National Guard Civil Support Teams: A 24/7 Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction
omas Law Journal
National Guard Civil Support Teams: A 24/7 Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction
Larry A. Shireley
NATIONAL A 24/7
LT. COL. LARRY A. SHIRELEY*
In the 1990s, the changing political and military climate, accompanied
by a series of events including the World Trade Center bombing in 1993,
the Oklahoma City bombing and the release of sarin in the Tokyo subway,
both in 1995, prompted significant concerns regarding domestic terrorism.
In response, President Clinton, Congress, and the Department of Defense
(DOD), initiated a review of the plans and strategies for homeland defense.
Assessments of readiness and response capabilities indicated there were
serious shortfalls in our defenses against both international and domestic
terrorism.1 In response, President Clinton issued Presidential Decision
Directive (PDD) 39 in June 1995, which outlined steps to ensure that the
United States was prepared to combat domestic and international terrorism.2
Furthermore, he directed that the Federal Response Plan be reviewed to
ensure its adequacy to respond to the consequences of terrorism directed
against large populations in the United States, including terrorism involving
weapons of mass destruction (WMDs).3 As a consequence, the Defense
Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 was enacted, which
* Commander, 81st CST, North Dakota National Guard. The author would like to
acknowledge Murray Sagsveen for his confidence, support, and friendship during the past several
1. PRESIDENTIAL DECISION DIRECTIVE 39 U.S. POLICY ON COUNTERTERRORISM (June 21,
1995), available at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd39.htm (describing efforts to reduce
3. Id. (“The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA] shall ensure
that the Federal Response Plan [FRP] is adequate to respond to the consequences of terrorism
directed against large populations in the United States, including terrorism involving [WMDs].”).
mandated enhancing domestic preparedness and response capability for
terrorist acts involving WMDs.4
Reviews of our defense against domestic terrorism indicated that the
National Guard could—and should—play a major role in the emergency
responses to a use or threatened use of WMDs or similar incidents in the
United States. Throughout its long history, the National Guard has
demonstrated its utility and capacity to respond to domestic events and disasters.
Lieutenant General Steven Blum, former National Guard Bureau Chief and
current Deputy Combatant Commander at United States Northern
Command, illustrated this when he said, “The successful integration of civilian
and military cultures and capabilities has long been one of the strengths of
the National Guard.”5 Deborah R. Lee, Assistant Secretary of Defense for
Reserve Affairs, outlined why the National Guard should play a major role
in the response to a domestic WMD event at the Association of Military
Surgeons of the United States annual meeting on November 17, 1997. Ms.
Lee noted that “[t]hey are readily familiar with the local area. They know its
plans, they know its infrastructure, and they certainly know the geography.
They also have strong community links that will be invaluable in times of
As it became clear that the National Guard would play a major role in
the national response plan against WMDs, various strategies were discussed
and formulated. In 1998, the DOD commissioned a “Tiger Team” to
develop a strategic plan for responding to attacks using WMDs.7 The Tiger
Team review indicated there were significant gaps in the civilian
community for an adequate response to WMD events.8 The Tiger Team developed
the concept of specialized National Guard teams to assist first responders
during such events. Consequently, the Rapid Assessment and Initial
Destruction (RAID) team concept was included in the Tiger Team report to the
Secretary of Defense in January 1998, with the recommendation that at
A 24/7 RESPONSE TO WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
least a partial RAID team be established in each state and territory.9
President Clinton made the first formal reference to the formation of RAID
teams during his address at the Naval Academy commencement on May 22,
1998,10 and beginning in fiscal year (FY) 1999, Congress authorized
funding to train, organize, and equip RAID teams.11
The legislation forming the RAID teams describes a RAID team
a member of the National Guard serving on full-time National
Guard duty under section 502(f) of title 32 in connection with
functions referred to in subsection (a), may, subject to paragraph
(3), perform duties in support of emergency preparedness
programs to prepare for or to respond to any emergency involving
any of the following:
(A) The use or threatened use of a weapon of mass
destruction (as defined in section 12304(i)(2) of this title) in the
(B) A terrorist attack or threatened terrorist attack in the
United States that results, or could result, in catastrophic loss
of life or property.
(C) The intentional or unintentional release of nuclear,
biological, radiological, or toxic or poisonous chemical
materials in the United States that results, or could result, in
catastrophic loss of life or property.
(D) A natural or manmade disaster in the United States that
results in, or could result in, catastrophic loss of life or
The RAID concept had a unique federal-state relationship. The teams
were to be federally funded, principally federally-trained, but under the
command and control of the governors of the states in which they were
located and under the operational command and control of the adjutant
generals of those states. This would allow them to immediately respond to
an incident as part of a state response, before federal assets could be
requested and approved.
The ten initial full-time RAID teams were strategically established in
each of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) regions in
Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Illinois, Texas,
Missouri, Colorado, California, and Washington. The initial implementation
plan was that the remaining forty-four states and territories would have
RAID teams composed of “traditional” National Guard members rather
than having full-time teams. In subsequent years however, additional
fulltime teams were approved and funded by Congress, which ultimately led to
every state and territory having a full-time RAID team with passage of the
FY 2003 National Defense Authorization Act.13 In 1999, the name “RAID”
was changed to “Civil Support Team” (CST) to more accurately reflect its
primary mission as a supporting element to first responders.
THE CST MISSION
CSTs are unique among military units in that their primary mission, as
the name implies, is to provide support for civilian first responders. In order
for CSTs to provide this support, CST members are required to complete
significant and rigorous initial and refresher coursework, be equipped with
state-of-the-art equipment and become experts with its use, and participate
in frequent training exercises to enable them to efficiently operate in a
CSTs have been referred to as the military’s first responders, but
except in rare situations, CSTs are not the first on the scene, but rather are
deployed upon a request for assistance by the civilian incident commander
(IC). There is often a perception that when military units are called into
action, they take command of the situation. Although the command element
of the CST maintains control of the team, the civilian IC maintains control
and authority over the incident.
There are situations, however, when the CST may be pre-deployed,
such as during a national security special event. Examples of events at
which CSTs have been pre-staged for monitoring and rapid response
include the Republican and Democratic national conventions, presidential
inaugurations, and major sporting events, such as the World Series and Super
CST COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS
Each CST is composed of twenty-two full-time National Guard
members with seven officers and fifteen enlisted members. They are Title 32
National Guard members, meaning they are under the control of the
adjutant general and the governor rather than the active duty or federal Title 10
13. Press Release, U.S. Dep’t of Def., Weapons of Mass Destruction-Civil Support Team
Certified for Guam and the United States Virgin Islands (June 2, 2009), available at http://
www.defenselink.mil/Releases/Release.aspx?ReleaseID=12713 (“The teams certified today bring
the total number of teams certified by DOD to 55, which completes the 55 authorized by Congress
to ensures [sic] one team is fielded in every state, territory, and the District of Columbia.”).
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military force. CSTs are usually composed of both Army and Air National
Guard members. The national allocation is 80 percent Army and 20 percent
Air personnel; however the actual distribution of Army-to-Air on individual
CSTs may be “federalized” and deployed as part of a federal response
to an incident in or outside the CST assigned state. To date, however, no
CST has been federalized. CSTs are currently restricted to training and
responding within the United States or its territories, although that restriction
is under review. They are centrally funded by the National Guard Bureau,
but CSTs often receive supplemental funding from their state for equipment
Upon formation, each team is provided standardized equipment to
enable it to respond to a WMD event, but because of the unique
characteristics of each state, individual CSTs augment their core equipment to enable
them to better respond in their respective states. Obviously there are
different response needs and requirements in Alaska than in Florida. Some of the
equipment is military in nature, or “green gear,” but most is purchased
commercially, or “over-the-counter,” in order to increase interoperability with
civilian first responders.
TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION
Each CST must be initially certified by the DOD. It takes
approximately fifteen to eighteen months after initial team formation to complete
the specified core curriculum and the training required for certification.
Each CST member must complete the eight-week Civil Support Skills
Course (CSSC) conducted by the Army at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. In
addition to the CST-specific training at CSSC, each CST team member
must also successfully complete the requirements for Hazardous Materials
(HAZMAT) technician certification. During the first fifteen months, each
team member is required to complete an average of 650 course hours;
certain CST members, however, must complete more than one thousand course
hours for their position. It is rare for CST members to be together as a team
during the first twelve to fifteen months because of the considerable
During this initial period, teams also conduct training to become
familiar with equipment, and to develop and practice techniques, tactics, and
procedures. The teams also train and conduct exercises with local first
responders. Once the initial coursework and training is completed, a team
from Army North (ARNORTH) experienced in WMD and HAZMAT
response conducts an external evaluation (EXEVAL) to ensure the CST is
mission-ready. This EXEVAL involves a series of practical exercises
including realistic scenarios that are designed to test each section of the team.
Upon successful completion of the initial EXEVAL, a formal certification
request is submitted to the DOD. As of June 2, 2009, all CSTs have been
Once the CST is certified, it can respond to requests for assistance.
The CST’s primary responsibilities are to rapidly deploy to: (1) assess a
suspected chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive
(CBRNE) event in support of a local incident commander; (2) identify
CBRNE agents/substances; (3) advise civilian responders regarding
appropriate response actions; and (
) assist/facilitate requests for assistance of
additional state and federal assets.15
Procedures vary slightly from state to state, but CST request and
activation procedures are similar. Each event begins locally, with the initial
response conducted by local first responders. The local IC, who is
responsible for command and control of the incident, conducts an initial assessment
and supervises the incident response. If the IC’s assessment indicates that
additional resources are necessary, the IC will request assistance through a
local emergency manager or a person of equivalent function. The request is
then reviewed and evaluated by a state coordinating official.16 Requests for
CST assistance must meet certain validation criteria such as: Is the request
feasible? Does it meet the legal requirements for a CST response? Is the
request supportable by the CST (i.e., is the request within the CST
capabilities)? Is it worth the risk? Is it an appropriate request?17
Once these criteria are met, the state coordinating officer will notify
the CST commander of the validated request for assistance, and provide the
most current information regarding the situation. The adjutant general and
the governor’s office also will be contacted regarding the request for CST
assistance. This process normally takes only a few minutes. Once the
mission request is validated, the CST commander will contact the IC and begin
coordinating the CST’s response, including notification of CST members.
CSTs are available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and most
CSTs have some sort of mandatory on-call status.18
15. DEP’T OF THE ARMY AND THE AIR FORCE, WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CIVIL
SUPPORT TEAM MANAGEMENT 2 (2006), available at http://www.ngbpdc.ngb.army.mil/pubs/10/
angi10_2503.pdf. [hereinafter WEAPONS] (“The mission of the WMD CST is to support civil
authorities at a domestic CBRNE incident site by identifying CBRNE agents/substances, assessing
current and projected consequences, advising on response measures, and assisting with requests
for additional support.”).
16. Id. at 5–7.
17. Id. at 5 (“The AG, or designated authority, must review the mission to ensure that the
assistance is: properly requested from or verified with an official source; feasible; legal;
supportable; worth the risk; and appropriate for the current force protection condition.”).
18. Id. at 3 (“These CSTs can be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for rapid
deployment for response operations. . . . [A] designated number of CSTs are always ready to respond to a
national need, or the need of a state without an available CST.”).
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THE ANATOMY OF A CST: SETUP AND CAPABILITIES
CSTs are fully self-contained and self-supporting and are comprised of
six different sections: command, operations, administration/logistics,
communications, medical, and survey. The command section is responsible for
conducting primary liaison with the IC and overall coordination of CST
activities. Upon arrival at an incident site, the CST commander receives the
IC’s objectives and obtains updated situational information. The
commander advises the IC of the CST assets, capabilities, and limitations, and
coordinates with the IC throughout the event while providing team
oversight to meet the IC’s objectives.
The administration/logistics section is responsible for ensuring that the
CST has adequate supplies and equipment for a response. Members of this
section document expenditures and used/depleted equipment and supplies
that require replacement; they are also often responsible for CST
decontamination activities. CSTs are only able to conduct decontamination of CST
members because of the relatively limited number of personnel; CSTs are
unable to conduct mass decontamination. If a decontamination system has
already been established by civilian first responders, CST members may
request to utilize and augment that system rather than establish their own
Once on-site, the CST establishes its own operations center to monitor
internal communications and conduct response planning. Operations center
personnel monitor communications between down-range team members
and ensure that the commander is provided current information regarding
significant activities and findings. This enables the commander to keep the
IC current on CST activities and to coordinate team actions to ensure that
the IC’s objectives are being met.
A hazard modeling specialist in the operations section utilizes
specialized computer programs such as the Hazardous Predictions and Assessment
Capabilities (HPAC) software, Consequence Assessment Tool Set (CATS),
or the web-based program of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory
Center (NARAC) to provide information regarding the potential impact of
the release of the hazardous substances. Utilizing these tools, the hazard
modeler is able to provide estimates of current and future impacts on the
affected population, areas of greatest risk, and potential health effects. This
information assists the IC in assessing whether to evacuate people or have
them remain sheltering-in-place, and in implementing a plan to care for the
During any crisis or disaster situation, one of the most critical needs is
accurate and consistent communications. When communication problems
occur, such as inoperability between responders, the mission’s success is at
risk. CST resources are available to help ensure that communication
systems are available and interoperable. Two of the CST’s vehicles—the
Advanced Echelon Vehicle (ADVON) and the Unified Command Suite
(UCS)—are designed and equipped to provide robust communication
assets. The ADVON vehicle is initially deployed to the incident site to
establish liaison with the IC and is equipped with fax and printer capabilities,
satellite telephones, a secure telephone terminal, Internet access, and the
IC’s Radio Interface (ICRI), which provides tactical radio interfaces for
interoperability between emergency response personnel.
The UCS provides communications operability within the CST,
enables interoperability between responders, and provides the ability to obtain
worldwide technical and logistical assistance for the CST and the IC.
Communication assets provided by the UCS include secure Internet access, the
Tactical Digital Intercommunications System (TDIS)—which allows access
to multiple radios—KU satellite band, UHF and VHF radios, a wide-area
network station, and video and radio conferencing capabilities. One of the
most valuable assets provided by the UCS is the ACU-1000, which
provides interconnections between different communications systems. The
ACU-1000 can simultaneously cross-band two or more different radio
networks, connect a radio network to a telephone line, and create a conference
call between several different radio networks and telephone lines.
The CST medical section’s primary responsibility is to provide
medical care for team members. However, the highly trained team is also a
valuable resource for community medical care providers. During a CST
response, the medical section coordinates with community providers and
advises them on testing and treatment protocols. In addition, the medical
section is able to conduct and provide worldwide medical consultation with
both military and civilian experts.
The CST also has a completely self-contained mobile medical
laboratory known as the Analytical Laboratory System (ALS), which provides
onsite analysis of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Samples
collected by CST members are brought into the ALS for analysis that is
conducted in a certified Biosafety Level 3 (BSL 3) containment glove box.19
19. CTRS. FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION AND NAT’L INSTS. OF HEALTH, U.S.
DEP’T OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVS., BIOSAFETY IN MICROBIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL
LABORATORIES 17 (5th ed. 2007), available at http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm
(“Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is appropriate for agents with a known potential for aerosol
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The ALS is equipped with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/
MS) for chemical analysis, which is able to identify nearly two hundred
thousand different chemicals. The ALS also has Fourier Transform Infrared
(FTIR) spectroscopy to identify various organic and inorganic materials; it
is especially valuable in identifying materials in mixtures. A fluorescent
microscope is available to identify solid particulate chemicals and
biological agents and is utilized when examining suspicious powders. The ALS
utilizes immunoassay tests to initially screen for biological agents, and
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, which uses DNA for specific
Although the ALS has robust capabilities for chemical and biological
analysis, it is not a confirmatory laboratory. Therefore, CSTs coordinate
closely with state laboratories and conduct periodic exercises with them.
Samples received by the ALS are prepared, split, and sent for confirmatory
analysis to state or other laboratories such as the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI), as the IC directs. In addition, the USC utilizes a digital
transmission link, which enables laboratory results, photographs, and other
pertinent information to be sent to other scientific experts for review and
The individuals operating the laboratory receive extensive training in
sample preparation and analysis; their proficiency is tested monthly on
unknown samples. Currently, pilot testing is being conducted with select
CSTs for International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025
certification, which is the main standard used by testing and calibration
laboratories.20 This certification will allow for better integration between CSTs
and civilian laboratories within the national Laboratory Response Network.
The core of the CST is the survey section. Although all CST members
are HAZMAT-technician certified, it is normally the survey section
members that enter the contaminated area, commonly referred to as the “hot
zone” to conduct site characterization, down-range monitoring, and on-site
agent identification and sample collection. Utilizing specialized equipment,
survey team members are able to provide preliminary identification of
biological, chemical, and radiological agents. In addition to conducting
downrange monitoring, the team may also collect samples for testing in the ALS.
The team does not collect the samples as “evidence,” although CST
members utilize procedures that, if necessary, would withstand the scrutiny of a
legal examination. These procedures include proper sample collection,
hansion, for agents that may cause serious and potentially lethal infections and that are indigenous or
exotic in origin.”).
20. See INT’L ORG. FOR STANDARDIZATION/INT’L ELECTROTECHNICAL COMM’N, GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COMPETENCE OF TESTING AND CALIBRATION LABORATORIES, at iv (1st ed.
1999) (“ISO . . . and IEC . . . form the specialized system for worldwide standardization.”).
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
dling, and chain of custody techniques. This down-range monitoring and
initial detection provides important information for the IC in the
decisionmaking process, and is also invaluable for the early treatment of exposed
CST members entering the hot zone utilize personal protective
equipment required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA).21 Protection levels range from A-D, with the type of protection
utilized determined situationally, based on the level of protection required.
Level A protective equipment provides the greatest protection and is used
when skin, respiratory, and eye protection is required. Level A personal
protective equipment involves wearing a fully-encapsulated suit with a
selfcontained breathing apparatus. In addition to 60–minute breathing
apparatuses, which are typically used by civilian responders, CSTs are also
equipped with rebreathers. A rebreather is a closed-circuit breathing
apparatus that allows users to operate in the hot zone up to four hours. The
additional time in the hot zone provided by the rebreathers allows the team to
conduct site characterization and down-range monitoring more efficiently.
The team entering the hot zone may be composed of only CST
members, or may also include civilian responders. Therefore, frequent training is
conducted between the CSTs and their civilian counterparts to become
better accustomed to one another’s operating practices.
Because CSTs are primarily state assets, their main areas of operation
are their respective states. When CSTs respond, it is usually by driving to
the site with eight specially-designed and equipped vehicles. Depending on
the situation and distance, however, CSTs may also employ air assets such
as military helicopters for rapid deployment. It is impossible to deploy the
entire team via helicopter, but an advance team may be sent in this fashion
in order to provide more timely assistance for the IC until additional CST
assets arrive. CSTs commonly conduct periodic training with their state
aviation units to help ensure that they are able to effectively utilize air assets
for response and deployment.
Nationally, CSTs are divided into six response sectors, which
correspond to geography rather than state lines or FEMA regions. The National
Guard Bureau has developed a Response Management Plan designating one
CST as the primary back-up team each month for each sector; this on-call
status is referred to as a team’s “GOLD” cycle.22 If an event requiring
additional CST assistance occurs in that sector, the team in “GOLD” status
would likely be requested to respond. In many instances, however, the
distance between the state of initial response and the back-up CST is too far
21. 29 C.F.R. § 1910.120 App. B (2008).
22. WEAPONS, supra note 15, at 4 (“The designation for Immediate Response is GOLD.”).
A 24/7 RESPONSE TO WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
for an expedient response via the usual mode of driving. Therefore, military
airlift assistance is obtained. The CST’s vehicles and equipment have been
designed to be “airlift-able” in one C-5 airplane. If a C-5 is unavailable, two
C-17s, three C-141s, or five C-131s can be substituted. Because
considerable planning is necessary to successfully conduct an airlift, CSTs
periodically participate in airlifts to training sites or conduct static air loading to
ensure mission readiness.
CST RESPONSE MISSIONS
Since their inception in 1998, CSTs have conducted numerous
realworld missions. The 2nd CST of New York was the first CST to respond to
a terrorist attack when it responded to the 2001 terrorist attacks on the
World Trade Center. Statistics provided by the National Guard Bureau
indicate that in FY 2008, 70 real-world and 211 stand-by missions were
reported by the 53 certified CSTs. When combined with 763 reported internal
exercises and an additional 152 training events with first responders, the
CSTs were involved in a total of 1,196 events. Notable CST responses
throughout the CSTs’ relatively short existence have included providing
communication assets and hazard assessments after hurricanes Katrina and
Ike, monitoring at presidential inaugurations and the Republican and
Democratic national conventions, and assisting at major sporting events,
including the World Series, Super Bowl, and Winter Olympics. CST responses
have also included conducting debris assessments after the Columbia Space
Shuttle disaster, and sample collection and testing during a ricin incident in
Nevada and in response to anthrax-contaminated drums in Connecticut.
Since 9-11 much has been done to counteract and respond to terrorism,
but more is required. The December 2008 Report of the Commission on the
Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism indicated that, unless
further political and strategic preventive measures are implemented, a WMD is
likely to be used in a terrorist attack somewhere in the world by the end of
2013.23 Hopefully, that prediction will not come true. Napoleon said, “An
army should be ready every day, every night, and at all times of the day and
night, to oppose all the resistance of which it is capable.”24 Civil Support
Teams were formed specifically to provide a 24/7 response to WMDs. Are
they ready? Their training, equipment, and mission history clearly indicate
23. COMM’N ON THE PREVENTION OF WMD PROLIFERATION AND TERRORISM, WORLD AT
RISK: THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON THE PREVENTION OF WMD PROLIFERATION AND
TERRORISM, at xv (2008), available at http://www.preventwmd.gov/report/.
24. THE OFFICER’S MANUAL. NAPOLEON’S MAXIMS OF WAR 20 (Sir George Charles
D’Aguilar trans., New York, J.G. Gregory 1861) (Napoleon’s Maxim VII).
4. See Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 , Pub. L. No. 104 - 201 , 110 Stat. 2714 ( codified as amended in scattered sections of 50 U .S.C.).
5. Homeland Defense and Military Support to Civil Authority: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Emerging Threats of the S. Armed Servs . Comm., 109th Cong . ( 2006 ) (statement of Lt . Gen. H. Steven Blum, Chief, National Guard Bureau), available at http://www.ng.mil/media/transcripts/ltgblum-sasc-10mar06.pdf.
6. Deborah R. Lee , Asst. Sec'y of Def. for Reserve Affairs, Remarks at the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States (Nov . 17, 1997 ), available at http://www.defenselink.mil/ speeches/speech.aspx?speechid= 805 .
7. DEP'T OF DEF. TIGER TEAM , DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PLAN FOR INTEGRATING NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVE COMPONENT SUPPORT FOR RESPONSE TO ATTACKS USING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION , ( 1998 ), available at http://www.dod.mil/pubs/wmdresponse/ (“ The Team's focus on the appropriate, substantive and integrated DOD support model to local, state, and federal government authorities responding to a WMD attack form the basis for this plan .”).
8. Id . (“[T] he plan focuses on filling the void in the State's initial assessment capability and the United States' ability to rapidly facilitate required assistance in excess of the State's capability to respond .”).
9. Id . (“ 18 . Establish at least a partial Rapid Assessment and Initial Detection Element in each State and Territory .”).
10. Commencement Address at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, 1 PUB . PAPERS 825 (May 22, 1998 ) (“Today [the Defense Department] is announcing plans to train National Guard and reserve elements in every region to address this challenge .”).
11. COMBATING TERRORISM Observations on Federal Spending to Combat Terrorism: Testimony Before the Subcomm . on Nat'l Sec., Veteran's Affairs, and Int'l Relations of the H . Comm. on Gov't Reform, 106th Cong . 10 ( 1999 ) (statement of Henry L . Hinton , Jr., Assistant Comptroller Gen., National Security and International Affairs Division) , available at http:// www.gao.gov/archive/1999/n299107t.pdf (“Included in the fiscal year 1999 appropriations is $52 million to establish, train, and equip the first 10 of potentially 54 RAID teams . . . .”).
12. 10 U.S.C. § 12310 (c) ( 2009 ).