–pq . Then there exists u ∈ W,p( ) such that un → u in Lp∗ ( ). Proof Since Iλ(un) → κλ– as n → +∞. Lemma . Let {un} ⊂ Nλ– be a minimizing sequence for Iλ with κλ– < p – Dλ p–q , where By Lemma ., we know that {un} is bounded in W,p( ). In fact, we can deduce from (.) and (.) that β p |un|p|x|α–p dx –  p∗ = p – p∗ ≥ p – p∗ p∗ – q λ p – p∗ β p∗ – q λ| | p∗p∗–q |un|p∗ dx pq∗ β  – β β  – β p∗ – q λ ⎧⎪⎪ un u weakly in W,p( ), ⎨ un → u strongly in Lp( ) ( ≤ p < p∗). ⎪⎪⎩ un(x) → u(x) a.e. in . (.) In term of the concentration compactness principle, going if necessary to a subsequence, there exist an at most countable set J , a set of points {xj}j∈J ⊂ \ {}, and real numbers μj, νj, χ such that |∇un|p dμ ≥ |∇u|p + μjδxj + μδ, |un|p∗ |un|p |x|p j∈J dν = |u|p∗ + νjδxj + νδ, j∈J dχ = ||ux||pp + χδ, where δxj is the Dirac mass at xj. Let be sufficient small satisfying  ∈/ B(xj, ) and B(xj, ) ∩ B(xi, ) = ∅ for i = j, i, j = , , . . . , k. Let ψ ,j(x) be a smooth cut-off function centered at xj such that  ≤ ψ ,j(x) ≤ , ψ ,j(x) =  for x ∈ B(xj,  ), ψ ,j(x) =  for x ∈ \B(xj, ) and |∇ψ ,j(x)| ≤  . Note that Iλ(un), unψ ,j(x) Furthermore, we have lim n→∞ lim n→∞ lim lim → n→∞ lim lim → n→∞ By (.), we deduce that |un|qψ ,j dx ≤ and |un|p|x|α–pψ ,j(x) dx ≤ p∗–q p∗ B(xj, ) B(xj, ) p∗(α–p) |x| p∗–p dx p∗–p p∗ p∗(α–p) |x – xj| p∗–p dx p∗–p p∗ p∗–p p∗ B(xj, ) B(xj, ) q – p ≤ Sμ, un q ≤ = q – p ≤ Sμ,  N  p∗–q p∗ ≤ p∗ |un|q q dx B(xj, ) r N– dr q p∗ dx p∗–q p∗ B(xj, ) dx p∗–q p∗ un q q N(p∗–q) – p p∗ Sμ, un q B(xj, ) B(xj, ) p∗ p∗ |un|p p dx |un|p p dx p p∗ p p∗ ≤ Sμ–, un = Sμ–, un p p  p Since {un} is bounded in W,p( ), and un u weakly in Lp∗ ( ), we conclude that lim lim → n→∞ lim lim → n→∞ and By (.), we have |un|qψ ,j(x) dx =  |un|p|x|α–pψ ,j(x) dx = .  = lim lim Iλ(un), unψ ,j(x) ≥ μj – νj. → n→∞ p N Since S,νjp∗ ≤ μj, we have μj = νj =  or μj ≥ (S,) p . On the other hand, let >  be sufficiently small satisfying xj ∈/ B(, ), ∀j ∈ J . Let ψ ,(x) a smooth cut-off function centered at the origin such that  ≤ ψ ,(x) ≤ , ψ ,(x) =  for |x| ≤  , ψ ,(x) =  for |x| ≥ and |∇ψ ,(x)| ≤  . Hence, we have Therefore |∇un|pψ ,(x) dx = ψ ,(x) dμ ≥ |∇u|pψ ,(x) dx + μ, |un|p∗ ψ ,(x) dx = |un|p ψ ,(x) dx = |x|p ψ ,(x) dν = ψ ,(x) dχ = |u|p∗ ψ ,(x) dx + ν, |u|p ψ ,(x) dx + χ, |x|p un|∇un|p–∇un · ∇ψ ,(x) dx = , |un|qψ ,(x) dx =  |un|p|x|α–pψ ,(x) dx = .  = lim lim Iλ(un), unψ ,(x) ≥ μ – μχ – ν. → n→∞ p = lim  un p + n→∞ N p∗ – q λ| | p∗p∗–q Sμ–,pq un q  ≥ N u p + μj + μ – μχ + j∈J p∗ – q λ| | p∗p∗–q Sμ–,pq u q ≥ N SμNp, + N u p + = N SμNp, + N u p – pp∗∗–qq λ| | p∗p∗–q Sμ–,pq u q p∗ – q λ| | p∗p∗–q Sμ–,pq u q ≥ N SμNp, – Dλ p–q , p where D is defined in (.). Hence, we conclude that is a contradiction. It follows that νj =  for j ∈ {} ∪ J , which means that |u|p∗ dx as n → ∞. The proof is completed. p – Dλ p–q ≤ κλ– < p – Dλ p–q , which |un|p∗ dx → f (ξ ) = (p – )ξ p – (N – p)ξ p– + μ, ξ ≥ ,  ≤ μ < μ, where b(μ) is the zero of the function satisfying  < Np–p < b(μ) < Np––p . Lemma . There exists λ >  such that sup Iλ(sv ) < s≥ p – Dλ p–q , for λ ∈ (, λ), where and D are defined in Lemma .. Proof For two positive constants s and s (independent of , λ), we show that there exists s >  with  < s ≤ s ≤ s < ∞ such that sups≥ Iλ(sv ) = Iλ(s v ). In fact, since lims→+∞ Iλ(sv ) = –∞, we can deduce that sp– v p – βsp– |v |p|x|α–p dx – sp∗– |v |p∗ dx – λsq– |v |q dx =  (.) (.) (.) (.) and That is, (p – )sp– v p – (p – )βsp– |v |p|x|α–p dx – p∗ –  sp∗– |v |p∗ dx – (q – )λsq– |v |q dx < . (.) Equations (.) and (.) imply that (p – )sp– v p – (p – )βsp– |v |p|x|α–p dx – p∗ –  sp∗– |u |p∗ dx < (q – )sp– v p – (q – )βsp– |v |p|x|α–p dx – (q – )sp∗– |v |p∗ dx. (p – q)sp– v p – (p – q)βsp– |v |p|x|α–p dx < p∗ – q sp∗– |v |p∗ dx. (.) Hence, we can obtain from (.) that s is bounded below. Moreover, it is clear to see from (.) that s is bounded above for all >  small enough. Therefore, our claim holds. Set h(s v ) = sp p v p – sp∗ p∗ |v |p∗ dx. In the following, we prove that h(s v ) ≤ + O p(b(μ)– Np +) . Let h(s) = sp p v p – sp∗ p∗ |v |p∗ dx. Direct computations give us that lims→∞ h(s) = –∞ and h() = . Thus sups≥ h(s) is obtained at some S > , and S = v p |v |p∗ dx p∗–p . Since h (s)|S = , that is, Sp– v p – Sp∗– |v |p∗ dx = . It is easy to check that h(s) is increasing in [, S ), according to (.) and (.), we have h(s v ) ≤ h(S ) Therefore, by (.), we have Iλ(s v ) = h(s v ) – p(b(μ)– Np +) . βsp p (i) b(μ) < q < p. Choose = λ (p–q)(b(μ)– Np +) , for λ < λ := ( C+D ) N–qb(μ) , we have N C C p(b(μ)– Np +) p – λC N+q(– Np ) = Cλ p–q – λCλ (p–q)(b(μ)– Np +) |v |q dx. (p–q)(b(μ)– Np +) N+q(– Np ) N+q(– Np ) N–qb(μ) p = Cλ p–q – Cλ (p–q)(b(μ)– Np +) + p = λ p–q C – Cλ (p–q)(b(μ)– Np +) < –Dλ p–q .  p N+q(– Np ) N+q(– Np ) Consequently, for λ < λ := min{λ, λ, λ}, we deduce that Iλ(s v ) < ≥ nl→im∞ p – p∗ ≥ p∗ p∗ – p p∗–p pp∗ Sμ, =  SμNp,, N un p = nl→im∞ p un p – βp |un|p|x|α–p –  p∗ which contradicts with κλ < p – Dλ p–q (from Lemma .). (.) (.) κλ < Iλ s+uλ < Iλ s–uλ = Iλ(uλ) = κλ, Iλ(uλ) = κλ+ = κλ < . Secondly, we prove that uλ ∈ Nλ+. Suppose that this is not true, i.e., uλ ∈ Nλ–. From Lemma ., we can find positive numbers s+ and s– with s+ < smax < s– =  such that s+uλ ∈ Nλ+, s–uλ ∈ Nλ– and which is a contradiction. Hence uλ ∈ Nλ+. Furthermore, combining with Lemma ., we can obtain Therefore, we see that uλ is a non-negative ground state solution of problem (.). – In the following, we prove that problem (.) has a second solution vλ with vλ ∈ Nλ . Since Iλ is coercive on Nλ–, according to the Ekeland variational principle and Lemma ., there exists a minimizing sequence {vn} ⊂ Nλ– of Iλ such that (i) Iλ(vn) < κλ– + n ; (ii) Iλ(u) ≥ Iλ(vn) – n u – vn for all u ∈ Nλ . – Note that {vn} is bounded in W,p( ), there exist a subsequence (still denoted by {vn}) and vλ ∈ W,p( ) such that ⎧⎪ vn vλ weakly in W,p( ), ⎨⎪ vn → vλ strongly in Ls( ) ( ≤ s < p∗), ⎪⎪⎩ vn(x) → vλ(x) a.e. in , as n → ∞. Similar to the above discussion, we can deduce that vn → vλ in W,p( ) and vλ is a nonnegative solution of (.). Thirdly, we show that vλ =  in . According to vn ∈ Nλ–, we obtain (p – q) vn p = p∗ – q |vn|p∗ dx + (p – q)β |vn|p|x|α–p dx p∗ β < p∗ – q Sμ–,p vn p∗ + (p – q) β vn p, hence vn > (p – q)( – ββ )Sμpp∗, p∗–p p∗ – q , – ∀vn ∈ Nλ , together with vn → vλ in W,p( ) means that vλ ≡ . Lastly, we show that vλ ∈ Nλ–. We only need to prove that Nλ– is closed. In fact, for {vn} ⊂ Nλ–, it follows from Lemmas . and . that lim n→∞ |vn|p∗ dx = |vλ|p∗ dx. (.) (.) In addition Thus (p – q) vn p – p∗ – q |vn|p∗ dx – (p – q)β |vn|p|x|α–p dx < . (p – q) vλ p – p∗ – q |vλ|p∗ dx – (p – q)β |vλ|p|x|α–p dx ≤ , which means that vλ ∈ Nλ ∪ Nλ–. Combining with Lemma . and vλ ≡ , we see that Nλ– + is closed. Note that Nλ ∩ Nλ– = ∅, we know that uλ and vλ are different. 4 Conclusions In this paper, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the quasilinear elliptic problem which consists of critical Sobolev exponent and a Hardy term. The main conclusions of this work: () Adding a linear perturbation in the nonlinear term of elliptic equation. () The main challenge of this study is the lack of compactness of the embedding W,p → Lp∗ . We overcome it by the concentration compactness principle. 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Yanbin Sang, Siman Guo. Solutions for the quasi-linear elliptic problems involving the critical Sobolev exponent, Journal of Inequalities and Applications, 2017, 217, DOI: 10.1186/s13660-017-1492-y