The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies 2nd Edition Introduction

The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development, Oct 2016

Patrick Clairzier

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The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies 2nd Edition Introduction

e Journal of International Relations hTe J Studies 0 Development 0 Patrick Clairzier 0 0 The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies A publication by Arcadia University and the American Graduate School in Paris - evelop m ent Studies 2nd Edition Introduction ournal of International Relations, Peace and The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies 2nd Edition Introduction Patrick Clairzier As part of AGS's continuing work focusing on the global subordination of women, which started with the publishing of the book Crimes Against Women (April 2011) followed by the successful conference on Violence Against Women (November 2014), the Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies & Development proudly presents its 2nd annual issue focusing on Gender-Based Violence & Oppression. The issue of gender-based violence and oppression has been principally discussed within the frame of the effects on women and girls of the unequal power distribution between women and men within society. However, a wider understanding of gender-based violence is emerging internationally with the recognition of the physical violence, political and cultural oppression being committed against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community. Article 1 of the 1993 United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women defines the term violence against women as “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” The issue of gender-based violence and oppression has been principally discussed within the frame of the effects on women and girls of the unequal power distribution between women and men within society. However, a wider understanding of gender-based violence is emerging internationally with the recognition of the physical violence, political and cultural oppression being committed against the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community. This emerging understanding is demonstrated by the two recent UN Human Rights Council resolutions, in June 2011 and September 2014 recognizing the rights of the LGBT community to equal treatment under the law and condemning and combating all violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. In addition, with regards to the LGBT community, the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association’s (ILGA) May 2015 report State Sponsored Homophobia, states that currently 75 countries representing 39 percent of UN Member States have criminalized sexual acts between same-sex consenting adults with only a small number implementing those laws, demonstrating the “positive and negative trends” internationally. More statistical and analytical information can be attained on this issue from the work being conducted by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The saliency of the issue of gender-based violence and oppression is further evidenced by the group UN Women referring to violence against women as “a pandemic in diverse forms.” Citing a 2013 global review, they reveal that according to some national studies up to 70 percent of women have “experienced physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime from an intimate partner.” Moreover, 700 million women worldwide were married under the age of 18 with 250 million of that number married under the age of 15. It is with this wider understanding of gender-based violence and oppression, to include women, girls and the broader LGBT community, that The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies and Development presents the following articles to contribute to a better understanding of the societal challenges presented by gender-based violence & oppression worldwide. Patrick Clairzier is a Professor at the American Graduate School and Université de Cergy-Pontoise and PhD candidate whose research focuses on issues of international political economy and sustainable development. He has worked as a consultant at the United Nations Environment Programme in Paris and has worked in the financial sector for many years. He has authored articles such as “Paths to Development through Trade: EU-Led Trade Liberalization vs South-South Cooperation” and “The Larger Context of Haiti's Earthquake”. He is also founder and editor-in-chief of The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development.


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Patrick Clairzier. The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies 2nd Edition Introduction, The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development, 2016,