Surgical outcome of benign intracranial hypertension in terms of improvement in vision

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS), Oct 2016

To know about surgical outcome of benign intracranial hypertension in terms of improvement of vision.METHODOLOGY ; This Prospective observational study was conducted at of 22 patients operated in neurosurgery unit lady reading hospital Peshawar from Jan 2011 to Jun2014. Written consent was obtained from all the patients or their relatives All patients of either age and sex with Diagnosed cases of BIH were included in the study, Patients with depressed conscious level, malignant hypertension, space occupying lesion in brain on MRI and those Patients unfit or unwilling for surgery were excluded from the study. Patients particulars like age ,gender , and post operative outcome was documented on predesigned proforma . All the results were analyzed by spss version 16 and represented in the form o graphs/charts and tables. RESULTS;- Total 22 patients of BIH were studied which were all females (100%) having age range of 18 to 58 years with mean of 38 ± 5 years SD. Headache was present in all (100%) patients followed by visual deterioration having 20(90.90%) cases. CSF manometery showed opening pressure from 28cm of H2O to 50 cm of H2O, with mean of 39. 19. Post operatively headache improved in 16(72%) patients, Papilledema in 18(81.81%) caseswhile 4(18%) patients did not improved. In 2(9.09%) cases there was and CSF leak was in 1(4.54%) case.CONCLUSION; BIH has good surgical outcome in terms of improvement in vision, if managed before advanced stage of Papilledema

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Surgical outcome of benign intracranial hypertension in terms of improvement in vision

V O L . Surgical outcome of benign intracranial hy pertension in terms of improvement in vision Gajju Khan Medical College Bacha Khan Medical Complex Swabi - Pakistan. brainsurgeon @yahoo.com Gajju Khan Medical College Bacha Khan Medical Complex Swabi - Pakistan. Gajju Khan Medical College Bacha Khan Medical Complex Swabi - Pakistan. Gajju Khan Medical College, Bacha Khan Medical Complex, Swabi - Pakistan. - SURGICAL OUTCOME OF BENIGN INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION IN TERMS OF IMPROVEMENT IN VISION Naeem ul haq1, Naseer hassan1, Muhammad ishaq1,Muhammad usman2 1Neurosurgery unit , Lady reading hospital Peshawar 2Neurosurgery Unit, Gajju Khan Medical College, Bacha Khan Medical Complex, Swabi - Pakistan. Correspondence address: Dr.Naeem ul haq : Date of submission: December 22, 2015 Date of revision: May 17, 2016 Date of acceptance: May 30, 2016 OBJECTIVE;To know about surgical outcome of benign intracranial hypertension in terms of improvement of vision.METHODOLOGY ; This Prospective observational study was conducted at of 22 patients operated in neurosurgery unit lady reading hospital Peshawar from Jan 2011 to Jun2014. Written consent was obtained from all the patients or their relatives All patients of either age and sex with Diagnosed cases of BIH were included in the study, Patients with depressed conscious level, malignant hypertension, space occupying lesion in brain on MRI and those Patients unfit or unwilling for surgery were excluded from the study. Patients particulars like age ,gender , and post operative outcome was documented on predesigned proforma . All the results were analyzed by spss version 16 and represented in the form o graphs/charts and tables. RESULTS;- Total 22 patients of BIH were studied which were all females (100%) having age range of 18 to 58 years with mean of 38 ± 5 years SD. Headache was present in all (100%) patients followed by visual deterioration having 20(90.90%) cases. CSF manometery showed opening pressure from 28cm of H2O to 50 cm of H2O, with mean of 39. 19. Post operatively headache improved in 16(72%) patients, Papilledema in 18(81.81%) caseswhile 4(18%) patients did not improved. In 2(9.09%) cases there was and CSF leak was in 1(4.54%) case.CONCLUSION; BIH has good surgical outcome in terms of improvement in vision, if managed before advanced stage of Papilledema INTRODUCTION Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumourcerebri is defined as a syndrome of signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure without clinical, laboratory or radiologic evidence of causative lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography1. BIH occurs most commonly in obese women of reproductive age. The incidence is approximately 1/100 000/year rising to 13/100 000/ year in women who are 10% above ideal body weight between 20 and 44 years. BIH less frequently seen in males and children.Prevalence rates are higher, showing the chronic nature of the condition in majority cases2,3,4,5. Average age at the time of diagnosis Benign intracranial Hypertension is 30 years6. Some medications such as steroid withdrawal, lithium, tetracycline’s, and vitamin analogs and systemic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, renal failure, coagulopathies, and anemia have also been associated with BIH6,7,8. Cerebral venous hypertension due to Dural venous sinus thrombosis, neoplastic obstruction of siuses or a duralarteriovenous malformation causes a very similar clinical picture and diagnosis of BIH is made when cerebral venous obstruction and other causes of raised intracranial pressure have been ruled out on Neuroimaging9.The symptoms of BIH patients are headache (94%), transient visual obscurations (68%), pulse-synchronous tinnitus (58%), photopsia (54%), and retrobulbar pain (44%). Diplopia (38%) and visual loss (30%) are less commonly features of BIH10. To diagnose BIH we should have (1) Raised intracranial pressure; ( 2 ) Normal neurologic examination except Papilledema and an occasionally abducens nerve palsy ( 3 ) the absence of a space-occupying lesion, or ventricular enlargement on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging; and ( 4 ) a normal cerebrospinal fluid composition10,11,12.In addition to these features CSF manometery is of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. CSF opening pressure greater than 250 mm H2O is diagnostic, less than 200 mm H2O is normal, and 201 to 249 mm H2O is nondiagnostic13.Management aim is controlling symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and prevention of loss of vision due to Papilledema.Dietary P A K I S T A N J O U R N A L O F N E U R O L O G I C A L S C I E N C E S modification and weight loss are time part of initial managment14,15 , Repeated lumber puncture are sometimes used in patients to control symptom , in pregnant women, or in the setting of rapidly declining vision to temporarily lower16 and optimize the CSF pressure. Acetazolamide a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor is used for lowering the intracranial hypertension by decreasing CSF production (Doses of 1 to 2 g ).Surgical treatment is indicated in cases with failed medical treatment or rapidly deteriorating vision. Generally, the indication for a CSF diversion procedure is failed medical treatment or intractable headache17. There are many surgical treatment options like lumboperitoneal shunt18,19,20 optic nerve sheath fenestration21,22, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt23,24,25and venous sinus stenting for patients of BIH26,27 . Currently Lumboperitoneal shunt is most commonly advised to patients of BIH. As vision deterioration and headache are the most common presenting and disabling feature of patients with BIH, therefore we conducted this study to determine outcome of lumboperitoneal shunt in patients with BIH in terms of improvement in vision.. Material and methods We conducted this Prospective observational study of 22 patients operated in neurosurgery unit lady reading hospital Peshawar from Jan 2011 to Jun2014. Written consent was obtained from all the patients or their relatives All patients of either age and sex with Diagnosed cases of BIH were included in the study, Patients with depressed conscious level, Malignant hypertension, Patients with space occupying lesion in brain on MRI, Patients unfit for surgery and unwilling for surgery were excluded from the study.Pre operative funds examination and visual field charting was done in all the cases. Pre-operatively CT scan /MRI brain was done in all the patients. MR venography was also done in all patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was performed in all patients. All patients were admitted through OPD in ward. Preoperative work up was done in all cases. Hematologic tests like FBC,Urea,RBS, and Serologic tests like HBS and HCV were done for all cases. Lumboperitoneal shunt was done in all cases under G.A. TECHNIQUE OF SURGERY Position;Lateral decubitus position with both knee flexed. Skin incision: 1.5 to 2 cm at L3-L4 or L4-L5 level extended down to the lumber fascia overlying the spinous processes. Tilt table to 30 degree Reverse Trendelenburg to Increase lumbar subarachnoid space. Then Insertion of 14-gauge Tuohy needle in interspinous space to reach into the subarachnoid space, with opening directed rostrally. Removal of the trocar with insertion of shunt tube ( 8 to 10 cm).stabilization of catheter at back wound under lumber fascia with reservoir . Abdominal placement: Incision is made into anterior abdominal wall, extended down and peritoneum is opened. Then subcutaneous shunt passer is passed and redirected to back incision. shunt catheter stabilized with reservoir at back incision is passed through passer, and inserted into peritoneal cavity. the wound is then closed.After surgery all patients were kept in ward for 4 to 5 days and then discharged to home. All patients were followed up till 1 year, with 2 months interval.Postoperatively clinical outcome was measured by History and Fundus examination and CT brain. Postoperative follow up was clinical with history and Fundoscopy, and radiological with CT brain.All data was collected and put in Performa. All data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results were expressed in the form of tables/graphs/charts. Results We studied 22 patients with Diagnosed cases of BIH. All patients were female. Age ranged from 18 to 58 with mean of 38 ± 5 years SD. In pre operative signs and symptoms the commonest was headache which was present in all (100%) patients , Visual deterioration in 20(90.90%) patient and all (100 %) these patients had Papilledema. 6(27.7%) patients had vomiting , 6th nerve palsy in 2(9.09%) patients (Table no 1) . All patients were investigated to follow modified dandy criteria. CT brain was done in 10(45.45%) patients. MRI brain with MRV was done in all( 100%) patients. CSF manometery showed opening pressure from 28cm of H2O to 50 cm of H2O, with mean of 39.19. CSF composition was normal in all patients. MRI brain showed slit ventricles in 3(13.63%) cases. LP shunt was done for all 22(100%) cases. Postoperatively clinical outcome was measured by History and Fundus examination and CT brain uptill 1 years by intervals of 2 months follow up. Headache P A K I S T A N J O U R N A L O F N E U R O L O G I C A L S C I E N C E S improved in 16(72%) patients, Papilledema resolved postoperatively in 18(81.81%) cases and same number of patients 18(81.81%) showed improvement in vision. 4(18%) patients had persistence of symptoms postoperatively. Shunt infection was noticed in 2(9.09%) cases in first 4 weeks which was subsequently managed. CSF leak was noticed in 1(4.54%) case for which shunt revision was done (Graph no 1). and symptoms Benign intracranial hypertension is characterized by Raised CSF pressure of unknown Reason. Resistance to CSF outflow appears to increase, so intracranial pressure also increases. Whether the increased resisance is due to outflow which is obstructed at the level of the arachnoid granulations or outer lymphatic’s flow is unclear ,however BIH can result in blindness if inadequately treated but effective options strategies are available 28.The initial criteria suggested by Walter Dandy have been modified now called modified dandy criteria. Patients who follow these criteria are diagnosed as having the BIH. Laboratory evaluation is normal but there is raised intracranial pressure29.In the review of our 3 years experience with 22 patients with IIH who underwent Lumboperitoneal shunts , we aimed to determine improvement in visual problems after surgery. In our study we had age ranged from 18 to 58 years with mean of 38.and this correlates with Whitely and coworkers who prospectively had peak incidence of disease in 3rd decade of life30. The disease is more common in women of child bearing age. we had all patients female 22(100%) had BIH in three years duration. and explanation is consistent with the hormonal theory for pathogenesis of BIH which states that high incidence among obese women as adipocytes covert androstenedione to estrone which increases CSF production31. Study conducted by Yadav YRetal32 also showed this disease in 90.90% patients, which closely correlates to our study. Headache and vision deterioration are common problems in patients with BIH. We had headache in all (100%) patients and vision deterioration in 20(90.90%) patients. It is comparable with study of Corbett and colleagues33, who also had the same incidence (100 % of cases) in their series which included 20 patients with BIH. There are many surgical treatment options for BIH management which includes Lumboperitoneal shunting, Ventriculoperitoneal shunting, and optic nerve sheath decompression. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting is the most widely performed surgical treatment for BIH and it is useful in the treatment of Papilledema, headache, and visual loss. We did Lumboperitoneal shunting for all(100%) patients. Postoperatively headache and Visual symptoms improved in 16(72%), and 18(81.81%) consecutively. In another international study by Burgett, etal34.described an 82% success rate of postoperative headache relief and visual improvement in patients with LP shunts. So our results are comparable with their results. Purvin VA et al35, had studied 30 patients who underwent LP shunting for treatment of BIH. Out of 14 patients with impaired acuity, 10 eyes (71%) improved after shunting, which is less as compared to our 81%. on subsequent follow up visits 3(13.63%) patients had low pressure headache which was conservatively managed. P A K I S T A N J O U R N A L O F N E U R O L O G I C A L S C I E N C E S Conflict of interest: Author declares no conflict of interest. Funding disclosure: Nil Author’s contribution: Naeem ul Haq: Study concept and design, protocol writing, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, manuscript review Naseer Hassan: collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, manuscript review Muhammad Ishaq; data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, manuscript review Muhammad Usman; Study concept and design, data analysis, manuscript writing, manuscript review Digre KB , Corbett JJ . Idiopathic intracranial hypertension ( pseudotumor cerebri): a reappraisal . Neurologist . 2001 ; 7 : 2 - 67 . 2. Radhakrishnan K , Ahlskog JE , Cross SA , Kurland LT , O Fallon WM . Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) . Descriptive epidemiology in Rochester, Minn , 1976 to 1990.Arch Neurol. 1993 ; 50 : 78 - 80 . 3. Radhakrishnan K , Thacker AK , Bohlaga NH , Maloo JC , Gerryo SE . Epidemiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a prospective and case-control study . 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Naeem ul haq, Naseer hassan, Muhammad ishaq, Muhammad usman. Surgical outcome of benign intracranial hypertension in terms of improvement in vision, Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS), 2016,