Preventive health programs for dairy cattle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Dec 1996

Always consult your veterinarian when making vaccination decisions. The most common errors are failing to give booster immunizations and doing so at the incorrect time. Animal comfort is a greater determinant of production than vaccinations, and to receive the full benefits of nutrition, genetic, and management programs, cow comfort must be maximized. This does not lessen the need for balanced rations that allow the immune system to respond efficiently to vaccines. More is not necessarily better. The best vaccination program for a dairy includes vaccines for the most probable infectious pathogens possibly found in the herd. This combination is different for each production unit based on disease problems and management practices that can be identified by your herd practitioner.; Dairy Day, 1996, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1996;

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Preventive health programs for dairy cattle

Preventive health programs for dair y cattle Gerald L. Stokka John F. Smith James R. Dunham Anne T. Van Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Dairy Science Commons Recommended Citation - This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 1996 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Preventive health programs for dairy cattle Abstract Always consult your veterinarian when making vaccination decisions. The most common errors are failing to give booster immunizations and doing so at the incorrect time. Animal comfort is a greater determinant of production than vaccinations, and to receive the full benefits of nutrition, genetic, and management programs, cow comfort must be maximized. This does not lessen the need for balanced rations that allow the immune system to respond efficiently to vaccines. More is not necessarily better. The best vaccination program for a dairy includes vaccines for the most probable infectious pathogens possibly found in the herd. This combination is different for each production unit based on disease problems and management practices that can be identified by your herd practitioner.; Dairy Day, 1996, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1996; Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. This Research Report article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: http://newprairiepress.org/ kaesrr/vol0/iss2/330 Summary Always consult your veterinarian when making vaccination decisions. The most common errors are failing to give booster immunizations and doing so at the incorrect time. Animal comfort is a greater determinant of production than vaccinations, and to receive the full benefits of nutrition, genetic, and management programs, cow comfort must be maximized. This does not lessen the need for balanced rations that allow the immune system to respond efficiently to vaccines. More is not necessarily better. The best vaccination program for a dairy includes vaccines for the most probable infectious pathogens possibly found in the herd. This combination is different for each production unit based on disease problems and management practices that can be identified by your herd practitioner. (Key Words: Health, Vaccination.) Introduction Each producer is urged to establish a herdspecific preventive health program in conjunction with a veterinarian who may provide a risk/benefit ratio and give realistic expectations for each vaccine. It is imperative that animals be healthy and unstressed at the time of immunization in order to maximize immunity obtained after vaccination. This review was designed to be used in consultation with a veterinarian in developing a herd-specific program. Newborn Calves Outlined in Table 1 is a suggested vaccination schedule and colostrum therapy for newborn calves. Four to 6 quarts of colostrum should be fed to all newborn calves within 24 hr of birth, with maximum colostral antibody absorption occurring in the first 6 hr. Ingestion of colostrum at birth provides antibodies from the dam. Neglecting colostrum feeding may lead to disease-stricken animals later in life. Passive immunity is given to calves after intake of colostrum immediately following birth. The quality of the immunity can be improved when cows are vaccinated against various disease-causing organisms through the use of maternal vaccination procedures during the dry period. Colostral antibody protection decreases as the calf ages. Other recommendations for care of newborn calves follow: ✓ Apply iodine to the navel as soon as possible after birth. ✓ In herds experiencing IBR-PI3 problems, giving intranasal IBR-PI3 at 2 to 3 days of age may be beneficial. ✓ Dehorning and castration should be performed by 2 to 3 wk of age. ✓ Tag or tattoo calves early to provide accurate identification of dam. Remember that brucellosis (bangs)-vaccinated heifers must be ear-tattooed. ✓ Calves should be housed in individual pens within a properly ventilated building or in calf hutches to prevent physical contact. ✓ Feed milk or milk replacer at 8 to 10% of body weight. ✓ Feed waste milk (excess colostrum, noncoliform mastitic milk, and unsaleable milk) when possible. ✓ High quality milk replacer can be fed when more economical than milk. ✓ Milk replacer should contain at least 15% fat and 22% protein and should be fed at or near body temperature. ✓ Maintain sanitary mixing and feeding containers for milk or milk replacer. ✓ Feed starter/grower rations to appetite, with 20% crude protein and a coccidiostat, starting at 3 days of age. ✓ Wean calves between 4 and 8 wk, if they are eating at least 1.5 lb of a starter ration. ✓ After 1 wk of isolation postweaning, sort calves into groups of six according to size, weight, and age. Suggested vaccination schedules for breeding-age heifers are outlined in Table 2. Consult your veterinarian when developing similar procedures. Adult Cows Recommended vaccination schedules for adult dry cows are outlined in Table 3. These vaccinations serve as boosters to initial immunizations that cows should have received during previous dry periods or before their first calving. Several of the recommended immunizations are designed to generate antibodies against scour-causing organisms. Because these antibodies are conferred to newborn calves via the colostrum, calves must be fed colostrum immediately after birth. ✓ Monitor fly numbers, eliminate breeding areas, and control adult fly problems. Other preventive health measures for cows are outlined in Table 4. ✓ Reduce heat stress with shade and cool, clean water. ✓ Scours cannot be corrected by vaccination alone. Suboptimal management practices also need to be corrected. Vaccination programs also are not successful when calves are raised on milk replacer rather that colostral milk from the dam. Bulls Artificial insemination is ALWAYS preferred. If you choose to use clean-up bulls, purchase only virgin bulls, isolate and test them for disease, and follow a rigorous vaccination program such as that in Table 5. After isolation and a negative test for disease, evaluate semen before exposing bulls to breeding females. aFollow state and federal regulations. Replacement heifers should be immunized between 4 and 12 mo of age. Annual booster vaccinations are not needed. The RB51 vaccine is approved for use in Kansas. 40 to 60 days before calving 3 weeks before calving Follow label directions IBR-PI3-BVD-BRSV Clostridium spp. Leptospirosis Vibriosis (optional)a IBR-PI3-BVD-BRSVb Leptospirosisc Calf scours: Rota and Corona virusesd E. coli + Clostridium perfringens, type C and Dd Calf scours: Rota and Corona virusesd E. coli + Clostridium perfringens, type C and Dd Coliform mastitise aUse Vibriosis vaccinations when using a herd bull. bAnnual booster is necessary. cVaccination is recommended every 6 mo if a problem exists. dIf scours exists, an annual vaccination is recommended. eCattle must not receive any other gram negative vaccines including: Pasteurella, Salmonella, Brucella, Campylobacter, Haemophilus somnus, E. coli, or Moraxella bovis bacterins within 5 days of mastitis vaccines. 40 to 60 days before calving IBR-PI3-BVD-BRSVa Leptospirosisb Calf scours: Rota and Corona virusesc E. coli + Clostridium perfringens, type C and Dc Calf scours: Rota and Corona virusesc E. coli + Clostridium perfringens, type C and Dc Coliform mastitisd 3 weeks prior to calving Follow label directions aAnnual booster is necessary. bVaccination is recommended every 6 mo if a problem exists. cIf scours exists, an annual vaccination is recommended. dCattle must not receive any other gram negative vaccines including: Pasteurella, Salmonella, Brucella, Campylobacter, Haemophilus somnus, E. coli, or Moraxella bovis bacterins within 5 days of mastitis vaccines. aAnnual booster is necessary. IBR-PI3-BVDa Vibriosis (campylobacteriosis)a Leptospirosisa Time or circumstance High grain feeding: 1.5% of grain mix No withdrawal time No withdrawal time DHIA test day Before each milking After each milking At dry-off Antibiotic selection Identify causative organisms When a problem exists When observed 35 to 40+ days postbreeding Type of vaccine Killed virus Bacterin 5-way bacterin 1 to 2 times annually Consult veterinarian


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Gerald L. Stokka, John F. Smith, James R. Dunham, Anne T. Van. Preventive health programs for dairy cattle, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 1996,