Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Apr 2017

A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass and similar (P > 0.05) to those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2013. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or Max Q fescue in 2014. In 2015, daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P 0.05) among forage systems in 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Finishing gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue were greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass in 2011 and greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass in 2015.

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Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance

Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance L. W. Lomas 0 Kansas State University 0 0 J. L. Moyer 0 0 Kansas State University , USA Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons, and the Other Animal Sciences Commons Recommended Citation - Thi s report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright January 2017 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance Abstract A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass and similar (P > 0.05) to those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2013. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or Max Q fescue in 2014. In 2015, daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or Max Q fescue and daily gain of steers grazing wheat-bermudagrass was greater (P < 0.05) than that of those that grazed MaxQ fescue. Finishing gains were similar (P > 0.05) among forage systems in 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Finishing gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue were greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass in 2011 and greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass in 2015. Creative Commons License Thi s work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. 2017 SEARC Agricultural Research Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance Summary A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass and similar (P > 0.05) to those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2013. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or Max Q fescue in 2014. In 2015, daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or Max Q fescue and daily gain of steers grazing wheat-bermudagrass was greater (P < 0.05) than that of those that grazed MaxQ fescue. Finishing gains were similar (P > 0.05) among forage systems in 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Finishing gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue were greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass in 2011 and greater (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass in 2015. Introduction MaxQ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, and a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system have been three of the most promising grazing systems evaluated at the Southeast Agricultural Research Center in the past 20 years, but these systems have never been compared directly in the same study. The objective of this study was to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance of stocker steers that grazed these three systems. Experimental Procedures From 2010-2016, 40 mixed black yearling steers were weighed on two consecutive days and allotted on April 6, 2010 (633 lb); March 23, 2011 (607 lb); March 22, 2012 (632 lb); April 4, 2013 (678 lb); April 1, 2014 (636 lb); March 31, 2015 (644 lb); and March 30, 2016 (600 lb) to three 4-acre pastures of ‘Midland 99’ bermudagrass, three 4-acre pastures of ‘Red River’ crabgrass and four 4-acre established pastures of MaxQ tall fescue (4 steers/pasture). The bermudagrass and crabgrass pastures had previously been no-till seeded with approximately 120 lb/a of ‘Fuller’ hard red winter wheat on September 30, 2009, and September 22, 2010; and 130 lb/a, 95 lb/a, 85 lb/a, 180 lb/a, and 100 lb/a of 'Everest' hard red winter wheat on September 27, 2011, September 25, 2012, September 23, 2013, September 29, 2014, and September 22, 2015, respectively. All pastures were fertilized with 80-40-40 lb/a of N-P2O5-K2O on March 3, 2010; January 27, 2011; January 25, 2012; February 19, 2013; January 28, 2014; February 10, 2015; and February 11, 2016. Bermudagrass and crabgrass pastures received an additional 46 lb/a of nitrogen (N) on May 28, 2010; June 10, 2011; May 18, 2012; July 3, 2013; June 2, 2014; June 8, 2015; and May 23, 2016. Fescue pastures received an additional 46 lb/a of N on August 31, 2010; September 15, 2011; September 18, 2013; September 4, 2014; October 7, 2015; and September 7, 2016. An additional 5 lb/a, 4 lb/a, 4 lb/a, 4 lb/a, 4 lb/a, and 4 lb/a of crabgrass seed was broadcast on crabgrass pastures on April 8, 2011, April 4, 2012, May 7, 2013, April 18, 2014, June 4, 2015, and April 12, 2016, respectively. Pasture was the experimental unit. No implants or feed additives were used. Weight gain was the primary measurement. Cattle were weighed every 28 days, and forage availability was measured approximately every 28 days with a disk meter calibrated for wheat, bermudagrass, crabgrass, or tall fescue. Cattle were treated for internal and external parasites before being turned out to pasture and later were vaccinated for protection from pinkeye. Steers had free access to commercial mineral blocks that contained 12% calcium, 12% phosphorus, and 12% salt. Wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass pastures were grazed continuously until September 14, 2010 (161 days); September 7, 2011 (168 days); September 10, 2013 (159 days); September 3, 2014 (155 days); September 15, 2015 (168 days); and September 15, 2016 (169 days). The fescue pastures were grazed continuously until November 9, 2010 (217 days); October 21, 2011 (212 days); October 29, 2013 (208 days); October 14, 2014 (196 days); November 10, 2015 (224 days); and November 15, 2016 (230 days). In 2012, all pastures were grazed continuously until August 23 (144 days), when grazing on all pastures was terminated due to limited forage availability because of below-average precipitation. Steers were weighed on two consecutive days at the end of the grazing phase. After the grazing period, cattle were moved to a finishing facility, implanted with Synovex-S (Zoetis, Madison, NJ), and fed a diet of 80% whole-shelled corn, 15% corn silage, and 5% supplement (dry matter basis). Finishing diets were fed for 94 days (wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass) or 100 days (fescue) in 2010, 98 days (wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass) or 96 days (fescue) in 2011, 105 days in 2012, 105 days (wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass) or 91 days (fescue) in 2013, 119 days (wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass) or 106 days (fescue) in 2014, and 99 days (wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass) or 97 days (fescue) in 2015. All steers were slaughtered in a commercial facility, and carcass data were collected. Cattle that grazed these pastures in 2016 were being finished for slaughter at the time that this report was written. Results and Discussion Grazing and subsequent finishing performance of steers that grazed MaxQ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system are presented in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. Grazing performance only for 2016 is presented in Table 7. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ tall fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010, but total grazing gain and gain/a were greater (P < 0.05) for MaxQ tall fescue than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass because steers grazed MaxQ tall fescue for more days. Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 362, 286, and 258 lb/a, respectively. MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage dry matter (DM) than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. Grazing treatment in 2010 had no effect (P > 0.05) on subsequent finishing gains. Steers that grazed MaxQ were heavier (P < 0.05) at the end of the grazing phase, maintained their weight advantage through the finishing phase, and had greater (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass pastures. Steers that previously grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheatcrabgrass had lower (P < 0.05) feed:gain than those that had grazed MaxQ. In 2011, daily gains, total gain, and gain/a of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P < 0.05) than MaxQ fescue. Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 307, 347, and 376 lb/a, respectively. MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage DM than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. This was likely due to greater forage production by MaxQ and/or greater forage intake by steers grazing wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass. Steers that grazed MaxQ had greater (P < 0.05) finishing gain than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass and lower (P < 0.05) feed:gain than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. Carcass weight was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. In 2012, daily gains, total gain, and gain/a of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P < 0.05) than MaxQ fescue. Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 226, 325, and 313 lb/a, respectively. MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage DM than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. Grazing treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on subsequent finishing performance or carcass characteristics. In 2013, daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass than for those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass, and daily gain from MaxQ fescue and wheatbermudagrass were similar (P > 0.05). Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 338, 244, and 316 lb/a, respectively. Gain/a was greater (P < 0.05) for MaxQ fescue and wheat-crabgrass than for wheat-bermudagrass. Overall gain was not different between forage systems; however, steers grazed MaxQ fescue for 49 more days than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. Overall daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for wheat-crabgrass than for MaxQ tall fescue. MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage DM than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass and wheat-bermudagrass pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage DM than wheat-crabgrass. Grazing treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on subsequent finishing daily gain or carcass characteristics. In 2014, daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass than for those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or ‘Max Q’ fescue, and daily gain from MaxQ fescue and wheat-bermudagrass were similar (P > 0.05). Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 370, 282, and 383 lb/a, respectively. Gain/a was greater (P < 0.05) for MaxQ fescue and wheat-crabgrass than for wheatbermudagrass. Overall gain and overall daily gain for wheat-crabgrass were greater (P < 0.05) than for wheat-bermudagrass or MaxQ fescue, while overall gain and overall daily gain for MaxQ fescue and wheat-bermudagrass were similar (P > 0.05). MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage DM than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass and wheat-bermudagrass pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage DM than wheat-crabgrass. Grazing treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on subsequent finishing daily gain or carcass characteristics. In 2015, daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass than for those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or MaxQ fescue, and daily gain from wheat-bermudagrass was greater (P < 0.05) than for those that grazed MaxQ fescue. Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 291, 337, and 396 lb/a, respectively. Gain/a was greater (P < 0.05) for wheat-crabgrass than for wheat-bermudagrass and MaxQ fescue and greater (P < 0.05) for wheat-bermudagrass than MaxQ fescue. Overall gain for Max Q fescue was greater (P < 0.05) than for wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass, while overall gain for wheat-bermudagrass and wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05). Overall daily gains were similar (P > 0.05) among forage systems. MaxQ tall fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.05) average available forage DM than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass and wheat-bermudagrass pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage DM than wheat-crabgrass. Slaughter weight, finishing gains, hot carcass weight, and ribeye area of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue were greater (P < 0.05) and feed:gain was less (P < 0.05) than those that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass. Much of this difference in finishing performance can be attributed to muddier feedlot conditions during the time that the wheat-bermudagrass and wheatcrabgrass steers were being finished for slaughter than for the MaxQ fescue cattle. In 2016, daily gains were similar (P > 0.05) for steers that grazed MaxQ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system. However, MaxQ tall fescue pastures were grazed 61 days longer and as a result produced greater (P < 0.05) steer grazing gain, heavier (P < 0.05) steer ending weight, and greater (P < 0.05) gain per acre than wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass pastures. Gain/a for MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, and wheat-crabgrass were 368, 280, and 287 lb/a, respectively. Average available forage DM for MaxQ tall fescue was greater (P < 0.05) than for the wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system or wheat-crabgrass double-crop system and average available forage DM for the wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system was greater (P < 0.05) than for the wheat-crabgrass double-crop system. Hotter, drier weather during the summer of 2011 and 2012 likely provided more favorable growing conditions for bermudagrass and crabgrass than for fescue, which was reflected in greater (P < 0.05) gains by cattle grazing those pastures. Lack of precipitation also reduced the length of the grazing season for MaxQ fescue pastures in 2012, which resulted in less fall grazing and lower gain/a than was observed for those pastures in 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Item MaxQ fescue Grazing phase Number of days 217 Number of head 16 Initial weight, lb 633 Ending weight, lb 995a Gain, lb 362a Daily gain, lb 1.67 Gain/a, lb 362a Average available forage dry matter, lb/a 6214a Finishing phase Number of days 100 Beginning weight, lb 995a Ending weight, lb 1367a Gain, lb 372 Daily gain, lb 3.72 Daily dry matter intake, lb 27.3a Feed:gain 7.35a Hot carcass weight, lb 847a Backfat, in. 0.43 Ribeye area, sq. in. 12.5 Yield grade 2.8 Marbling score1 649 Percentage USDA choice grade 100 Overall performance (grazing plus finishing) Number of days 317 Gain, lb 734a Daily gain, lb 2.32a 1 500 = small, 600 = modest, 700 = moderate. Means within a row followed by the same letter do not differ (P < 0.05). 161 12 633 919b 286b 1.78 286b 3497b Item MaxQ fescue Grazing phase Number of days 208 Number of head 16 Initial weight, lb 678 Ending weight, lb 1017a Gain, lb 338a Daily gain, lb 1.63ab Gain/a, lb 338a Average available forage dry matter, lb/a 6290a Finishing phase Number of days 91 Beginning weight, lb 1017a Ending weight, lb 1390 Gain, lb 374a Daily gain, lb 4.11 Daily dry matter intake, lb 27.1 Feed:gain 6.64 Hot carcass weight, lb 862 Backfat, in. 0.40 Ribeye area, sq. in. 12.7 Yield grade 2.6 Marbling score1 594 Percentage USDA choice grade 94 Overall performance (grazing plus finishing) Number of days 299 Gain, lb 712 Daily gain, lb 2.38ac 1 500 = small, 600 = modest, 700 = moderate. Means within a row followed by the same letter do not differ (P < 0.05). 159 12 678 923b 244b 1.54a 244b 3590b Item MaxQ fescue Grazing phase Number of days 224 Number of head 16 Initial weight, lb 644 Ending weight, lb 934a Gain, lb 291a Daily gain, lb 1.30a Gain/a, lb 291a Average available forage dry matter, lb/a 6911a Finishing phase Number of days 97 Beginning weight, lb 934a Ending weight, lb 1359a Gain, lb 425a Daily gain, lb 4.38a Daily dry matter intake, lb 26.9a Feed:gain 6.19a Hot carcass weight, lb 843a Backfat, in. 0.44 Ribeye area, sq. in. 12.6a Yield grade 2.7 Marbling score1 635 Percentage USDA choice grade 94 Overall performance (grazing plus finishing) Number of days 321 Gain, lb 715a Daily gain, lb 2.23 1 500 = small, 600 = modest, 700 = moderate. Means within a row followed by the same letter do not differ (P < 0.05). 168 12 644 982b 337b 2.01b 337b 3507b


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L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer. Effects of Various Grazing Systems on Grazing and Subsequent Finishing Performance, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 2017,