Formation of Professionalism and Purpose: Perspectives from the Preparation for the Professions Program
Anne Colby & William M. Sullivan, Formation of Professionalism and Purpose: Perspectives from the Preparation for the Professions
Formation of Professionalism and Purpose: Perspectives from the Preparation for the Professions Program
PURPOSE: PERSPECTIVES FROM
PREPARATION FOR THE
ANNE COLBY AND WILLIAM M. SULLIVAN*
This special issue concerns the formation of ethical professional
identity through professional education. The articles ask how education can
prepare individuals for various professions to ensure not only their technical
competence, but also their commitment to their field’s public purposes and
ethical standards. Our paper offers suggestions for how to strengthen
education for the formation of ethical professional identity in a number of
fields and argues that this goal ought to be more central to professional
* The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
education than it is now. The paper draws on the Carnegie Foundation’s
Preparation for the Professions Program, a series of comparative studies of
preparation for the clergy, law, engineering, nursing and medicine.
We begin by pointing to the centrality of ethical or public-serving
purposes to the very nature of professions and their importance, in principle if
not in fact, to professional education. We go on to describe some of the
challenges that contemporary contexts of professional work pose to high
quality, ethical practice and explore the question of what is needed to
prepare students to confront those challenges successfully. We consider what
our own research and that of others shows about the qualities individuals
need to develop if they are to exhibit sustained commitment to the
profession’s core aims and how professional education can contribute to those
qualities in its students. We conclude by arguing that professionals should
not only practice with integrity themselves but also take some responsibility
for the future of the profession. In our view, professional educators can
more effectively prepare their students for this broader scope of
responsibility if they establish alliances with practitioner groups, licensing and
accreditation bodies, and other key institutions of their field.
II. THE PUBLIC PURPOSES OF THE PROFESSIONS
The professional status of an occupation can change as the field
professionalizes or de-professionalizes over time and, at any given time,
there is some ambiguity about which fields should be considered true
professions. Even so, the defining characteristics of professions are generally
agreed upon. Professions involve (at least) a commitment to serve the
interests of clients and the welfare of society; bodies of specialized knowledge
and skill; and procedures through which the professional community
provides oversight of entry into the profession and quality in both practice and
As philosopher (co-author) William Sullivan,2 psychologists Howard
Gardner and Lee Shulman,3 and others have pointed out, the commitment to
serve the public interest sets the terms of the essential compact between the
profession and society, providing the basis for the profession’s autonomy
and public esteem. Although other occupational fields may require high
levels of knowledge and skill, they cannot be considered professions unless
they are centrally defined as serving some important aspect of the common
good. Thus, the relationship between the professions and the general society
is inherently ethical at its core.
1. Howard Gardner & Lee S. Shulman, The Professions in America Today: Crucial but
Fragile, DAEDALUS, Summer 2005, at 13, 14.
2. WILLIAM M. SULLIVAN, WORK AND INTEGRITY (2d ed. 2005).
3. Gardner & Shulman, supra note 1.
It is somewhat surprising, then, that formation of an ethical
professional identity does not hold an equally central place in the preparation of
professionals. In fact, in almost every field of professional education,
teaching for professional purpose and commitment, moral integrity, and
ethical conduct is subordinate to teaching for professional knowledge and
skill. The professional schools, for a number of reasons, are oriented more
strongly to both the values of the higher education system in which they are
located and the technical demands of professional practice than to the
professions’ social ends and civic foundations. In our view, this represents a
misalignment between a key institution of the profession—the professional
school—and the profession’s defining purposes.
PREPARATION FOR HIGH QUALITY, ETHICAL WORK
IN MISALIGNED FIELDS
Ideally, the institutions, roles, and other structures of professional
fields—including professional education—should be well aligned with the
enduring values, standards and purposes of the profession as well as with
individual practitioners’ aspirations and the interests of other stakeholders.
Psychologists Howard Gardner, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William
Damon investigated a wide range of professions in their Good Work
Project, describing a few that are well aligned in this sense, and others that are
In their 2001 book Good Work, Gardner et al. use genetics to illustrate
a field that, at least at the time of their data collection, was authentically
well aligned.5 Although they note that the field’s alignment was threatened
by gathering “storm clouds,”
[g]enetics emerges at the turn of the millennium as a profession in
remarkably good shape. Leaders and midlevel practitioners
concur about the primary missions, the most important standards, and
the principal personal goals and profiles of responsibilities. They
look comfortably into their mirrors and are reassured by the
identity they behold. To an extent that can only generate envy among
professionals in less favorable environments, genetics appears to
be a beautifully aligned enterprise: the aspirations of the
practitioners, the values of the domain, the practices of the field, and
the desires of the shareholders and stakeholders blend together
Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi and Damon contrast genetics with news
journalism, which they describe as a misaligned field. In their view, many
factors, including an increased push for market share and larger profits, a
4. HOWARD GARDNER, MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI & WILLIAM DAMON, GOOD WORK:
WHEN EXCELLENCE AND ETHICS MEET (2001).
6. Id. at 90.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
perception that the public is not demanding serious news coverage, a
technology-driven increase in the pace of journalistic work, and the degradation
of newsroom culture through budget cuts and corporate rather than family
ownership, have led many journalists to feel that forces of the field have
“intruded on their domain’s integrity, obstructing their capacity to pursue
the mission of good reporting.”7
The authors summarize their conclusion by noting that “[a]
professional realm [the persons practicing a particular profession] is healthiest
when the values of the culture are in line with those of the domain [the key
ideas informing the profession and its ethical code], when the expectations
of stakeholders match those of the field, and when domain and field are
themselves in sync. When these conditions exist, individual practitioners
are free to operate at their best, morale is high, and the professional realm
flourishes. We term this a situation of authentic alignment.”8
News journalism is not alone in its misalignment of culture, domain
and field. Its state of weakening morale and direction is shared by other
professions. As former executive director of the Accreditation Council for
Graduate Medical Education, David Leach, has pointed out in his paper in
this volume, “the current context in which resident formation occurs does
not make the task of fostering medical professionalism easy. Relentless
pressures of time and economics, fragmentation of care and the
relationships supporting care, increasing external regulation, exciting but disruptive
new knowledge and technologies, and above all the broken systems of
health care . . . characterize the external environmental context.”9
Sullivan noted that the kind of medical environment Leach is alluding
to contributes, in essence, to the de-professionalization of physicians:
The advent of the so-called managed care revolution in health
care seems to have set in motion a process that attacks many of
the core elements that have marked medicine as a profession.
Medicine is now regarded as just one element in the health-care
industry. Physicians and other health-care professionals are
increasingly described as employees to be subjected to managerial
scrutiny and discipline, for the sake of product consistency and
In fact, it is all too common for a profession’s standards of quality to
be compromised and its public purposes sidelined by institutional contexts
driven by market concerns, actions meant to protect the guild, institutional
callousness, and individual self-interest, cynicism, passivity, and the like.
Professor of higher education Melissa Anderson has described a system of
“counter-norms” prevalent in many fields of scientific research that are
inimical to responsible science. She believes that these counter-norms result
from competitive pressures and other features of contemporary research
Historian Nicholas Steneck has also pointed to the gap between ideals
and actual behaviors in the practice of scientific research. Like Leach, he
points out the challenge this context presents for the formation of ethical
professional identity: “In practice, research is a competitive, demanding, at
times ruthless, and not-always-fair profession. This is the side of research
students and young researchers too often encounter when they begin their
professional careers. The challenge educators face is how to motivate new
researchers to strive for the ideal in a world that can be seen as rewarding
These realities point to the fact that educators who want to ensure
ethical professional practice in their graduates have to prepare them not only
for ethically supportive contexts, but also for contexts that undermine the
profession’s fundamental purposes and standards. Indeed, the biggest
challenge for educators trying to prepare their students for high quality
professional practice—work that embodies both deep expertise and sound ethical
standards—arises from the fact that, in many professions today, graduates
will be entering fields in which the contexts of work actually undermine the
profession’s fundamental purposes and its standards of quality and ethical
practice. Based on research on professional education that we have
conducted over the past ten years, we believe that educators can do a great deal
more to prepare students to work effectively and ethically in this broad
sense, even in misaligned fields. If the status quo continues unchanged,
however, professional schools will not only fail to realize their positive
potential but may even contribute to professional work that is compromised.
THE PREPARATION FOR THE PROFESSIONS PROGRAM: HIGHER
EDUCATION’S CONTRIBUTION TO HIGH
QUALITY PROFESSIONAL WORK
Professional work of the highest quality represents an integration of
the profession’s enduring purposes and standards with high levels of
expertise or competence, extending even to creativity and advancement of the
field. Over the past ten years, The Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching has studied the educational practices used to prepare
lawyers, engineers, clergy, nurses and physicians for high quality work through
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
a program of comparative studies called the Preparation for the Professions
Program (PPP).13 The PPP was designed to achieve a close look at the goals
and practices of professional education in these five fields in order to
understand their strengths and weaknesses, and to recommend strategies for
improving professional preparation. The PPP has conducted extensive inquiry
into the curricula, pedagogies and assessment used to support learning in
each profession. This research is providing a rare opportunity to develop a
common framework for understanding and comparing the different
approaches to education in each profession.
Each of the five studies has entailed intensive site visits in a set of
professional schools that are chosen to represent geographic and
institutional diversity. In these visits, a research team interviews administrators,
faculty and students; conducts focus groups; analyzes course syllabi,
accreditation reports and other documents; sits in on classes; and makes other
observations outside the classroom.
Our observations revealed a great deal of consistency across different
schools within each professional field as well as important differences
among the fields. In each field, we were able to describe dominant patterns
of educational practice as well as innovations and other variants around
those dominant patterns.
Despite notable differences among the five fields of professional
education, they share a common set of goals. In recognition of those shared
objectives, the PPP has been shaped from the outset by a comparative
framework that articulates three universal strands of professional education.
These strands are metaphorically designated as three formative
apprenticeships, all of which are essential to full preparation for professional work.14
The three apprenticeships are:
(1) Intellectual training to learn the academic knowledge base
and the capacity to think in ways that are important to the
(2) A skill-based apprenticeship of practice: the craft know-how
that marks expert practitioners of the domain; and
(3) An apprenticeship to the ethical standards, social roles, and
responsibilities of the profession, grounded in the profession’s
These dimensions of professional apprenticeship reflect contending
emphases within all professional education, and as such provide a point of
comparison across the different fields. The metaphor of a three-fold
apprenticeship also forms the basis for a normative analysis, providing a
framework against which to evaluate the adequacy of preparation for professional
13. For more information about the PPP, see
http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/general/index.asp?key=30 (last visited Aug. 24, 2008).
14. SULLIVAN, supra note 2, at 207–10.
work. For this reason, the framework has allowed us to describe tensions
and shortfalls as well as strengths of professional education in each field.
Although professional education in all fields includes some attention to
all three apprenticeships—the knowledge base, the complex skills of
practice, and professionalism and ethics—each field frames the central features
of the apprenticeships differently, and each uses different strategies for
accomplishing them. Each field of professional education also has a
distinctive pattern of emphasis among the three apprenticeships as well as
different degrees and kinds of integration among them. In some fields, the
integration is fairly tight, while in others professional education is
decomposed into three quite separate dimensions. In our writing about
professional education in the five fields that we studied, we have highlighted
creative teaching practices that successfully integrate the three
apprenticeships, noting in each case how typical or atypical those integrative teaching
strategies are in that field.15
The importance of the first two apprenticeships is widely
acknowledged in professional education. Through the first apprenticeship, students
learn the substantive knowledge base and intellectual capacities that are
understood to be foundational for credentialing and essential to competent
practice in the field. In engineering, for example, the first apprenticeship
refers mostly to the engineering sciences and mathematics. In medicine and
nursing, the first apprenticeship focuses on the biological sciences, and in
law, on substantive knowledge of the law as well as a particular kind of
analytical thinking (the so-called “thinking like a lawyer”).
The second apprenticeship refers to the ways that novices learn the
complex skills of professional practice, the craft expertise of the field.
Laboratory and design courses are the primary means of providing training for
technical competence in engineering education. Supervised clinical practice
and simulations of practice serve this purpose for medical and nursing
students. Likewise, in legal education, “lawyering” courses and experience in
legal clinics support the development of essential skills such as legal
research and writing, interviewing, negotiation, and the like.
Clearly, the apprenticeship of professionalism and purpose, the third
apprenticeship, is the one that is most relevant to the theme of this volume,
the ethical professional identity. It is this apprenticeship that is meant to
capture students’ induction into the field’s ethical standards and practices,
professional sensibilities, appreciation for and commitment to the field’s
essential social purposes, and sense of professional identity in which those
purposes and standards are experienced as core features of what it means to
practice that profession.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
It would be a mistake, however, to think of the third apprenticeship as
separable from the other two. In fact, it is the third apprenticeship that
serves as the driving force for integration of professional understanding,
craft and purpose. This integration is illustrated vividly in Charles Foster’s
essay in this volume, which reports on the PPP study of the preparation of
clergy. In that essay, Foster discusses a capacity called “the pastoral
imagination” as the ultimate integrative goal in that preparation.16
Framing the overarching educational goal as pastoral imagination
emphasizes that intellectual training needs to be completed by—and grounded
in—a perspective that links ways of thinking to ways of doing and being in
the world. By taking this perspective, the report from that study, Educating
Clergy, challenges other forms of professional education to take seriously
the interdependence of the cognitive, practice and normative
The idea is that, over time, religious professionals—priests, rabbis, and
ministers—need to develop capacities to interpret and to make sense of
present events in light of authoritative traditions while adapting those traditions
by the very act of giving them a new meaning in the present. Further, they
need to develop such interpretive capacities while maintaining good faith
with those who have entrusted them with their spiritual well-being,
especially at moments of existential crisis, illness, grief and loss. Clergy
educators, then, must be adept at fostering students’ growth toward a complex
and expansive, yet committed and engaged, “imagination,” or way of
thinking and feeling about the world. In a real sense, it has to be the sense of
purpose and identity—the stuff of the third apprenticeship—that takes the
lead in organizing learning toward such an inclusive and integrated goal.
The integrative function of the third apprenticeship is evident not only
in theological education, but in all true professions. It is the third
apprenticeship that draws together and grounds the two most essential features of
high quality work—deep expertise and ethical commitment. Codes of ethics
in virtually every field include the development and maintenance of
expertise as an ethical commitment of professionals. This is a challenging
demand, and professionals’ capacity to meet it cannot be taken for granted.
Professional work is inherently complex, requiring wise judgment under
conditions of uncertainty, and its knowledge base is always evolving. For
these reasons, formal education can make only a start in preparing students
for high quality professional work. Developing and maintaining the
necessary expertise requires the capacity to learn from one’s own and others’
experience, not only immediately after entry to the profession, but also
throughout one’s career.
16. Charles R. Foster, Identity and Integrity in Clergy Formation, 5 U. ST. THOMAS L.J. 457,
462 (2008) (citing FOSTER, DAHILL, GOLEMON & TOLENTINO, supra note 15, at 22–26).
17. FOSTER, DAHILL, GOLEMON & TOLENTINO, supra note 15.
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
V. BEYOND APPRENTICESHIP: ALIGNING THE ARC OF
It is a commonplace, even something of a shibboleth, that the
culminating goal of professional education must be the preparation of “life-long
learners.” At a minimum, this is taken to mean professionals who leave
their formal training with the intellectual skills, learned through the first
apprenticeship, the capacities to practice acquired through the second
apprenticeship, and the motivation, cultivated through the third
apprenticeship, to continue developing their expertise throughout their career.
In our study of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in five
professions, however, we have not seen many educational practices that address
this goal in a serious way. Neither does the literature on expertise
acquisition give much attention to this question. Studies that have taken up the
issue, such as the pioneering work of educational researchers Carl Bereiter
and Marlene Scardamalia,18 have shown that it takes curiosity and deep
commitment to the profession’s aims and methods to propel students onto a
path of continuing, self-directed improvement.
One of Bereiter and Scardamalia’s less-than-encouraging findings is
that many professionals fail to become life-long learners, opting instead to
plateau at a fairly routine level of competence and comfort. The authors
suggest that many professionals become “experienced non-experts”19 rather
than “true experts,” with the latter defined as those who continue to deepen
and expand their expertise, even pushing the field itself forward in the
Since professional fields and the publics they serve benefit greatly
from practitioners who go beyond routine competence to real excellence, it
is important to understand what motivates those who are committed to
continued “effortful reinvestment” in their own expertise.20 Two factors seem
essential to this effortful reinvestment. First, a sense of flow21 or intrinsic
fascination with and engagement in work that is so intense that at times the
individual loses her sense of self and awareness of the passage of time.
Second, participation in a field whose norms support, even demand,
continued advancement of knowledge. When we consider these factors in relation
to the three apprenticeships, the significance of conveying professional
purpose, commitment and values through the third apprenticeship is evident.
These findings carry a number of implications for both
pre-professional and continuing education. In many professional fields it is
commonplace for students to enter their training with a sense of idealism,
18. CARL BEREITER & MARLENE SCARDAMALIA, SURPASSING OURSELVES (1993).
19. Id. at 11.
20. Id. at 78.
21. MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE (1990).
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
fascination, even enchantment.22 Too often, the rigors of professional
training dissipate this initial energy and passion, and many students never
recover it. If professional education is to avoid this dispiriting outcome, each
field must find its own ways to “re-enchant” its students with the practices
and purposes of the profession. The Carnegie Foundation report on clergy
education frames this goal as helping students to “grow out of the na¨ıve,
precritical, sentimental . . . piety . . . and into . . . a ‘pietism of a higher
order . . . .’ ”23
In some cases, students seek to enter professional fields for reasons
that are extrinsic to the field’s purposes and practices. In those cases,
educators face the additional challenge of helping students fall in love with a field
they had seen only as a means to other ends. Some predominant pedagogies
of professional education are ill-suited for igniting initial enchantment or
re-enchanting those who have lost the passion that drew them to the field.
The capacity for invigorating intrinsic meaning and fascination is not often
treated as a criterion for evaluating curriculum, pedagogy or assessment
processes, but we are suggesting that if it is, that will contribute in the long
run to producing the curious, lifelong learners all professional schools seek
As we have said, the challenges of accomplishing these goals are only
deepened when graduates leave professional training. The conditions of
work in most fields today tend to undermine a sense of purpose and the
aspects of the profession’s work most likely to provide intrinsic satisfaction.
Many professional fields have become more thoroughly market-driven than
they used to be, leading practitioners to become disconnected from their
love of the field and the purposes that drew them into the field in the first
place. Demands for greater productivity in medicine, nursing, law and
engineering tend to drain the intrinsic meaning from professional work, often
enforcing external, particularly economic, measures of value for standards
more directly tied to the professions’ particular forms of excellence in
If a key aim is to engage students both intellectually and
motivationally in the core issues and growing edge of a profession’s work, how is this
best done? We believe this is a very important area for future research in
professional education. We also believe, however, that a number of
developments occurring in the conditions of today’s professional practice hamper
this goal. Many sectors of the American economy in which professionals
work are increasingly characterized by an ethos that prizes flexibility over
fidelity.24 The dilemma that emerges poses a growing challenge for all
forms of professional education: how to foster deep commitment to
long22. Albert Raboteau, Re-enchanting the World: Education, Wisdom, and Imagination, 45
CROSS CURRENTS 392, 392–403.
23. FOSTER, DAHILL, GOLEMON & TOLENTINO, supra note 15, at 102.
24. SULLIVAN, supra note 2, at 216.
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
term development of expertise and responsibility for the profession’s core
aims when the conditions of practice, and sometimes conditions for
teaching, are poorly aligned with those core aims?
Some risks to high quality work, not only for professionals but also for
workers in just about every occupation, are seemingly universal—loss of
enthusiasm, low standards of excellence, or placing self-interest ahead of
concern for the field’s purpose and mission. Some seem to be more
profession-specific, since different professional fields confront their own
particular array of challenges and vulnerabilities. For example, in his article in this
volume, law professor Neil Hamilton points to the American Board of
Internal Medicine’s (ABIM) articulation of key ethical challenges facing its
members, along with reference to some parallels between these challenges
and ethical issues facing attorneys.25 The challenges articulated by the
ABIM include abuse of power, arrogance and greed, among others.26 These
particular vulnerabilities are less applicable to some other fields, such as
nursing and teaching, which may be more likely to suffer from burnout,
cynicism, and lowering of standards. Likewise, a pursuit of personal
distinction that overrides other considerations, unthinking compliance with
questionable or misdirected institutional practices, and callousness toward
those who depend on one’s professional skill are more characteristic of
some fields than others.
Despite the particular variations among fields, however, two central
themes run through all of the specific vulnerabilities we have noted. The
first, which encompasses power, greed and self-aggrandizement, for
example, is the elevation of extrinsic rewards to the point where they overwhelm
and even actively undermine the ultimate purposes of the profession. The
second theme is related—a loss of faith in the profession’s capacity to
achieve its essential purposes, which is manifested in burnout, callousness,
cynicism, satisfaction with mediocre performance, and the like. Both of
these, excessive priority given to extrinsic rewards and loss of faith and thus
intrinsic motivation, can undermine standards of ethical professional
To complicate the picture even further, great passion or zeal for the
mission of the field can also lead to compromised work if the work is not
sufficiently grounded in ethical standards.27 This can be avoided only if
practitioners understand on a visceral level that those standards are not
arbitrary, externally imposed rules—they are intrinsic to the very meaning of
quality work in the field.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
FIVE KEY QUALITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE PROFESSIONALISM
Our discussion to this point raises a number of questions: What do we
know about the factors that protect against the professions’ vulnerabilities
and support positive ethical behavior and commitment to standards of high
quality work, even under challenging circumstances? Is it possible to foster
these qualities while individuals are still in training and, if so, how can that
be accomplished? Can professional education do anything to prepare its
graduates for “good work,” even if they will work in misaligned fields?
To answer these questions, we believe that it is important to be clear
about the qualities we now know make for a sustainable, life-long growth in
professional competence and commitment. Drawing on our own research in
the PPP28 and on the findings of the Good Work Project,29 we suggest that
there are five key qualities:
(1) Deep engagement with the profession’s public purposes,
along with a sense of meaning and satisfaction from one’s work
that is grounded in or aligned with those purposes.
(2) Strong professional identity. That is, an identity as a nurse,
engineer, physician, lawyer, clergy person, accountant, dentist or
other professional, in which the field’s mission and standards
(integrity and conscientiousness, for example) are essential features
of one’s conception of the field and the self as a member of that
(3) Habits of interpretation or salience through which complex
situations are understood or framed at least in part in moral terms,
that is, in terms of the field’s purposes and standards.31
(4) Habitual patterns of behavioral response to patients, clients,
subordinates, authorities, and peers that are well aligned with the
profession’s standards and ideals rather than with corrosive
counter-norms or overriding self-interest.32
(5) The capacity and inclination to contribute to the ethical
quality of the profession and its institutions. This includes a sense of
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
moral agency in relation to morally questionable aspects of the
institutional context and the moral imagination and courage to
create more constructive institutional structures or practices.33
THE EDUCATIONAL RESPONSE: FOSTERING PROFESSIONALISM
Can professional education contribute to strengthening these five
important qualities? We believe that it can. Professional education can enable
students to see the mission or purpose of the profession as the foundation of
their work’s significance, the source of its intrinsic value, and the ultimate
rationale for its standards. Professional education can help students
understand the ways in which the field’s standards are intrinsic to high quality
work. Educators can also try to help their students gain experiences of
pleasure, excitement, even enchantment in connection with their work. This is
not to imply that the daily practice of any profession consistently evokes
these emotions. Rather, the point is that through inspiring models, respected
colleagues, esprit de corps, and various reminders of the work’s purposes, it
is possible to maintain some connection with these intrinsic satisfactions
even when the conditions of work make them feel distant from daily life.
The five qualities described above are all features of what we have
called the third apprenticeship of professional preparation. This illustrates
both the foundational quality of that apprenticeship and also its integrative
character, the ways that it serves as organizer, inspiration and benchmark
for the other two. In order to have a good chance of sustaining growth in
professionalism across the arc of professional development, professional
education needs to be aligned with other institutions, such as accrediting
and licensing bodies, professional associations and national academies, that
will later be referred to as “trustee institutions.” To start the process,
however, professional education needs to provide a strong and effective third
apprenticeship. That means two things: giving importance to the third
apprenticeship in actions as well as words, and weaving the third
apprenticeship together with the other two.
In Good Work, Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi and Damon point to a
“living tradition of standards and practices”34 within a profession as a source of
strength for high quality work. They refer to standards such as the values of
intellectual integrity and openness in science, and truthfulness and
objectivity in journalism. The moral concepts that psychologist Muriel Bebeau
refers to in this volume as “intermediate level ethical concepts”35 can
appropriately be seen as representing the standards that are intrinsic to high
quality work in a particular profession. In dentistry, for example, these
include issues like provision of competent care; responsibility for maintaining
a positive relationship with one’s patients regardless of whether they follow
the health professional’s advice; respect for patient autonomy; and
responsibilities to fellow professionals.
One of the most important formative opportunities available to
professional schools is the chance to immerse students for a period of several
years in a “living tradition” of standards and practices. To achieve this goal,
the field’s standards must not only be addressed directly through exposure
to codes of ethics and the like, but the standards must also be pervasive in
both the classroom and the broader culture of the institution.
Students are inevitably undergoing socialization into the profession
throughout the years of their education, for better or worse. In order to
ensure that these experiences will support high-quality, ethically-grounded
work, professional schools need to look critically and systematically at the
many experiences that contribute to students’ moral learning and at the
values these experiences convey.
Many theological schools are more self-conscious about their reliance
on the formative influences of the school’s cultural practices and more
intentional in shaping those practices than professional schools in other fields.
Foster et al. refers to the formative communities of practice as a central
mechanism of the third apprenticeship in theological education.36
Unfortunately, the kind of intentionality with regard to campus culture as a
formative mechanism that we see in clergy education is rare in most other
In some fields, a particular image that encapsulates a normative
conception of professional identity is referred to over and over, becoming a
shorthand representation of the purposes and standards of the profession
that is widely shared within the field, even across very different kinds of
institutions. Most notable in this regard is the image of the nurse as patient
advocate, the patient’s “last line of defense” in a complicated and dangerous
health care environment. There appears to be broad consensus among
nursing educators that this image of the nurse as patient advocate is a powerful
distillation of the profession’s values, offering a core image around which
ethical professional identity can be built.
In an interesting twist on the phenomenon of distilling professional
work into a central image, engineering professor Gary Downey urges the
field of engineering to rethink the image with which it identifies most
36. FOSTER, DAHILL, GOLEMON & TOLENTINO, supra note 15, at 259.
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
strongly.37 Our own research confirms that that the engineer as a
“problemsolver” is a universal, almost reflexive, response to the question, “What is
an engineer?” Downey argues that the widely-shared image of the engineer
as problem solver does a disservice to the profession.38
Downey’s article in this volume points to the ways in which framing
the engineering task as problem solving requires drawing boundaries
around the problem, abstracting it from the social, cultural and human
contexts of the work, as well as from important aspects of the self as engineer.
A problem-solving approach makes “the bulk of one’s identity invisible,”39
places unnecessary limits on engineering judgment, and makes it hard to
work with people who define problems differently.
Downey proposes that the field would be significantly enriched if it
could “scale up” an alternative central image—the engineer as problem
definer in addition to problem solver.40 He argues that this expanded
conception of the profession will help engineers go beyond providing technical
support to become leaders who think deeply about what constitutes progress
and then contribute to that progress. To make this new image a powerful
force in shaping engineering competencies and sensibilities, it will need to
become part of the fabric of engineering science and design, based in a
broader conception of knowledge and skill, not a marginal add-on to
standard curriculum and pedagogy. “The formal recognition of collaborative
problem definition with both engineers and non-engineers makes visible
engineers’ responsibilities to go beyond competently fulfilling assigned tasks
in an ethical manner to critically evaluating, and perhaps re-imagining, the
larger dimensions of service that are performed by the work.”41
In other fields, the central image of the profession is less clear. One
might point to the ideal of zealous advocate on behalf of one’s client as a
pervasive encapsulation of the legal profession, although legal education’s
strong academic orientation means that in some sense scholarly ideals may
be more salient for many faculty and students than images of practicing
lawyers. Insofar as the image of zealous advocate is widely shared,
however, it may be at least as limited as the image of engineer as problem
solver, in part for similar reasons.
The image of the attorney as zealous advocate points to the client’s
right to legal representation, respect for the client’s autonomy, and the need
for the attorney to maintain an appropriate professional distance from the
case. But the identity of attorney as zealous advocate also carries risks. It
constrains the goals of legal work and, in extreme cases, it can even be used
to justify deviations from ethical practice and disengagement from
questions of justice—the attorney as hired gun. Many legal educators recognize
these risks, and some have criticized the assumption that this role should be
a lawyer’s overriding responsibility. In conversations that are reminiscent
of Downey’s call to “scale up” an enriched image of engineering work,
faculty in a recent meeting of law school deans wondered whether the
lawyer as “keeper of the democracy” or fiduciary might be more accurate and
more elevating ideals on which to build ethical professional identity in their
IX. FROM STUDENT TO EMERGING PROFESSIONAL:
THE THIRD APPRENTICESHIP AS BRIDGE
The great task of professional education is to bring aspirants from their
initial role as students toward adopting the stance of an emerging
practitioner. This is the formative process of professional education. Although
students’ values and standards cannot help but be shaped by their
experiences in professional training, this does not mean that intentional
educational strategies for ensuring their ethical-professional growth are well
developed. In fact, our research in the PPP reveals that the third
apprenticeship is almost always weaker than the other two, and in some fields it is
seriously marginalized. Most professional education programs have
developed specific pedagogies, curricular content, and methods of assessing the
knowledge base and the practical skills that comprise the cognitive and
practical apprenticeships, but their embrace of the apprenticeship of purpose
and identity is far more ambiguous. Without serious efforts to develop this
apprenticeship, however, professional schools cannot fulfill their
responsibilities to either the professions or the public they are pledged to serve.
The first challenge is to find ways of representing the importance of
ethics, professional identity development and commitment to purpose to
students of the profession. This is particularly important if students have
had limited experience taking on the role of a member of the profession, or
if they are trained in settings that poorly or weakly represent the ethical
commitments, professional behaviors, and ideals that the profession hopes
to cultivate in students. In addition, defining the core content associated
with the third apprenticeship raises questions about the extent to which
educators believe that it is legitimate and feasible for them to try to shape the
character of their students and, closely related, the willingness of the
profession to define specific characteristics that are desirable.
To summarize our findings, we can say that some fields, most notably
law and engineering, are driven centrally by the first, intellectual or
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
tive, apprenticeship. Law schools provide a notably strong cognitive
apprenticeship organized around analytic thinking (thinking like a lawyer) and
substantive knowledge of the law. Clinical legal education is abundantly
present in law schools, but it is subordinate to training for legal analysis in a
number of ways. Although the picture in engineering education is
somewhat different from law, the shape of engineering education is also driven
very much by the first apprenticeship. Despite moderate attention to
engineering design and other aspects of practice, engineering science, with its
emphasis on mathematics and technical laboratory work, lies at the heart of
education in that field. Learning the complex skills of practice is given
much less emphasis than learning the scientific, mathematical and technical
grounding of the field.
This ascendancy of the first apprenticeship is not a universal pattern in
professional education, however. In nursing and medical education, despite
the importance of the scientific knowledge base, the second apprenticeship,
the apprenticeship of skillful practice, is ultimately in the driver’s seat. The
contrast of law and engineering with nursing and medicine illustrates how
important it is to understand the third apprenticeship in the context of the
other two. Patterns of emphasis among the three apprenticeships influence
the character of each. The status of the apprenticeships in relation to one
another affects how important the third apprenticeship is considered to be,
how it is understood, and the ways that it is fostered or explicitly taught in
professional education. In particular, the third apprenticeship looks quite
different in fields for which the first apprenticeship is dominant than in
those where the second apprenticeship is a central organizing force.
To say that the first apprenticeship is in command in legal and
engineering education means that these two fields of professional education are
thoroughly grounded in the values of the academy, which include
skepticism, intellectual rigor, and objectivity. Most instruction takes place in
classroom settings, far removed from the conditions and experiences of
practice. When the values of the academy are ascendant, it is perhaps not
surprising that the third apprenticeship tends to be suspect, since it requires
engagement rather than distance, and commitment rather than
thoroughgoing skepticism. In our engineering and law school site visits, both faculty
and students often commented that professional educators are not
responsible for shaping students’ ethical development, that this enterprise is not
entirely legitimate, and that it is no longer feasible to influence the ethical
development of students once they are young adults. This means that the
third apprenticeship tends to be marginalized when professional education
is organized around the values of the academy.
In contrast, the fields that do take the third apprenticeship—the
development of ethical professional identity, sense of purpose, and ethical
comportment—seriously in its own terms are those that take teaching for
practice seriously, that is, those in which the second apprenticeship plays a
leading role in shaping professional training. Due to the central place of
clinical experience in medical and nursing education, there is more of a
balance between instruction in the classroom and learning in settings of
practice. Indeed, in those fields the context of practice heavily shapes the
study of professionalism.
Medicine and nursing are more likely than law and engineering to
acknowledge the importance of the third apprenticeship because students and
their instructors are actually practicing their profession together in high
stakes situations. Faculty and students alike understand the need for novices
to learn “skillful ethical comportment,” as Patricia Benner, director of the
PPP nursing study calls it.43 In addition, for professions in which clinical
teaching and learning are central, professional responsibility and identity
are enacted in the course of clinical practice rather than learned in the
abstract. This kind of learning is very different from the learning that typically
takes place in classrooms. Most importantly, when ethical professional
practices and standards are enacted over and over in the course of training,
students develop habits of heart and mind that shape their approach to their
work for years to come. As David Leach explains of medical residencies in
his article, “the habits of a lifetime are developed during this period.”44
When the second apprenticeship of professional education is enacted at
least partially in settings of actual professional work, as it is in nursing and
medical education, another important factor comes into play—students’ real
responsibility for their patients’ outcomes. This is almost universally a
powerful formative experience. We asked medical and nursing students about
their most memorable learning experiences, and they often mentioned
events that brought home in an emotionally compelling way their
responsibility for patients’ welfare, such as significant mistakes they had made in
caring for patients.
This kind of reaction signals a critical turning point in the development
of ethical professional identity—the shift from the perspective of a student
to that of an emerging professional. When the third apprenticeship is well
integrated with the second, this transition is often triggered by the gut-level
realization that as a professional you are responsible for other people’s
fates. It is hard to fully experience this sense of personal responsibility
unless, in fact, other people really are relying on your professional skill at
some point during your training, and becoming acutely aware of one’s
responsibility for others’ welfare is an especially vivid way to help students
make this transition.
Finally, the emphasis on practice means that professional formation is
embodied in nursing and medical education. In both fields, role models are
understood to embody professionalism or its absence to a greater or lesser
43. BENNER & SUTPHEN, supra note 30.
44. Leach, supra note 9, at 513.
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degree. Students often refer to teacher-clinicians they are inspired by and
want to be like and teacher-clinicians they hope they will not be like. It is
much less common for law and engineering students to interact with
practitioners who can be experienced as models of the kind of professional they
might aspire to be or fear becoming. For this reason, we have urged fields
that are driven in large part by the first apprenticeship to strengthen
significantly their apprenticeships of practice, through both simulated and actual
professional practice experience.45
It is important to acknowledge the ongoing movements to build up the
second apprenticeship within legal and engineering education. These
movements appear to be gaining momentum, thus opening greater opportunities
to integrate the second and third apprenticeships. In clinical legal education,
there is a growing recognition that the skills of practice include such
ethically charged capacities as problem solving, empathic understanding, and
cross-cultural communication.46 Likewise, many engineering schools are
placing the teaching of design throughout the four years of undergraduate
training, with concerns such as environmental sustainability and global
perspectives often integrated with the teaching of design.
First year engineering students at the University of Michigan, for
example, take an Introduction to Engineering course, which addresses a wide
range of ethical issues. This course is followed by sequences of design
courses tailored to various engineering specialties. Students in mechanical
engineering take a three-course design sequence in their sophomore, junior,
and senior years in which they apply several ethical frameworks, a
costbenefit analysis, and decision-making standards in the areas of
technological advancements, economic development, public health, public safety and
the environment. In their senior year, these students revisit the same
considerations and use them, along with the engineering code of ethics, as a
framework for thinking about the industry-sponsored design projects they
are carrying out. Students weigh the importance of each criterion and then
discuss in a paper the trade-offs they made as they carried out their capstone
design projects. This approach illustrates the successful integration of the
second and third apprenticeships in engineering education.
Some law faculty are finding ways to keep the analytical and the
moral, the procedural and the substantive in active dialogue within the
teaching of the first apprenticeship as well. This trend is potentially very
important because, as we have seen, the first apprenticeship is so important
in legal education, providing the key common experience in the first year.
Likewise, in our study of engineering education, we see some faculty who
ask students in engineering science (analysis) courses to grapple with
trade45. See SULLIVAN, COLBY, WEGNER, BOND & SHULMAN, supra note 15; SHEPPARD ET AL.,
supra note 15.
46. Shalleck, supra note 42.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
offs between values like affordability and safety and impress upon students
that ethics can no more be separated from engineering work than gravity
can be separated from our physical reality.47 This is consistent with
Downey’s argument that transforming the central image of the engineer from
problem solver to problem definer requires the new conception of
professional identity to infuse the teaching of engineering science itself.48
Similarly, Foster’s article in this volume provides an elaborated illustration of
what it means to teach the intellectual foundations of clergy preparation in
ways that are strongly shaped by the integrative goal of pastoral
Whether it is the first or the second apprenticeship that sets the tone for
a particular field’s process of formation, however, we believe that the
critical point is to consistently emphasize the development of professional
identity and purpose throughout. The first, and still largely underemphasized,
step is to focus all the resources and personnel of the professional school on
the issue. Such focus should not feel foreign or extraneous to any
professional school. To the degree that it does, we have prima facie evidence for
just the kind of misalignment between professional education and the needs
of the field that the authors of Good Work50 find so devastating for the
morale and future of the professions in our society.
X. TRUSTEE INSTITUTIONS
Professional schools represent a critical gateway that selects and
shapes each new wave of entrants to the profession. As such, professional
education has significant power to influence the quality and standing of the
profession itself. If educators are successful in preparing graduates who will
practice their professions with competence and integrity even in contexts
that tend to undermine the profession’s standards and purposes, they can
help prevent the profession from degenerating into technical work for hire,
giving up “higher aims” to become “hired hands,” as a recent book on
business education puts it.51
In this sense, professional schools have the potential to serve as “
‘trustee’ institution[s].”52 When the work of institutions such as professional
schools, accrediting and licensing bodies, national academies, professional
associations, and other practitioner groups is grounded in the ideals and
standards of the profession, these organizations can act as trustees for the
47. SHEPPARD ET AL., supra note 15.
48. Downey, supra note 37.
49. Foster, supra note 16, at 462 n.28.
50. GARDNER, CSIKSZENTMIHALYI & DAMON, supra note 4.
51. RAKESH KHURANA, FROM HIGHER AIMS TO HIRED HANDS: THE SOCIAL
TRANSFORMATION OF AMERICAN BUSINESS SCHOOLS AND THE UNFULFILLED PROMISE OF MANAGEMENT AS A
52. GARDNER, CSIKSZENTMIHALYI & DAMON, supra note 4, at 213.
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
integrity of the field, buffering it from the effects of market forces, that, if
left unchecked, can be destructive to its standards, mission, and ultimately
its standing as a profession at all.
David Leach describes the way that the Accreditation Council of
Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has attempted to act as a trustee
institution through its accreditation of medical residency programs.53 Leach views
professionalism as an attribute of institutional cultures as well as
individuals. Accordingly, the ACGME under his leadership as executive director
began to monitor and accredit the contexts of residency education as well as
more formal aspects of the training residents receive. This aspect of
residency programs’ accreditation acknowledges that some institutional
contexts foster the formation of ethical professional identity while others
inhibit it, so programs are held accountable for the quality of the informal
formation they provide. This accreditation practice is a useful example of
ways that trustee institutions of various kinds can influence the ethical
development of new entrants to a profession.
If professional schools aspire to be truly effective trustee institutions,
however, they have to abandon the complacency of thinking the field they
serve can thrive without their active support of its core purposes and values.
They have to do more than prepare students for good work in misaligned
fields. Educators must teach students not only to withstand but also to
influence the contexts of their work, to take some responsibility for the future of
the profession itself. This represents a more activist stance toward
professionalism that we saw only rarely in our research.
What might efforts in this direction look like? We get a glimpse of
what might be done from some of the more promising developments in
graduate medical education, the phase of residency. Perhaps because they
feel acutely the negative impact of poorly aligned work contexts, some
medical residency programs are attempting to empower their students to
“read” the dynamics in their practice contexts and then try to influence
those contexts. Under the rubric of “quality improvement” or “systems
improvement,” students design and carry out projects that increase the quality
and efficiency of medical care. At Mayo Medical School, for example,
residents work with the Quality Improvement Director and a range of
physician and non-physician experts to learn how to design and carry out quality
(or systems) improvement projects. Recent projects have focused on ways
to reduce iatrogenic (hospital induced) medical problems, to understand
better the implications of different choices by the resident for cost to
patients and the health care system, and strategies for improving indigent care.
In our terms, this kind of project generally takes place at the intersection of
the second and third apprenticeship and constitutes a reflection on and
response to practice experience.
53. Leach, supra note
The effort to help students develop a sense of moral agency in relation
to institutional practices can also benefit from integration of the first and
third apprenticeships. Here, in other words, is a place where explicit and
general understanding of how institutions function and interact becomes
essential for making good professional decisions. In fact, embedding the
formation of ethical professional identity in practice experience without
sufficient reflection and intellectual framing has limitations as well as the
advantages we outlined earlier in this article.
In medicine and nursing, for example, important aspects of
ethicalprofessional understanding can get lost when attention is too narrowly
focused on relationships with particular patients. Grappling with issues of
daily practice may not give students a clear sense of civic professionalism,
including the ability to make sense of and take part in deeply consequential
questions such as today’s debates over health care provision. At a few
medical and nursing schools, we heard faculty talk about the importance of
conveying a strong understanding of and concern for social justice in health
care, but that concern was far from pervasive. Lack of attention to these big
picture issues can limit students’ development as citizens of their
The key change that is required is an expansion of the professional
ideal toward inculcating active citizenship in the trustee institutions of the
field. The starting point is an intellectual change that has major implications
for how the developing professional conceives of identity and purpose. It
begins with “debunk[ing] the myth that our institutions are external to
ourselves.”54 The relationship of individuals to their institutional contexts is a
complicated and contested issue. Nevertheless, in a world in which changes
in institutional context are now affecting the conditions of practice in all
fields, it is a theme that professional education must address to be adequate
to our time.
Students in today’s professional schools, after all, will spend their
professional lives working in complex and critically important social
institutions. Carnegie Foundation President Lee Shulman often invokes the
observation of sociologist Robert Merton to the effect that while humans
create their institutions, those institutions in turn set the range of
possibilities for the kind of persons those individuals can become. We believe that,
as educators with a concern for ethical conduct, we need to prepare
graduates in all fields to have the vision, the will, and the political savvy to create
the kinds of institutions that we want to be creating us and future
54. Leach, supra note 9, at 519.
UNIVERSITY OF ST. THOMAS LAW JOURNAL
CONCLUSION: LEVERAGING POSITIVE IMPACT
One of the best ways that those graduates, as practitioners, can
influence their professions is by participating in trustee institutions. The same is
true for educators concerned about the vitality of their fields. Changed
times may require changed institutions, perhaps even the invention of new
ones, as well as collaborations among presently unconnected organizations
and groups. Collaboration between practitioner groups and educators can be
instrumental in bringing trustee institutions together around a shared
agenda. For example, the Florida State Supreme Court’s Commission on
Professionalism has, with the active support of the Florida Bar Association,
begun a new initiative for strengthening legal professionalism. The
Commission’s mandate is “To promote the fundamental ideals and values of the
justice system within the legal system, and to instill those ideals of
character, competence, and commitment in all those persons serving therein.”55 In
pursuit of its aim, the Commission works to strengthen communication and
ties between the state’s law schools, the practicing bar, and the courts.
Collaboration between professional schools and the organized
practitioner community is a potentially powerful asset for reclaiming the
formative mission of preparing future professionals. Professional communities are
fragile institutions. They depend to a considerable extent upon the
willingness and ability of their members to live up to their often demanding codes
of conduct that define the terms of the profession’s contract with society.
Professions rely, that is, on the commitment of their members to the
standards and purposes of the profession, and on the willingness of practitioners
to keep working on improving their craft and deepening their immersion in
the spirit of the profession. That is why we believe it is important to
understand the whole student experience as a formative process, a time of
apprenticeship during which the novice starts on the road toward assuming the
identity of a competent and dedicated professional.
To be a professional in the full sense is to understand oneself as
claimed by a craft and a public purpose in whose service one can use that
craft. For that positive trajectory to be maintained beyond professional
education, especially in the face of an often hostile climate, the institutions of
professional life have to be strong and properly aligned. Realigning
education with other trustee institutions of a field is necessary to realize the
potential of the formative perspective as we have tried to develop it in this
paper. The benefits of serious attention to realignment will go not only to
the public or the profession, however. The quality, the prestige, and the
integrity of professional education will be enhanced as well. Indeed, the
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM & PURPOSE
impact that professional education can have on the quality of work in the
professions will be greatly magnified if educational institutions take, as a
directing purpose, intensified collaboration with other trustee institutions
toward stewardship of high quality work in the professions.
I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 II. The Public Purposes of the Professions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 III. Preparation for High Quality, Ethical Work in Misaligned Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 IV. The Preparation for the Professions Program: Higher Education's Contribution to High Quality Professional Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 V. Beyond Apprenticeship: Aligning the Arc of Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 VI. Five Key Qualities for a Sustainable Professionalism . . . . . . . 415 VII. The Educational Response: Fostering Professionalism . . . . . . 416 VIII. Signature Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 IX. From Student to Emerging Professional: The Third Apprenticeship as Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 X. Trustee Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 XI. Conclusion: Leveraging Positive Impact Through Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
7. Id. at 128.
8. Id. at 27.
9. David Leach , Medical Professionalism and the Formation of Residents: A Journey Toward Authenticity , 5 U. ST. THOMAS L.J . 512 ( 2008 ).
10. William M. Sullivan , Markets vs . Professions: Value Added?, DAEDALUS, Summer 2005 , at 19 , 20 .
11. Melissa Anderson et al., Normative Dissonance in Science: Results from a National Survey of U.S. Scientists , J. EMPIRICAL RES. ON HUM. RES. ETHICS, Dec . 2007 , at 3 , 3 - 14 .
12. Nicholas Steneck , Fostering Professionalism and Integrity in Research , 5 U. ST. THOMAS L.J . 522 ( 2008 ).
25. Neil Hamilton , Assessing Professionalism: Measuring Progress in the Formation of an Ethical Professional Identity, 5 U. ST . THOMAS L.J. 470 ( 2008 ).
26. Id . at 477.
27. William Damon , Anne Colby, Kendall Bronk & Thomas Ehrlich , Passion & Mastery in Balance: Toward Good Work in the Professions , DAEDALUS, Summer 2005 , at 27 , 27 - 35 .
28. SULLIVAN, supra note 2; SULLIVAN, COLBY , WEGNER, BOND & SHULMAN, supra note 15; ANNE COLBY , ELIZABETH BEAUMONT , THOMAS EHRLICH & JOSH CORNGOLD, EDUCATING FOR DEMOCRACY ( 2007 ) ; FOSTER, DAHILL , GOLEMON & TOLENTINO, supra note 15; SHEPPARD ET AL., supra note 15; Lee S. Shulman , Signature Pedagogies in the Professions , DAEDALUS, Summer 2005 , 52 , 52 - 59 .
29. GARDNER, CSIKSZENTMIHALYI & DAMON, supra note 4.
30. SULLIVAN, supra note 2; JAMES T. RULE & MURIEL J. BEBEAU , DENTISTS WHO CARE: INSPIRING STORIES OF PROFESSIONAL COMMITMENT ( 2005 ) ; Augusto Blasi, Moral Understanding and the Moral Personality: The Process of Moral Integration, in MORAL DEVELOPMENT: AN INTRODUCTION 229 ( William M. Kurtines & Jacob L. Gewirtz eds., 1995 ); ANNE COLBY & WILLIAM DAMON, SOME DO CARE: CONTEMPORARY LIVES OF MORAL COMMITMENT ( 1992 ).
31. PATRICIA BENNER & M. SUTPHEN , EDUCATING NURSES (forthcoming 2008 ) ; J.R. Rest , Background: Theory and Research, in MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROFESSIONS: PSYCHOLOGY AND APPLIED ETHICS 1 ( J. R. Rest & D. Narvaez eds., 1994 ); Janet S. Walker, Choosing Biases, Using Power and Practicing Resistance: Moral Development in a World Without Certainty, 43 HUM . DEV. 135- 56 ( 2000 ).
32. BENNER & SUTPHEN, supra note 30; Anderson et al., supra note 11.
33. Leach , supra note 9; Parker J. Palmer , A New Professional: The Aims of Education Revisited, CHANGE: THE MAG . OF HIGHER LEARNING , Nov .-Dec. 2007 , at 6; PHILIP ZIMBARDO , THE LUCIFER EFFECT: UNDERSTANDING HOW GOOD PEOPLE TURN EVIL ( 2007 ).
34. GARDNER, CSIKSZENTMIHALHI & DAMON, supra note 4, at 153.
35. Muriel J. Bebeau , Promoting Ethical Development and Professionalism: Insights from Educational Research in the Professions, 5 U . OF ST. THOMAS L.J. 366 , 389 ( 2008 ).
37. Gary L. Downey , The Engineering Cultures Syllabus as Formation Narrative: Critical Participation in Engineering Education through Problem Definition, 5 U . OF ST. THOMAS L.J. 428 ( 2008 ).
38. Id . at 432-33.
39. Id . at 436-37.
40. Downey , supra note 37.
41. Id . at 438.
42. A. Shalleck , The Apprenticeship of Practice (Dec. 7-8 , 2007 ) (paper presented at the Legal Education Conference , Stanford, CA).
55. Florida Bar , Supreme Court Commission on Professionalism: Mission Statement ( 2008 ), available at http://www.floridabar.org/tfb/TFBProfess.nsf/0/376813661f52024885256b2f006cc e12 ( last visited Aug . 24 , 2008 ).