Early neonatal mortality and neurological outcomes of neonatal resuscitation in a resource-limited setting on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A descriptive study
Early neonatal mortality and neurological outcomes of neonatal resuscitation in a resource-limited setting on the Thailand- Myanmar border: A descriptive study
Sophie Janet 0 1
Verena I. Carrara 1
Julie A. Simpson 1
Nant War War Thin 1
Wah Wah Say 1
Naw Ta Mlar Paw 1
Kesinee Chotivanich 1
Claudia Turner 0 1
Jane Crawley 0 1
Rose McGready 0 1
0 Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford , Old Road Campus, Oxford , United Kingdom , 2 Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University , Mae Sot , Thailand , 3 Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne , Melbourne, VIC , Australia , 4 Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand , 5 Cambodia-Oxford Medical Research Unit, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 6 Angkor Hospital for Children , Siem Reap , Cambodia
1 Editor: Jacobus P. van Wouwe, TNO , NETHERLANDS
Data Availability Statement: Due to ethical and
security considerations (sensitive patient
information, refugees, year of birth), the data that
supports the findings in this study can be accessed
only through the Data Access Committee at
Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit
(MORU). The data sharing policy can be found
Funding: This study was supported by Centre for
Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Oxford
Of the 4 million neonatal deaths worldwide yearly, 98% occur in low and middle-income
countries. Effective resuscitation reduces mortality and morbidity but long-term outcomes in
resource-limited settings are poorly described. This study reports on newborn neurological
outcomes following resuscitation at birth in a resource-limited setting where intensive
newborn care including intubation is unavailable.
Retrospective analysis of births records from 2008 to 2015 at Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
(SMRU) on the Thailand-Myanmar border.
From 21,225 newbonrs delivered, 15,073 (71%) met the inclusion criteria (liveborn,
28 weeks' gestation, delivered in SMRU). Neonatal resuscitation was performed in
460 (3%; 422 basic, 38 advanced) cases. Overall early neonatal mortality was 6.6 deaths
per 1000 live births (95% CI 5.40±8.06). Newborns receiving basic and advanced
resuscitation presented an adjusted rate for death of 1.30 (95%CI 0.66±2.55; p = 0.442), and 6.32
(95%CI 3.01±13.26; p<0.001) respectively, compared to newborns given routine care. Main
factors related to increased need for resuscitation were breech delivery, meconium, and
fetal distress (p<0.001). Neurodevelopmental follow-up to one year was performed in 1,608
(10.5%) of the 15,073 newborns; median neurodevelopmental scores of non-resuscitated
University and Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae
Sot Thailand supported from the Wellcome Trust
Thailand Major Overseas Programme 2015-2020
. However, this study received no specific
grant funding. The supporters had no role in study
design, data collection and analysis, decision to
publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There
was no additional external funding received for this
Competing interests: The authors have declared
that no competing interests exist.
newborns and those receiving basic resuscitation were similar (64 (n = 1565) versus 63 (n =
41); p = 0.732), while advanced resuscitation scores were significantly lower (56 (n = 5); p =
Newborns requiring basic resuscitation at birth have normal neuro-developmental outcomes
at one year of age compared to low-risk newborns. Identification of risk factors (e.g., breech
delivery) associated with increased need for neonatal resuscitation may facilitate allocation of
staff to high-risk deliveries. This work endorses the use of basic resuscitation in low-resource
settings, and supports on-going staff training to maintain bag-and-mask ventilation skills.
Birth is one of the most challenging biological events in the human life cycle. According to a
2005 World Health Organization report, around 136 million newborns are born each year[
of which 10 million (5±10%) need assistance to initiate effective breathing.[
resuscitation with bag-and-mask ventilation is needed in approximately 6 million newborns each year.
Advance resuscitation is needed in less than 1%. [
Globally 4 million neonatal deaths are registered annually, representing 40% of under-5
] Seventy-three percent of neonatal deaths occur in the first week of life,
especially during the first 24 hours after delivery.[
] Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths
occur in low- and middle-income countries, and 77% of those in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Over a million children who survive birth hypoxia each year develop problems such as
cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and other disabilities.[
] The economic impact of the
morbidities related to birth hypoxia in 2004 accounted for 41,683,855 disability-adjusted life years
] Many low-income countries lack any support services for these children.
These data emphasise the need to provide early quality healthcare to newborns born in
It is estimated that between 6% to 42% of neonatal mortality or morbidity in low-income
countries could be avoided by basic neonatal resuscitation.[
] Furthermore, a meta-analysis
showed that provision of neonatal resuscitation training in facilities reduced
intrapartumrelated deaths in term newborns by 30%.[
] Increasing neonatal resuscitation coverage to 90%
of the deliveries currently taking place in health facilities would save more than 93,000
newborn lives each year.[
Gestational age at birth is a further determinant of neonatal outome,[
] yet no clear
threshold for resuscitation has been defined in the literature. The reality in low-resource settings is
that extremely preterm newborns (<28 weeks gestational age) are not generally resuscitated.
Survival improves with every added week of gestational age, and moderate to late preterm
(>32 to <37 weeks) newborns have higher probabilities of survival with basic neonatal
] Identifying the newborns most likely to require resuscitation at birth is critical to
effective planning and provision of appropriate care,[
] although some newborns will have
no identifiable risk factors.[
Neonatal resuscitation using basic equipment and skills has been shown to be feasible and
effective in resource-limited settings, but the long-term outcome of newborns undergoing
basic or advanced neonatal resuscitation in such settings is unclear.[
2 / 14
The primary objectives of the study were to describe early neonatal mortality and
neurodevelopmental outcome at one year of age of newborns who received basic, advanced or no
neonatal resuscitation after birth at SMRU. Secondary objectives were to identify perinatal risk
factors associated with newborn resuscitation, and to identify baseline characteristics
predicting poor neonatal outcomes.
Study design and participants
This was a retrospective analysis of hospital records with data spanning the antenatal period,
birth, and admission to the special care baby unit of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
(SMRU) located at the Thailand-Myanmar border (supportive information, Text A in S1 File).
Liveborn, singleton newborns of 28 weeks' gestation (determined by ultrasound scan or
Dubowitz examination in case of late scan [
]) who were born at SMRU between 1 January
2008 and 31 December 2015 were included in the study. Stillborns, newborns from multiple
pregnancies (<0.9%), and newborns with major congenital abnormalities were excluded.
Newborn resuscitation training and implementation was standardized by a UK trained
paediatrician (author: CT) and introduction of Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO1)
] at SMRU in 2008. The ALSO1 is one of several evidence-based inter-professional
learning programs that assist health professionals develop and maintain the knowledge and
skills required to manage emergencies that may arise during childbirth. Simple oral suction
carried out for any other reason other than unblocking the airway from thick meconium was
classified as routine newborn care. Basic resuscitation was defined as ventilation via
bag-andmask and/or suction to unblock the airway from thick meconium or other secretions.
Ventilation via endotracheal tube was unavailable. Transfer to a higher level care for intubation and
ventilation is a major financial constraint for health non-governmental organizations in this
region and is not routinely available for marginalized populations (refugees and migrant) with
whom these organizations work. Advanced resuscitation was defined as the need for chest
compressions and/or administration of intravenous (or subcutaneous) adrenaline following
unsuccessful basic resuscitation (Fig 1) (supportive information, Text B in S1 File).
Variables included in the study
Baseline data (Table 1) on all mothers and newborns were collected from the antenatal
electronic records, and were selected on the basis of their availability in the records and their
medical importance, supported by the published literature (supportive information, Text C in S1
Maternal baseline characteristics included young mother (<20 years); underweight
(BMI < 18.5 kg/m2); primigravida (first pregnancy); migration status (refugee and migrant
women); literacy (self-reporting ability to read); smoking (yes/no); anaemia during pregnancy
(haematocrit <30% in the last ANC visit); hypertension; malaria infection any time during
pregnancy; presence of gestational diabetes (screening performed only from 2013 in high risk
women at 24±26 gestational weeks), and previous neonatal death (yes/no).
Delivery baseline characteristics included prolonged rupture of membranes (>18h prior to
delivery); prolonged second stage of labour (>1h); maternal fever (>38ÊC during labour
or < 7 day' prior to birth). Additional variables included the presence of antepartum
haemorrhage (APH), breech delivery, fetal distress and meconium stained liquor.
Newborn baseline characteristics included sex; estimated gestational age (EGA) at birth
(ultrasound in first ANC visit or use of the Dubowitz gestational age assessment for late ANC
]); preterm birth (EGA at birth <37 weeks); small and large for gestational age
3 / 14
Fig 1. Definitions of different levels of newborn assistance at birth in SMRU.
(birthweight-for-gestational age < 10th centile and > 90th respectively in the Intergrowth-21st
Project size standard charts);[
] and low birth weight (<2500g at birth independently of
EGA). Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes after birth was recorded. Low Apgar at 5 min (score
Early neonatal mortality (ENM) defined as newborn death occurring in the first 7 days of life
was chosen as the measure of mortality. Neuro-developmental outcome at 1 year was available
for a subset of children enrolled in several birth cohorts during the timeframe of this study.
Neurodevelopment was evaluated with the standardised and validated Shoklo Developmental
Test. The test evaluated 4 different aspects of development with each item scored as passed/
failed (eye-hand coordination (maximum score 34), locomotor development (maximum score
24), speech (maximum score 6), and social interaction (maximum score 7)) [
]. A total score
lower than 52 at one year of age identifies infants in need of attention or further investigation
in this setting.[
] In addition, behavior during the test (relation to the tester, interest towards
the test, emotional status) was evaluated (maximum score 15). Neuro-developmental
followup was started in 2001 for children participating in other cohort studies, but is not routinely
carried out on all newborns delivered at SMRU (supportive information, Text D in S1 File).
Data management and quality
Data were routinely collected from the existing antenatal care (ANC), birth and special care
baby unit (SCBU) paper records and stored electronically using Microsoft Access (Microsoft
Corp, Redmond, WA, USA). Special effort was made to ensure that data entry was correct for
newborns who had received resuscitation at birth by cross checking against paper records.
Previous authors have highlighted the good quality and accuracy of the data collected at SMRU
]. More than 95% of the cases had been entered correctly, and the remaining information
4 / 14
*APH: antepartum haemorrhage; BMI: body max index; BW: birth weight; EGA: estimated gestational age at birth; LGA: large-for-gestational age; PROM:
prolonged rupture of membranes; PTB: preterm birth; SGA: small-for-gestational age.
was cleaned on a case-by-case basis. In total, 460 cases identified as having received neonatal
resuscitation were included. These were reviewed by a paediatrician (SJ), and further classified
into basic or advanced resuscitation.
Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 14 for Windows (StataCorp, College Station,
TX, USA). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were created to illustrate early neonatal mortality
according to the need for resuscitation. The proportional hazards assumption was assessed
visually and was not violated. Cox regression modelling was performed to estimate the
association between early neonatal mortality and resuscitation, with adjustment for the potential
5 / 14
confounders, age (<20 years), maternal anaemia, breech delivery, maternal fever, fetal distress,
prematurity and low Apgar score at 5 min of life. Multivariable logistic regression modelling
was performed to identify maternal and delivery factors associated with the odds of newborn
resuscitation. To assess the association between newborn resuscitation and neurological
developmental score at 10 to 15 months, multivariable linear regression analysis was performed
with adjustment for prematurity, male newborn, maternal anaemia, maternal smoking,
maternal literacy, maternal migrant status and breech delivery. Further details can be found in the
supportive information, Text E in S1 File.
This study was approved by the Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee and the Faculty
of Tropical Medicine at Mahidol University in Thailand granted ethical approval (OXTREC
585±16 and TMEC 16±020, respectively) and the Tak Province Community Ethics Advisory
Board provided local permission (T-CAB-01/01/2016). All study data were extracted from
Microsoft Access (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA, USA) database using a SMRU standard
operating procedure. Data were fully anonymsed before analyses.
Between January 2008 and December 2015 there were 21,225 births recorded in the routinely
collected antenatal care database. Of these, 6,152 records were excluded because they failed to
meet the inclusion criteria. Records for 15,073 (71%) newborns were included in the analyses
(Fig 2), of which 460 (3%) newborns received neonatal resuscitation at birth and, from those,
422 (2.7%, 95% CI (2.0±3.0)) underwent basic resuscitation and 38 (0.3%, 95% CI (0.1±0.3))
Baseline characteristics of resuscitated and non-resuscitated newborns
Prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal fever, prematurity, small for gestational age and
low birth weight <2500g, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min were associated with the level of
resuscitation required (Table 1).
Association between neonatal resuscitation and early neonatal mortality (ENM)
Newborns receiving basic resuscitation presented a crude ENM rate of 47.4 per 1000 livebirths
95% CI (29.18±72.24), compared with 4.3 per 1000 livebirths 95% CI (3.31±5.51) for those in
the no resuscitation group. A Kaplan-Meier curve is presented for no, basic and advanced
resuscitation groups in Fig 3. All deaths (n = 17) in the advanced resuscitated group occurred
in the first 72 hours after birth.
After adjusting for potential confounders, mortality in the basic resuscitation group was
moderately increased compared with the no resuscitation group, although the confidence
interval was wide (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.66±
2.55), p value 0.442). Newborns requiring advanced resuscitation, however, remained more
likely to die than non-resuscitated (adjusted HR 6.32, 95% CI (3.01±13.26), p<0.001)
Neurodevelopmental score at one year of age
Among the 15,073 newborns in the cohort, 1,608 (10.5%) had a neurodevelopmental test at a
median age of 12 months (interquartile range 12±12 months, range 11±14 months). Of these
6 / 14
Fig 2. Flowchart of the study.
newborns, 1,562 had not been resuscitated, 41 had received basic, and 5 advanced resuscitation
The median (IQR) neurodevelopmental test scores were comparable for non-resuscitated
newborns and those that received basic resuscitation (Table 3). The five newborns who
received advanced resuscitation had significantly lower test scores compared to
non-resuscitated newborns (median score 56 (advanced resuscitation) versus 64 (no resuscitation),
p = 0.017).
Perinatal risk factors associated with neonatal resuscitation
Vaginal breech newborns were 20.1 times (95% CI 12.65-32-22, p-value <0.001) more likely to
need resuscitation at birth compared with normal cephalic vaginal deliveries (Fig 4). Other
predictors of neonatal resuscitation were primigravida, prolonged rupture of membranes
(>18hrs), prolonged second stage of labour, fetal distress, meconium, preterm birth, large for
gestational age and newborn male sex (Fig 4; Unadjusted and adjusted ORs (95% CI) values
given in supportive information S1 Table).
This retrospective study has explored the outcomes of neonatal resuscitation at SMRU. Early
neonatal mortality was examined in three groups: newborns who were not resuscitated at
birth, those who received basic resuscitation, and those who received advanced resuscitation.
7 / 14
Fig 3. Kaplan Meier survival curve for early mortality according to the need for resuscitation.
The difference in mortality observed between low-risk newborns and those who received
resuscitation at birth was mostly related to their adverse baseline characteristics, such as
maternal age (young mothers aged<20), maternal anaemia, breech delivery, maternal fever, fetal
distress, prematurity and low Apgar score at 5 min of life. In the smaller cohort of infants
followed at one year of age those who had received basic resuscitation at birth had a normal
neuro-developmental score compared to those who were not resuscitated. The identification
of risk factors for resuscitation and poor neonatal outcomes, such as breech delivery or
prematurity, facilitates the provision of targeted preventive measures.
Early neonatal mortality
Compared to worldwide figures, the SMRU early neonatal mortality rate is similar to reports
from middle-income countries such as Thailand (neonatal mortality rate of 6.7 per 1000
8 / 14
*Adjusted for confounders: maternal age (age<20 versus 20+ years), maternal anaemia, breech delivery, maternal fever, fetal distress, prematurity and low
Apgar score at 5 min of life. Even though low birth weight (defined as <2500g) is a potential confounder this variable was not included in the multivariable
model because prematurity is closely linked to birth weight, which is positively correlated with gestational age. Prematurity was chosen as the strongest
factor influencing newborn death, in accordance to the published literature. [
livebirths in 2015 ). High-risk deliveries are referred onto the Thailand public hospital
system and are not, therefore, included in this analysis. There still remains a significant gap given
the lower neonatal mortality observed in high-income countries, such as the United Kingdom
with an ENM rate of 2.4 per 1000 livebirths.
The crude ENM rate by the different groups of interest in the study showed an ENM rate of
47 per 1000 live births in the basic resuscitation group and a 100-fold increase (447 per 1000
live births) in the newborns requiring advanced resuscitation. ENM rate depends on multiple
factors, and the crude ENM rate in both groups reflects their different baseline characteristics
including younger maternal age (age<20 years), maternal anaemia, breech delivery, maternal
fever, fetal distress, prematurity and low Apgar score at 5 min of life. When adjusting for such
differences, the association between basic resuscitation and early neonatal death failed to reach
statistical significance (HR: 1.30; 95% CI (0.66±2.55), p = 0.442) and the increased risk of death
in the advanced resuscitation group fell from 108.7 to 6.3; 95% CI (3.01±13.26), p<0.001. This
attenuation highlights the importance of addressing other factors that play an important role
in neonatal mortality and endorses continuum of maternal and newborn care as a relevant
strategy to tackle newborn health.
It is well recognised that moderate to severe birth hypoxia can have long-term consequences.
] Evaluating these consequences in low-resource settings remains a major challenge, and
** IQR was omitted as the advanced resuscitation group has small numbers
Basic N = 41
63 [59±65] (26±69)
30.5 [30±32] (15±34)
20.5 [19±21] (4±24)
5 [4±5] (2±6)
7 [6±7] (4±7)
15 [14±15] (12±15)
Advanced N = 5**
9 / 14
Fig 4. Maternal, delivery and newborn risk factors associated with neonatal resuscitation at birth. **Adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% CI in log scale.
*GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; PROM, prolonged rupture of membranes; PTB, preterm birth; LGA: large-for-gestational age. ** Odds of requiring
resuscitation at birth estimated from three separate multivariable logistic regression models: maternal factors; delivery factors±adjusted for maternal
confounders; newborn factors adjusted for maternal and delivery confounders.
the burden of children with disabilities has not been addressed in the majority of
resource-limited countries. In this study, the findings are important, since they show that children who had
received basic resuscitation immediately after birth had comparable neuro-development scores
to non-resuscitated children. Despite the limited number of children who had
neuro-developmental testing at the end of the first year of life, the findings suggest, reassuringly, that the
provision of basic resuscitation at SMRU has not increased the burden of disability at one year.
This is motivating for front-line staff, and supports the case for rolling out and strengthening
basic neonatal resuscitation at all health facilities where births occur. Although it appears that
newborns given advanced resuscitation have neuro-developmental scores in the low-normal
range at one year, this sub-group was very small, limiting meaningful interpretation. Few
studies have described the neurological outcomes of infants who required resuscitation at birth in
low-resource settings, however the scarce evidence available reported similar findings[20±22]
and encourages the use of basic resuscitation in such settings. It is important to emphasise that
neuro-developmental delays such as cerebral palsy might not be visible in the first year of life,
as observed by Squarza et al., who found in extremely low birth weight children an increased
number of learning disabilities at school age.[
] For this reason, the findings of this research
need to be interpreted with caution, as normal neurological scores at one year of age do not
imply the absence of neuro-developmental delays in the longer term. Data from middle and
low income settings on the identification of minor cognitive deficits, behavioural problems
and longer follow-up periods (school age) in resuscitated children at birth are still lacking.
Future prospective studies with longer follow-up period might help to clarify this scenario.
10 / 14
The use of adrenaline in low resource setting is debatable when the possibility for intubated
ventilation or additional intensive care is not available. In this study, 45% (17/38) of the
newborns requiring advanced resuscitation died. From the 21 survivors only 5 were followed up to
one year. These small numbers prohibit meaningful interpretation of the neurodevelopmental
scores in this group of infants. Future studies could examine the long-term consequences of
advanced resuscitation in low-resource settings, and assess whether the use of adrenaline is
Risk factors predicting an increased need for neonatal resuscitation
Identification of baseline characteristics that increase the need for neonatal resuscitation is
useful for frontline staff planning the deployment of human resources for high-risk deliveries.
In places where skilled human resources are scarce, effective allocation of skilled staff is the
cornerstone of providing good quality-care. The risk factors identified in this study (Fig 4) are
concordant with those described in the literature.[
] Nonetheless, increased allocation of staff
is not always possible, and high staff turnover makes it difficult to keep all staff attending
deliveries updated in neonatal resuscitation. The implementation of a triage system that classifies
pregnancies and deliveries into high, moderate and low risk of requiring neonatal
resuscitation, could improve the allocation of skilled health workers. Although this prioritising system
is currently in place at SMRU, this study reinforces current good practice and adds evidence to
The main limitation of this study is the retrospective design, which limits the capacity to
identify the added value that neonatal resuscitation has in reducing early neonatal mortality. The
small number of newborns who participated in neuro-developmental follow-up reduces the
power of the analysis to detect subtle differences between groups, and, in the case of advanced
resuscitation, prohibits meaningful statistical analysis of this sub-group. Nonetheless, the
comprehensive data collection system, high quality data, small loss to follow-up, accurate
gestational age assessment and standardised neuro-developmental follow-up, mean that this dataset
provides us with some valuable insights.
There are still gaps in the evidence regarding the impact and outcomes of neonatal
resuscitation in low-resource settings. Future studies evaluating the appropriate level of resuscitation
will help to ensure adequate allocation of staff and to identify the equipment and skills needed
in those settings. Other areas to explore are the assessment of minor cognitive delay and
behaviour in children who received resuscitation at birth and the long-term neurological
outcomes of children who received advanced resuscitation. These studies will help to identify the
proportion of high-risk children that will require long-term support in such settings.
Basic resuscitation by locally trained health workers results in comparable neuro-development
outcomes at one year of age to newborns who did not require resuscitation. This finding
supports efforts to scale-up neonatal resuscitation and provide continuous training to maintain
bag-and-mask ventilation skills in resource-limited settings, without the risk of increasing the
burden of long-term disabilities. The identification of baseline characteristics that predict an
increased risk of requiring neonatal resuscitation could be used by frontline staff to guide
11 / 14
allocation of human resources for high-risk deliveries. It is important to acknowledge that
neonatal resuscitation is only one intervention in the continuum of care, and, in order to reduce
neonatal mortality, a multipronged strategy needs to be adopted in the places where most
neonatal deaths occur.
S1 File. Text A. The setting: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU). Text B. Criteria for
performing neonatal resuscitation. Text C. Selection of the variables included in the study. Text
D. The Shoklo Developmental test. Text E. Additional statistical analysis.
S1 Fig. Causal diagram.
S1 Table. Association between maternal, delivery and newborn characteristics with
requiring neonatal resuscitation at birth.
APH: antepartum haemorrhage; LBW: Low birth weight; LGA: large-for-gestational age;
PROM: prolonged rupture of membranes; PTB: preterm birth; SGA: small-for-gestational age.
Low birth weight (<2,500g) and SGA variables were not included in the final multivariable
model because these are collinear with prematurity.
Separate models were fitted for maternal, delivery and newborn characteristics with
adjustment for maternal confounders, maternal and delivery confounders, and maternal, delivery
and newborn confounders in each model respectively.
We specially want to recognize all the team of Shoklo Malaria Research Unit in Thailand, who
had worked hard to collect data and create a high quality dataset and at the same time provided
good quality health care to refugees and migrants at the Thailand-Myanmar Boarder. We
would like thank the Board of ALSO1 Australasia for their support and encouragement over
the years. Thanks to Dr Laurence Thielemans for her support on data queries.
Conceptualization: Sophie Janet, Rose McGready.
Data curation: Sophie Janet, Verena I. Carrara, Nant War War Thin, Wah Wah Say, Naw Ta
Mlar Paw, Kesinee Chotivanich, Claudia Turner.
Formal analysis: Sophie Janet, Julie A. Simpson, Rose McGready.
Investigation: Sophie Janet.
Methodology: Sophie Janet, Julie A. Simpson, Rose McGready.
Supervision: Verena I. Carrara, Jane Crawley, Rose McGready.
Validation: Sophie Janet, Verena I. Carrara, Julie A. Simpson.
Writing ± original draft: Sophie Janet.
Writing ± review & editing: Sophie Janet, Verena I. Carrara, Julie A. Simpson, Claudia
Turner, Jane Crawley, Rose McGready.
12 / 14
13 / 14
1. Matthews Z. World health report 2005 : make every mother and child count . World Health . 2005 ; 33 : 409 ± 11 . ISBN 92 4 156290 0 (NLM)
2. Lee ACC , Cousens S , Wall SN , Niermeyer S , Darmstadt GL , Carlo WA , et al. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta- analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health . BioMed Central Ltd; 2011 ; 11: S12 . https://doi.org/10.1186/ 1471 -2458-11 -S3-S12 PMID : 21501429
3. Kamath-Rayne BD , Griffin JB , Moran K , Jones B , Downs A , Mcclure EM , et al. Resuscitation and Obstetrical Care to Reduce Intrapartum- Related Neonatal Deaths: A MANDATE Study. Matern Child Health J. Springer US ; 2015 ; 19: 1853 ± 1863 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015 -1699-9 PMID: 25656720
4. Lawn JE , Blencowe H , Oza S , You D , Lee AC , Waiswa P , et al. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival . Lancet . 2014 ; 384 : 189 ± 205 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736 ( 14 ) 60496 - 7 PMID: 24853593
5. Liu L , Johnson HL , Cousens S , Perin J , Scott S , Lawn JE , et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000 . Lancet. Elsevier Ltd; 2010 ; 379 : 2151 ± 2161 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736 ( 12 ) 60560 - 1
6. Darmstadt GL , Bhutta ZA , Cousens S , Adam T , Walker N , De Bernis L. Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: How many newborn babies can we save? Lancet . 2005 ; 365 : 977 ± 988 . https://doi.org/10. 1016/S0140- 6736 ( 05 ) 71088 - 6 PMID: 15767001
7. Wall SN , Lee ACC , Carlo W , Goldenberg R , Niermeyer S , Darmstadt GL , et al. Reducing IntrapartumRelated Neonatal Deaths in Low- and Middle-Income CountriesÐWhat Works? Semin Perinatol . Elsevier Inc.; 2010 ; 34 : 395 ± 407 . https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi. 2010 . 09 .009 PMID: 21094414
8. Blencowe H , Vos T , Lee AC , Philips R , Lozano R , Alvarado MR , et al. Estimates of neonatal morbidities and disabilities at regional and global levels for 2010: introduction, methods overview, and relevant findings from the Global Burden of Disease study . Pediatr Res . 2013 ; 74 Suppl 1 : 4 ± 16 . https://doi.org/10. 1038/pr. 2013 .203 PMID: 24366460
9. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines on Basic Newborn Resuscitation. World Heal Organ . 2012 ; 1 ± 61 . NBK137872 [bookaccession]
10. Singhal N , Bhutta ZA . Newborn resuscitation in resource-limited settings . Semin Fetal Neonatal Med . Elsevier Ltd; 2008 ; 13 : 432 ± 439 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny. 2008 . 04 .013 PMID: 18495563
11. Newton O , English M. Newborn resuscitation: defining best practice for low-income settings . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg . 2006 ; 100 : 899 ± 908 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh. 2006 . 02 .012 PMID: 16757009
12. Moore KA , Simpson JA , Thomas KH , Rijken MJ . Estimating Gestational Age in Late Presenters to Antenatal Care in a Resource-Limited Setting on the Thai-Myanmar Border . PLoS One . 2015 ; 1 ± 17 . https:// doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0131025 PMID: 26114295
13. Beasley JW , Dresang L , Winslow DB , Damos JR . The Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO ®) Program: Fourteen Years of Progress . Prehosp Disaster Med . 2005 ; 20 : 271 ± 275 . PMID: 16128478
14. Villar J , Ismail LC , Victora CG , Ohuma EO , Bertino E , Altman DG , et al. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project . Lancet . 2014 ; 384 : 857 ± 868 . https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140- 6736 ( 14 ) 60932 - 6 PMID: 25209487
15. Haataja L , Mcgready R , Arunjerdja R , Simpson JA , Mercuri E , Dubowitz L . A new approach for neurological evaluation of infants in resource-poor settings . Ann Trop Paediatr . 2002 ; 22 : 355 ± 368 . https:// doi.org/10.1179/027249302125002029 PMID: 12530286
16. Hoogenboom G , Thwin MM , Velink K , Baaijens M , Charrunwatthana P , Nosten F , et al. Quality of intrapartum care by skilled birth attendants in a refugee clinic on the Thai-Myanmar border: a survey using WHO Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment . BMC Pregnancy Childbirth . 2015 ; 15 : 1±9 . https://doi.org/ 10.1186/s12884-015-0429-z PMID: 25591791
17. Lawn JE , Cousens S , Zupan J. 4 Million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? Lancet . 2005 ; 365 : 891 ± 900 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736 ( 05 ) 71048 - 5 PMID: 15752534
18. Mcintire DD , Leveno KJ . Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Late Preterm Births Compared With Births at Term . Obstet Gynecol . 2008 ; 111 : 35 ± 41 . https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG. 0000297311 . 33046.73 PMID: 18165390
20. World Bank G. World Development Indicators, Neonatal mortality rate . In: World Data Bank . 2016 .
Wallander JL , Bann C , Chomba E , Goudar SS , Pasha O , Biasini FJ , et al. Developmental trajectories of children with birth asphyxia through 36 months of age in low/low-middle income countries . Early Hum Dev . 2014 ; 90 : 343 ±8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev. 2014 . 04 .013 PMID: 24815056
21. Carlo WA , Goudar SS , Pasha O , Chomba E. Randomized Trial of Early Developmental Intervention on Outcomes in Children after Birth Asphyxia in Developing Countries . J Pediatr . 2013 ; 162 : 705 ± 712 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds. 2012 . 09 .052 Randomized PMID: 23164311
22. Carlo WA , Goudar SS , Pasha O , Chomba E , McClure EM , Biasini FJ , et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants requiring resuscitation in developing countries . J Pediatr . 2012 ; 160 : 781 ± 785 . https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds. 2011 . 10 .007 PMID: 22099522
23. Squarza C , Picciolini O , Gardon L , GiannÁõ ML . Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age . Front Psychol . 2016 ; 7 : 1± 10 . https://doi.org/ 10.3389/fpsyg. 2016 .00001 PMID: 26858668
24. Ersdal HL , Singhal N. Resuscitation in resource-limited settings . Semin Fetal Neonatal Med . Elsevier Ltd; 2013 ; 1±6 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny. 2013 . 07 .001 PMID: 23896083