The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities

Transactions of the Burgon Society, Dec 2014

The Association for the Study of University Protocol, founded in 1997, brings together professionals in Spanish universities who are responsible for the organization of academic ceremonies, university traditions, as well as the new activities derived from those traditions which maintain the university in its place. In the course of the activities of the Association it soon became apparent that it was necessary to understand with the greatest possible degree of accuracy ways in which academical dress was used and that it was important to establish a catalogue of suggestions on its use and of the current use of colours. The fruits of this labour, co-ordinated by the authors of this article, were elaborated in such a Catalogue. [Excerpt from Introduction].

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The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities

Transactions of the Burgon Society The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities María Teresa Galino Mateos Jerónimo Hernández de Castro Francisca de Paula Saravia González Jonathan C. Cooper Harper Adams University Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/burgonsociety Recommended Citation Galino Mateos, María Teresa; Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo; de Paula Saravia González, Francisca; and Cooper, Jonathan C. (2014) "The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities," Transactions of the Burgon Society: Vol. 14. https://doi.org/10.4148/2475-7799.1120 - Article 8 The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities Translated by Jonathan C. Cooper1 Introduction Tprofessionals in Spanish universities who are responsible for the organization of acahe Association for the Study of University Protocol,2 founded in 1997, brings together demic ceremonies, university traditions, as well as the new activities derived from those traditions which maintain the university in its place. In the course of the activities of the Association it soon became apparent that it was necessary to understand with the greatest possible degree of accuracy ways in which academical dress was used and that it was important to establish a catalogue of suggestions on its use and of the current use of colours. The fruits of this labour, co-ordinated by the authors of this article, were elaborated in such a Catalogue. Furthermore, the Conference of Spanish University Rectors3 considered these efforts and, through its Sub-Committee of General Secretaries at its meeting held at the University of Cádiz in 2008, it was agreed to forward this Catalogue of Guidelines on the use of Academical Dress and its Colours to universities to serve as an indicative guide. The first printed edition was presented to participants of the 9th Conference of University Protocol and Institutional Relations Officers and 1st Luso-Hispanic Conference of University Protocol,4 held at the University of Salamanca in 2010. It is intended to be a tool for professionals and for all those who are drawn to the rich cultural and symbolic heritage, brought up-to-date by each institution independently. The Conference of Spanish University Rectors established a Sub-Committee on Communication which includes a Working Group on Protocol and Institutional Relations which, among its other objectives, gives due attention to such matters. 1 The title in Spanish is ‘Presente y futuro del traje académico en España. Catálogo de orientaciones sobre el uso del traje académico y sus colores en las universidades españolas’. The translator thanks Br Michael Powell for helpful comments on the translation. 2 Asociación para el estudio y la investigación del protocolo universitario. 3 Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas. 4 IX Encuentro de responsables de protocolo y relaciones institucionales de universidades y I Encontro hispano-luso de protocolo universitario. Efforts were co-ordinated by the Association for the Study of University Protocol and preparation was by María Teresa Galino Mateos (Complutense University of Madrid), Francisca de Paula Saravia González (University of Córdoba) and Jerónimo Hernández de Castro (University of Salamanca), with contributions from Spanish universities, and is available at http://bit.ly/1jJgZyb.5 Publication was made possible by the cooperation of the Conference of Spanish University Rectors, with the sponsorship of the Office of the 8th Centenary of the University of Salamanca and Santander Universities. Academical dress: present and future University protocol and ceremonial have their origins in university traditions, in the regulations which govern them and in the practices and capacities of universities, which make them different from any other institutions. Preserving university protocol is important because it is the means by which universities manifest their autonomy and because it is a significant component of the cultural heritage of the universities and one of their distinctive features. Most of the symbols which come together to make up university ceremonial have been maintained throughout history, thanks to the fact that the regulations which governed the workings of the universities also applied to this aspect of their activities and adapted to changes. Academical dress is possibly one of the strongest symbols of university protocol. However, since the mid-twentieth century and, principally, since the approval of legislation on university reform passed in 1983,6 regulations on the function and organization of universities have omitted all mention of protocol and its symbols. These changes have caused the universities to take decisions in this respect, in an attempt to adapt to change, without having common direction or a guide which would maintain the significance of such protocol and symbols. As a result, there has been a growing preoccupation among university protocol officers to respond to new situations and to safeguard the university symbols and ceremonial as signs of individual institutional identity. The evolution of academical dress and colours in the universities The purpose of this section is to examine the use of academical dress by the universities and to attempt to agree upon a proposed colour for each of the degree titles, in order to begin to address the changes which are imposed upon us in this regard is due to adaptation to the European Higher Education Area.7 Linked to the most significant historical regulations we may mention the Royal Decree of 6 March 1850, which stipulates, amongst other things, the following features of academical dress: 5 The full url is <http://www.protocolouniversitario.ua.es/recursos/ficheros/catalogo_de _orientaciones_sobre_el_traje_academico_y_sus_colores_mayo_2010.pdf> [accessed 2 July 2014]. 6 Ley Orgánica de Reforma Universitaria 11/1983 de 25 de agosto (BOE 1 de septiembre de 1983). 7 Also known as the Bologna Process, which attempts to standardize higher education across the European Union. 70 • It is to be used in university ceremonies. • The ‘professional’ toga8 will be common to all academical dress. • The insignia or distinguishing features to be used over the toga by each class are assigned. • The birrete,9 called the gorra, shall be the same as that used by lawyers (six-sided with six equal angles). • For doctors the borla10 shall be of faculty colour. • Licentiates shall use the birrete with borla of faculty colour without the muceta.11 (See examples Appendix A.) • Those who are graduates of two or more faculties may wear the colours of the same in the borla. • The muceta shall belong exclusively to doctors and shall be of faculty colour. • Colours: white for Theology, scarlet for Jurisprudence, golden yellow for Medicine, violet for Pharmacy and sky blue for Philosophy. The Royal Decree of 2 October 1850 changes the dimensions of the borla on the birrete and introduces new features: • White gloves. • Vuelillos12 for the offices of: minister, director and counsellors of public instruction, rectors and deans of faculties. • The muceta shall be added to the dress of licentiates making it the same as that of doctors. • For licentiates the borla is omitted from the birrete, which is reserved for doctors. • Colours: those stipulated in the previous Royal Decree are confirmed as well as the colour green for the Faculty of Science. Later, the Royal Order by which the regulation of the universities was promulgated in 1859 introduces further changes: • Vuelillos, until now reserved for holders of offices, are included in the dress of professors. • The birrete: the borla of doctors is different from that of licentiates: < Doctors in various faculties may mix in equal parts the corresponding colours in the borla. < Doctors who are licentiates in another faculty may wear buttons on the muceta of the corresponding colour. < Doctors in various faculties shall wear the muceta of the colour proper to that in which they lecture. < Faculty colours already regulated are confirmed, with 8 Gown. 9 Cap. 10 Tuft. 11 Mozzetta or cape worn over the shoulders. 12 Lace cuffs. shades designated, and for the first time turquoise blue is included as distinctive of the Faculty of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences. < What is more, the dress of the professors and of the deans shall be that of doctors but provided with vuelillos. This regulation is very interesting because it already establishes how colours should be combined when studies in various faculties are undertaken or when various doctorates are obtained. On the other hand, the decrees which governed the faculties, published on 4 August 1944, consolidate academical dress just as we know it today and also the faculty colours with small alterations: • Doctoral dress is confirmed for professors. • The cord for medals worn by deans and vice-deans is regulated, adding gold and silver thread to the faculty colour. • Colours: green for the Veterinary Faculty and orange for the Faculty of Political Sciences and Economics are included. The most recent detailed regulation on academical dress is to be found in the Ministerial Order of 30 November 1967, which sets out the rules for the Higher Technical Schools13 of architecture and engineering. The new points are as follows: • Mention is made of the proper insignia of each grade within the hierarchy. • Muceta: from the corner of the esclavina,14 which is beneath the muceta, hangs a borla. It is not doubled15 and lacks the ancient capucha or embudo portatítulos.16 It shall be open at the front with decorative buttons. • The colour shall be brown. • The birrete shall be: < Hexagonal for higher graduates. < Octagonal for doctors. Finally, more recently, some rules have been established which have been applied in all of the universities to assign the following colours: • Fine Arts: white. • Psychology: mauve. • Dentistry: fuchsia. • Information Sciences: grey. • Sports Sciences: light green. This run-through of the evolution of the colours and of the use of academical dress allows us to draw some conclusions which will be key in developing the guidelines which we need in order to reach firm proposals to resolve the situation at present and in the future. 72 13 Escuelas Técnicas Superiores. 14 Cape. 15 No es doble. 16 Caputio. The colours were assigned to the centres17 and, therefore, to the symbols of the disciplines which are imparted therein; among those which stand out are: the sashes placed upon the first-degree graduates, the dress with which the doctors are invested and, of course, the dress of the professors, which is only distinguished from the aforementioned by insignia and medals. The solution at the time was simple: the centres brought together all of the studies in one discipline and all of the professors who taught this discipline, which permitted the symbolism of the colour to be unmistakable. Subsequently, the university reforms of 1983 set out a ‘catalogue of titles’, established by government, permitting the universities by means of their autonomous powers to develop and approve their own forms of study, without the need for recognition of equivalence by the government department responsible for universities. University studies are structured in three cycles: 1st cycle: Diplomate or Technical Engineer 2nd cycle: Licentiate 3rd cycle: Doctor As a consequence of the changes experienced in the universities, academic symbols, especially colours and academical dress, have gone on ‘adapting’ into a haphazard fashion, without regard for their origin, in response to the demands for distinctiveness made by the new system of study. This has led to: • Academic dress frequently being used without showing whether the people wearing it are doctors or professors. • Multiplication of the colours in use, including the assignment of several colours to the same degree title, depending upon the university concerned. Present situation When the study was conducted, information was collected from the seventy-three universities which existed at that time. Its completion has allowed conclusions to be drawn to further our analysis. From the information collected and compiled in the database, we can note the following: Sixty-seven universities have defined colours for their academical dress and these are used in some of their ceremonies. Six universities do not use academical dress. The number of colours used by the universities amounts to seventy-eight, although it must be pointed out some are distinct shades of the same colour while others use a different way of designating similar colours, a consolidation of which could result in the number being revised down considerably. There are degree titles with different colours, depending upon the university which confers the degree. There are universities which have not supplied information as to the colours used for some degree titles, which means it has not been possible to confirm whether such degrees have a colour assigned. 17 An administrative unit within an institution, cf. school, department etc. Others did not complete the table of degree titles, which could easily be rectified. Once the information was compiled, the methodology used led to the following steps: The number of colours which appears in the report was reduced, grouping the same colours together with distinct shades. The degree titles which appear with various colours were assigned the colour which was assigned to them by the majority, in order to guide those universities which have not as yet assigned a colour to a given degree title. The table in Appendix B reflects the colours suggested for the distinct degree titles. There are titles for which the selection of a colour was quite simple, because one has already been assigned or because of the number of universities which has assigned it to the title. But there are others for which the number of colours assigned to the same title is similar; the selection for these was guided by the following criteria: Colours selected at the 7th Conference of University Protocol Officers held at the University of A Coruña (the issue was addressed on 9 May 2008) following a thorough debate which took into account the number of universities which conferred them, the studies from which the title derived, the possible centres which could confer it, etc. Colours assigned to the branch of knowledge in which the title could be categorized when the new catalogue of degree titles is drawn up. Proposal on the use of dress and colours Legislation on university reform passed in 2001,18 and modified by further legislation passed in 2007,19 in its most recent form changes, ‘alters’ the scope of the centres’ and departments’ powers, specifying the following: ARTICLE 7 The Schools and Faculties are the centres responsible for the organization of teaching and for the administrative and management processes which result in the conferral of degree titles … ARTICLE 9 The Departments are the units for lecturing and research responsible for co-ordinating the teaching of one or various fields of knowledge in one or various centres, in accordance with the lecturing programme of the university … It is curious to see how the definitions of powers have become progressively clearer since those defined in the university reform legislation of 1983 so that we can, at least, know the following: • The faculties hold power over degrees. • The departments hold power over the coordination of teaching of one or various fields of knowledge in one or various centres. However, powers over proposals for study at master’s or doctoral level are attributed to the university, without specifying which internal body or unit approves such proposals, as is apparent in Articles 36–38 of the university reform legislation of 2001. That matter would be clarified, in this case, with new secondary legislation or with statutory regulation. But such statutory regulation would suppose, once again, that the solutions would be diverse in nature. 74 On the other hand, three cycles of study are established for the achievement of official degrees: • Degree studies • Masters • Doctorate These are regulated in a Royal Decree of 2007,20 which establishes the order of official university studies, and in other legislation from the same year21 on the conferral of official university degree titles at master’s and doctoral level. The Royal Decree establishes as general principles: • Adaptation to the European Higher Education Area. • Flexibility and diversity: to respond to societal demands in an open manner which is in a state of constant change. • Mobility: of students between Spanish universities, between Spanish and foreign universities or within one university. Within the context of this diversity and of the possibilities of mobility, we must find common points which allow us to arrive at a reasoned proposal. If studies are undertaken at various universities, which one confers the degree? Conforming to Article 3 of the Royal Decree, it shall be the university in which the studies concluded which has the right of conferral. Also, universities may, in collaboration with other domestic or foreign universities, organize joint courses for the conferral of an official degree at the graduate, master’s or doctoral level. In such collaborations it should be specified which university shall be responsible for the custody of the records and for the issue and registration of the degree. It is also specified that, when collaboration is with a foreign university, in every case, the Spanish university shall hold custody of the records for the degree it issues. This will make it clear that, with due regard to the fact that the course of study is proposed by various universities, reference will always be made, including in matters of protocol, to the university which issues the degree. In analysing each one of the cycles of university study, we see that the first-degree studies have the following characteristics relevant to our intended conclusions: • The training they pursue is, for the student, training for professional practice. • Only the title of the degree course and the name of the university that awards it will appear on the certificate. Therefore, in making reference neither to faculty nor to department, it is not generally possible to link the degree to one of these structures. • Degree titles should be ascribed to one of the branches of knowledge mentioned in Article 12 of the Royal Decree and that branch should be recorded alongside the title when it is registered. This is a key point if we take into account that the diverse degree titles, which are made up of different credits in different universities, will have a clear, common nexus which brings them together and that shall be the branch of knowledge. The exact rules of ascription will even be applicable when the degree title is related to more than one discipline; the ascription will correspond to the principal branch of knowledge. 20 Real Decreto 1393/2007 de 29 de octubre (BOE del 30 de octubre de 2007) . 21 Orden ECI 2514/2007, de 13 de agosto (BOE del 21 de agosto de 2007) . Studies at the master’s level are described in the following points: • They pursue advanced or multidisciplinary training, oriented towards academic or professional specialization, or to promote the initiation of research work. • This second grade of university studies introduces the term ‘academic specialization’ which indicates that, although of special character, it could be useful to describe academical dress for holders of these degrees. • Once again, the certificate shall only make reference to the degree title and to the university, so the conclusions are the same as those for first-degree studies. • The regulation does not make express reference here to the branches of knowledge and, on the contrary, makes reference to multi-disciplinarity, but the logical development of training means that there must be a connecting link between studies at first-degree level and master’s level and it is especially relevant that this link should be the branch of knowledge, as this encompasses a wide range of disciplines. In relation to doctoral studies we suppose: • They are intended to provide the student with advanced training in research techniques. • The certificate, which shall principally make reference to the university, will include information that specifies the discipline in which the doctoral thesis was prepared. Additionally on this point, the university reform legislation of 2001, in Article 38, does stipulate that the doctorate will offer research training within a field of knowledge in science, technology, humanities or arts, terms very similar to those that describe the branches of knowledge. So far we have seen how university structures and studies are broadly configured but fields of study among the professoriate remain to be analysed. Since the university reforms of 2001 all university professors ought to be doctors, except for assistant and associate professors, which simplifies much and resolves the problem of the use of academical dress of doctors by those who are not. According to Article 71 of the university reform legislation of 2001, the naming of professorial chairs should correspond to existing areas of knowledge, which shall be defined in a catalogue, and which are identified ‘with those fields of knowledge characterized by a consistent set of subjects, a common historical tradition …’. Although it is true that these areas of knowledge are not a suitable reference point for attributing colours, taking into account their number and diversity, this precept does introduce a concept hitherto difficult to find in law and that is the term ‘consistent’.22 This idea of consistency, regarding professorships, takes concrete form in Royal Decree 1312/2007, which establishes national accreditation for access to higher education institutions. With reference to accreditation commissions, Article 4, Section 2, stipulates that ‘there shall be constituted at least one accreditation commission … for each of the branches of knowledge …’ and Article 6 establishes that ‘it shall be ensured that (in the accreditation commissions) there shall be members who develop their activities in distinct scientific and academic fields …’. From these precepts it is easy to deduce that, with due regard to the distinct scientific and academic fields, these will be encapsulated by the branches of knowledge, which 22 Homogeneidad. 76 confirms once again that these shall be the common point which assists in providing uniformity to academic symbols. Furthermore, Articles 14 and 15 of the Royal Decree confirm the necessary linkage between the chair and a branch of knowledge. So far we have analysed historical traditions and regulations which form the colours and symbols of academical dress, the aspects of changes in university regulations which have encouraged the current situation and the issue that we are now going to tackle. We are conscious of the difficulty in finding a single, indisputable solution, similar to that which existed in the decrees of 1944, but we are also conscious of the need to bring order to the current situation. We therefore propose some general instructions which permit simple solutions to address the current complexity and with which all of the universities may identify themselves, since without minimum agreement all efforts will have been in vain. 1 The universities shall use colours as symbolic of their studies on the occasion of the celebration of academic ceremonies. The colour shall appear: In the sashes which are placed upon first-degree graduates. In the academical dress of professors. In the academical dress of doctors and of doctors honoris causa for their investiture. 2 The following historically established colours of fields of study shall be maintained: 3 The branches of knowledge shall be the basis for assigning colour to the symbols of academic ceremonial. The colour of each of the branches shall be the following: 4 The universities which assign colour to their centres shall do so according to the following criteria: The centres which confer degrees in a single branch of knowledge shall use the colour which corresponds to that branch. In the centres which confer degrees from two or more branches of knowledge, the matter shall be agreed upon by the directorate of the centre, which shall have exclusive discretion over matters of protocol. If no agreement is reached, it shall use the colour of the principal branch of knowledge, as determined by the number of credits. 5 The sashes which are placed upon first-degree graduates or those students who attain the degree of master in the academic ceremonies organized for this purpose shall be of the colour of the branch of knowledge which appears in the degree title. The universities which decide to do so shall use the university colour for the sashes, instead of that of the branch of knowledge of the degree title. In the case of double degree titles, if they have the same colour, the sash shall be distinguished with the designation of both titles. If the corresponding colour is different, the sash shall be of both colours in equal measure. On the sash shall be be displayed, in the centres which consider it appropriate, the arms of the centre, if it has such, or that of the university surrounded by the name of the degree title. 6 The form of the dress which doctors shall wear at the act of their investiture shall be as follows: The toga: it is of black cloth with facings of satin.24 It should reach to 30–35 centimetres from the floor. The muceta: a form of satin esclavina,25 lined with black silk, buttoned down the front; it should cover the elbow. At the back it has a large cogulla.26 The vuelillos: these are the cuffs of white lace which are worn at the ends of the sleeves of the toga, on top of a border of satin of the appropriate colour. Their use is restricted to doctors. The doctoral birrete: is of octagonal form, lined with black satin and covered with a fringe of loose threads27 of the distinctive colour. The borla,28 which shall entirely cover the top, shall be of the same colour as the fringes. The white gloves: only doctors have the right to use these. The doctoral medal: shall be that described in the Royal Order of 13 June 1893, in gold. The colour of the birrete, the muceta, the satin edging of the vuelillos and the cord of the doctoral medal shall be that of the branch of knowledge which denotes the completed doctoral programme. If the doctoral programme involves various branches of knowledge, the colour shall be that of the principal branch, as determined by the number of credits. 78 24 Vueltas de raso. 25 Cape. 26 Appendage. 27 Flecos. 28 Tuft. If there should be parity between branches, then the branch of knowledge in which the doctor first graduated shall have precedence. The branch of knowledge of the doctoral programme shall be registered in its approval agreement and, in some cases, by the inter-university convention which governs it. Otherwise, the provisions of the previous paragraphs shall apply. Academical dress of the polytechnic universities shall be that regulated by the Ministerial Order of 30 November 1967,29 on the academical dress of the Higher Technical Schools of architecture and engineering. 7 If one is in possession of two or more doctoral degrees, the following criteria shall apply: If the doctorates belong to distinct branches of knowledge then the colours in the fringe of loose threads of the birrete shall be alternated in equal part. If the doctorates belong to the same branch of knowledge and different colours were assigned to them, they should conform to that which was established in the second and third points, alternating the colours in the fringes of the birrete in equal part. If the doctorates belong to distinct branches of knowledge and the same colour was attributed to them, there should be a distinction between the proper insignia, if they have them. In the case where the degrees were conferred by different universities, the arms of each of them shall be worn. 8 If the doctor or professor is in possession of two or more graduate or masters’ degrees, the criteria established in the preceding point shall be followed alternating the colours of the buttons on the muceta. 9 The form of the dress of professors, which shall be the same as that of doctors, shall have the colour of the branch of knowledge of their doctorates. 10 If a professor who is not a doctor were to attend an academic ceremony, he should do so with the dress traditionally specified for licentiates and which will be comprised of: the toga described in the second paragraph of the sixth point, and the muceta of the colour which corresponds to the degree title of the licentiate, first-degree or master’s degree which he has completed. The birrete shall be hexagonal, lined with black satin, without the fringes of loose threads. The borla shall be of floss silk,30 two centimetres wide, of the distinctive colour of the degree title in which he obtained his licentiate, graduate or masters degree. Professors who have the degree of master shall wear the medal corresponding to this grade, which shall be the same as that of the doctors, but silver-coloured, on the reverse of which the legend Máster Universitario31 shall appear. 11 Deans or directors shall wear the dress of doctor with the colour corresponding to his doctorate. 29 Orden Ministerial de 30 de noviembre de 1967 (BOE del 18 de diciembre de 1967). 30 Seda floja, i.e. untwisted silk. 31 University Master. 79 The cord of the doctoral medal shall be of the colour corresponding to his centre, if he has one or, in if not, of that corresponding to his doctorate, twisted with thread of a golden colour. Vice-deans or sub-directors shall wear the same academical dress as deans, but the cord shall be twisted with thread of a silver colour. 12 Vice-rectors and general secretaries shall wear the dress which corresponds to their doctorates. The cord of the medal shall be black in colour, twisted with silver thread. 13 Insignia with arms distinctive of the discipline, centre or professional school which corresponds to the degree title may be attached to academical dress. 14 The universities shall endeavour to adapt their emblems, as soon as possible, to the previous points and, in any case, the symbols which are not adapted to these points should be eliminated. The degree titles which currently use a colour different from that which corresponds to them in the provisions set out should adopt it once the change is approved or should adapt to the new regulations. J. M. García/Permission: Archive, University of Salamanca FIG. 1 Academic procession at the Festival of St Thomas Aquinas, University of Salamanca, 2014. Enrique Carrascal/Permission: Archive, University of Salamanca FIG. 2 Opening of the Academic Year, University of Salamanca, 2011. 81 Appendix A: The muceta FIG. 5 Muceta in orange lined black, shown unfolded with cogulla held up. FIG. 6 Muceta in orange lined black, inverse shown unfolded. Appendix B: Degree titles and proposed colours * Colour assigned taking into account the possible branch of knowledge to which the degree title is ascribed if it remains in the new catalogue of degree titles. 84 Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Orange Sky Blue White Turquoise Blue Turquoise Blue Turquoise Blue Claret Orange Turquoise Blue Light Green Grey Industrial Engineer Naval Engineer Naval & Oceanic Engineer Chemical Engineer Technical Aeronautical Engineer, specialising in aircraft engines; air navi gation; aircraft; airports; aerospace equipment and materials Technical Agricultural Engineer, specialising in agri-business; fruit and vegetable growing and gardening; specialising in agrarian industries; specialising in mechanisation and rural construction Technical Mining Engineer, specialising in mine exploitation; electromechanical mining installations; mineralogy and metallurgy; energy resources, combustibles and explosives; sounding and mineral prospecting Technical Engineer of Public Works Technical Engineer of Public Works specialising in civil construction; hy drology; transport and urban services Technical Telecommunications Engineer, specialising in telecommunications systems; electronic systems; sound and image; specialising in telematics Technical Engineer of Industrial Design Technical Engineer of Industrial Design of Management Informatics Technical Engineer of Industrial Design of Systems Informatics Technical Engineer in Topography Technical Forestry Engineer Technical Forestry Engineer, specialising in forestry business; specialising in forestry industries Technical Industrial Engineer Technical Industrial Engineer, specialising in electricity; in industrial electronics; in mechanics;in industrial chemistry; specialising in textiles; specialising in marine structures Technical Naval Engineer, specialising in propulsion and ship services Licentiate in Administration & Business Management Licentiate in Social & Cultural Anthropology Licentiate in Fine Arts Licentiate in Biology Licentiate in Biochemistry Licentiate in Biotechnology Licentiate in Nutritional Science & Technology Licentiate in Actuarial & Financial Sciences Licentiate in Environmental Sciences Licentiate in Sports Sciences Licentiate in Information Sciences 85 Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Marine Sciences Orange* Licentiate in Work Sciences Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Physical Sciences Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Mathematical Sciences Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Geological Sciences Orange Licentiate in Political & Administrative Sciences Orange Licentiate in Political Sciences & Sociology Orange Licentiate in Political Sciences & Sociology, political sciences section Orange Licentiate in Political Sciences & Sociology, sociology section Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Chemical Sciences Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Sciences & Statistical Techniques Grey Licentiate in Audiovisual Communication Red Licentiate in Criminology Red Licentiate in Law Red Licentiate in Law (Hispano-French) Green Licentiate in Canon Law Green Licentiate in Documentation Orange Licentiate in Economics Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Oenology Purple Licentiate in Pharmacy Sky Blue Licentiate in German Philology; Arabic; Catalan; Classical; Slavonic; French; Galician; Hebrew; Hispanic; English; Italian; Portuguese; Romance; Basque Sky Blue Licentiate in Philosophy Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Physics Sky Blue Licentiate in Geography Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Geology Sky Blue Licentiate in History Sky Blue Licentiate in Art History Sky Blue Licentiate in the History of Science & Music Sky Blue Licentiate in Humanities Orange Licentiate in Market Research Sky Blue Licentiate in Linguisitcs Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Naval Engineering Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Mathematics Yellow Licentiate in Medicine Yellow Licentiate in Medicine & Surgery Turquoise Blue Licentiate in Nautics & Maritime Transport * Colour assigned taking into account the possible branch of knowledge to which the degree title is ascribed if it remains in the new catalogue of degree titles. Licentiate in Dentistry Licentiate in Pedagogy Licentiate in Journalism Licentiate in Psychology Licentiate in Psychopedagogy Licentiate in Publicity and Public Relations Licentiate in Chemistry Licentiate in Naval Radio-Electronics Licentiate in Sociology Licentiate in Theology Licentiate in Literary Theory & Comparative Literature Licentiate in Translation and Interpretation Licentiate in Veterinary Science/Medicine Teacher specialising in Hearing & Speech; in Special Education; in Physical Education; in Infant Education; in Musical Education; in Primary Education; Foreign Language 18 Ley Orgánica de Universidades 6 (LOU) Ley Orgánica 6/ 2001 , de 21 de diciembre, de Universidades (BOE 24 de diciembre de 2001 ). 19 Ley Orgánica 4 /2007, de 12 de abril (BOE 13 de abril de 2007 ).


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María Teresa Galino Mateos, Jerónimo Hernández de Castro, Francisca de Paula Saravia González, Jonathan C. Cooper. The Present and Future of Academical Dress in Spain: Catalogue of Guidelines on the Use of Academical Dress and its Colours in Spanish Universities, Transactions of the Burgon Society, 2014,