Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells

Journal of Biomedical Science, Dec 2017

Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group. Treg-of-B cells express LAG3, ICOS, GITR, OX40, PD1, and CTLA4 and secrete IL-10. Intriguingly, B-T cell-cell contact but not IL-10 is essential for Treg-of-B cells induction. Moreover, Treg-of-B cells possess both IL-10-dependent and IL-10-independent inhibitory functions. Treg-of-B cells exert suppressive activities in antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific manners in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the phenotype and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, Th3 cells, Tr1 cells, and Treg-of-B cells.

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Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells

Chien and Chiang Journal of Biomedical Science Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells Chien-Hui Chien 1 Bor-Luen Chiang 0 1 0 Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei City 10002, Taiwan , Republic of China 1 Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University , Taipei City 10048, Taiwan , Republic of China Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group. Treg-of-B cells express LAG3, ICOS, GITR, OX40, PD1, and CTLA4 and secrete IL-10. Intriguingly, B-T cell-cell contact but not IL-10 is essential for Treg-of-B cells induction. Moreover, Treg-of-B cells possess both IL-10-dependent and IL-10-independent inhibitory functions. Tregof-B cells exert suppressive activities in antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific manners in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the phenotype and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, Th3 cells, Tr1 cells, and Treg-of-B cells. Regulatory T cells; Lymphocyte-activation gene 3; Programmed cell death protein 1; Inducible T-cell co-stimulator; Interleukin 10; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4; Treg-of-B cells Background Regulatory T cells are a therapeutic strategy for immune dysregulated diseases and a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, studies have emphasized the roles of CD4 +Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as TGF-β-producing T helper 3 (Th3) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, and others. Accumulating evidence demonstrate that naïve B cells possess the ability to promote naïve CD4+ T cells into CD25+ Foxp3- regulatory T cells with the expression of lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3, CD223), inducible co-stimulator (ICOS, CD278), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1, CD279), and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR). B-cell-induced CD4+Foxp3- regulatory T cells exert the inhibition through both IL-10-independent and cell-cell contact-dependent mechanisms, although they also show IL-10-mediated suppression. Furthermore, these B cell-induced regulatory T cells protect mice from several immune disorders, including graft-versus-host disease, experimental allergic asthma, collagen-induced Main text CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells Sakaguchi et al. demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ T cells contributed to maintaining self-tolerance in a nonantigen-specific manner [ 1 ]. Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinophathy, enteropathy X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a recessive immune disorder. Reports showed that IPEX is caused by mutations of FOXP3 gene, which is orthologouse of the Foxp3 gene mutated in scurfy mouse [ 2–4 ]. Further studies demonstrated that Foxp3 expressed predominantly in CD4+CD25+ T cells than CD4+CD25- T and CD19+ B cells. Moreover, retroviral transduction of Foxp3 in naïve CD4+CD25- T cells converted these cells toward Treg cells phenotype. Thus, Foxp3 has been identified as the master transcription factor of Treg cells [ 5 ]. Thymus-derived Foxp3+ regulatory T cells In addition to Foxp3, thymus-derived CD4+CD25+Foxp3 + regulatory T (tTreg) cells highly expressed Helios, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4, CD152), neuropilin-1, GITR, galectin-1, IL-10, and granzyme B [ 6 ]. tTreg cells could be activated in an antigenspecific fashion and exerted suppressive activity in a non-antigen-specific fashion [ 7 ]. tTreg cells produced many inhibitory cytokines, including TGF-β1, IL-10, and IL-35, to downregulate immune responses [ 8 ]. Furthermore, tTreg cells exhibited cell-cell contact-dependent suppression via latency-associated peptide (LAP) [ 9 ], CD39 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase1, ENTPD1) and CD73 (ecto-5′-nucleotidase) [ 10 ], and cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) [ 11 ]. Reports showed that tTreg cells induced effector T cell apoptosis via various pathways, including deprivation of IL-2 and IL-7 [ 12 ], disruption of effector cell membrane integrity by granzyme B [ 13 ], galectin-1-induced apoptosis [ 14 ], and the engagement of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-death receptor 5 (DR5) [ 15 ]. Additionally, tTreg cells inhibited effector T cell activation via downregulation of costimulatory molecules on DCs through CTLA4 [ 16 ] and LAG3 [ 17 ]. These studies indicate that tTreg cells are a polyclonal population, and the above mentioned complicated mechanisms result in maximal immunosuppression during homeostasis. Peripherally derived Foxp3+ regulatory T cells Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induced in vivo are called peripherally derived regulatory T (pTreg) cells and those generated in vitro are called in vitro-induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells [ 18 ]. Studies demonstrated that CD4 +Foxp3- T cells differentiated into Foxp3+CD25 +CD45RBlow anergic T cells with suppressive functions in the presence of TGF-β1 in vitro as well as in vivo [ 19 ] and rescue Foxp3-deficient scurfy mice [ 20 ]. In the absence of tTreg cells, oral antigen administration induced the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in a TGF-β1-dependent manner [ 21 ]. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue CD103+ DCs played an important role in the de novo conversion of naïve T cells into pTreg cells, and retinoic acid facilitates that process [ 22 ]. Additionally, lung-resident tissue macrophages expressed retinal dehydrogenases, and TGF-β1 promoted pTreg cell induction under steady-state conditions [ 23 ]. Evidence has shown that the tumor environment induced pTreg cell generation to escape immune clearance [ 24 ]. One report demonstrated that tTreg and pTreg cells shared similar phenotypes, and neuropilin-1 serving as a surface marker to distinguish tTreg cells from pTreg cells [ 25 ]. CD4+Foxp3- regulatory T cells The most well-defined Foxp3- regulatory T cells are Th3 cells and Tr1 cells. Th3 cells have been identified as TGF-β-producing CD4+LAP+ T cells exhibiting TGF-βmediated suppression [ 26 ]. Tr1 cells have been characterized by the higher production of IL-10 and IL10-mediated suppressive functions [ 27 ]. T helper 3 cellsl Th3 cells were first found in mesenteric lymph node CD4+ T cells as single cell clones producing TGF-β1 after oral administration of self-antigen [ 28 ]. Oida et al. found that primary purified CD4+CD25-LAP+ regulatory T cells protected mice from T-cell-induced colitis in a TGF-β1-dependent manner [ 29 ]. Tumor environment CD4+CD25-CD69+Foxp3-LAP+ T cells expressed IL-2 receptor β chain, produced TGF-β1, and exerted TGFβ1-mediated functional activity [ 30 ]. Gandhi et al. showed that human peripheral CD4+LAP+Foxp3-CD69+ T cells exhibited TGF-β1- and IL-10-dependent suppression in the periphery in healthy individuals [ 31 ]. Furthermore, human CD4+CD25+LAP+Foxp3- T cells in colorectal tumors expressed LAG3 and exhibited inhibitory functions through TGF-β1 and IL-10 [ 32 ]. To date, the specific transcription factor for Th3 cells remains to be identified. Type 1 regulatory T cells The first study on Tr1 cells reported that naïve T cells repeated stimulation with peptide-pulsed splenocytes in the presence of IL-10 induced IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells with suppressive ability and hypoproliferative ability [ 33 ]. Akbari et al. demonstrated that bronchial DCs promoted Tr1 cells in vitro in an IL-10-and ICOS/ ICOS ligand (ICOSL)-dependent manner in the context of nasal tolerance [ 34 ]. By microarray analysis Tr1 and Th0 cell clones, CD49b, LAG3, and CD226 have been identified as the surface markers of Tr1 cells [ 35 ]. It has been shown that c-Maf transactivated IL-10 expression under CD4+ Th17 polarization conditions [ 36 ]. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and c-Maf facilitated IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells in an IL-27dependent fashion [ 37, 38 ]. Another study reported that c-Maf, IL-21, and ICOS were essential for IL-27-induced Tr1 cell generation [39]. Consistent with these observations, Awasthi et al. showed that CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell-educated DCs produced IL-27 and promoted Tr1 cell generation [ 38 ]. Nasal anti-CD3ɛ antibody treatment induced the expression of IL-10, IL-27, and TGF-β in nasal tolerogenic DCs, which further facilitated Tr1 cell generation through c-Maf, IL-21, and AhR [ 40 ]. Orally antigen treated tolerogenic Peyer’s patch DCs increased the production of IL-10 and IL-27 and promoted the induction of Tr1 cells [ 41 ]. Carrier et al. reported that constitutive ectopic expression of GITR ligand (GITRL) on MHCII+ APCs increased IL-27 production and further upregulated the expression of c-Maf and IL-10 in T cells [ 42 ]. In addition to cytokines, reports have demonstrated that Tr1 cells could be induced by different proteins, different APCs, and different types of T cells. Galectin-1 promoted IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells in an APCindependent pathway by binding to CD45 on T cells and inducing the expression of c-Maf and AhR [ 43 ]. In vitro activation of CD4+CD44hiFoxp3- T cells through antiCD3/CD28 antibodies and IL-2 generated CD49b-, LAG3-, c-Maf-, and AhR-expressing Tr1 cells [ 44 ]. Nie et al. found that long-term stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) conferred ICOSL expression in bone marrow-derived mast cells through NF-κB, subsequently promoting Tr1 cell development [ 45 ]. These reports suggest that the generation mechanisms for Tr1 cells consist of a fine-tuning program. B cells in tolerance induction B cells have been shown to have a role in the fine equilibrium for immune tolerance. Genetically B-celldeficient mice delayed recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suggested B cells might contribute to immune modulation [ 46 ]. Collagen fragments expressed on B cell MHC class II sufficiently delayed the onset and decreased the severity of arthritis [ 47 ]. The role of B cells in oral tolerance has been investigated because B-cell-deficient mice exhibit a defective oral tolerogenic response characterized by lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in the spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissues [ 48 ]. Gutgemann et al. showed that B cells interacted with T cells at the B-T border in the spleen after 4 h of oral administration of proteins [ 49 ]. Furthermore, orally antigen treated B cells have an enhanced ability to induce CD4+ regulatory T cells in vitro [ 50 ]. Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation was characterized by antigen-specific downregulation of the immune response to antigen occurs in the anterior chamber of the eye [ 51 ], and this phenomenon was abrogated in the absence of B cells [ 52 ]. Studies suggested that splenic B cells presented antigens derived from ocular APCs and induced CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells via IL-10 and MHC class II [ 52, 53 ]. These evidence emphasize the role of B cells in the induction and maintenance of self-tolerance. There is accumulating evidence demonstrating that specific B cell subsets modulate immune responses named as regulatory B (Breg) cells by Mizoguchi et al. [ 54 ]. Breg cells dampened immune responses though the secretion of IL-10, TGF-β, directly interact with activated CD4+ T cells, and the production of antibody that neutralized harmful soluble molecules [ 55 ]. Several Breg cells have been described in mice and IL-10-producing Breg cells are the most widely studied [ 56 ]. IL-10 produced by a variety of Breg cells suppressed inflammatory cytokines and promoted regulatory T cell differentiation [ 57, 58 ]. These indicate that B cells contribute to the maintenance of tolerance. In addition, naïve B cells functioned as antigenpresenting cells presented antigen and resulted in T cell tolerance to antigen [ 59 ]. Raimondi et al. demonstrated that adoptive transfer of antigen-presenting B cells four times in a week lead to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells tolerance independent of naïve or activated B cells [ 60, 61 ]. Antigen-presenting follicular B, marginal zone B, and B-1a cells rendered antigen-specific T cells hyporesponsiveness without Foxp3+ Treg cells induction [62]. One study reported that B cells contributed to Treg cells homeostasis and cooperated with Treg cells to ameliorate inflammation [ 63 ]. These findings suggest that B cells play a role in immune modulation and might through the manipulation of CD4+ Treg cells. B-cell-induced CD4+Foxp3- Treg-of-B cells Naïve splenic B2 cells, peritoneal B-1a cells, and mucosal Peyer’s patch B cells have been shown to induce CD4 +CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, which named Treg-ofB cells by our group, without additional cytokines or molecules [ 50, 64 ]. Naïve splenic B cells and naïve splenic CD4+CD25- T cells formed a stable immunological synapse and promoted CD62LhiCD25+Foxp3regulatory T cell generation [65]. In our reports, transwell insertion during B-T coculture abrogated Treg-of-B cell induction suggesting that cell-cell contact between B and T cells was essential. By applying blocking antibodies during B-T coculture, both CD80 and CD86 on splenic B cells were required to induce functional Treg-of-B [ 64 ]. In consistent with above, Etemire et al. demonstrated that addition of anti-CD28 antibody to the B-T cell co-culture decreased the suppressive activity of Treg-of-B cells. Lower activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway was associated with Foxp3- regulatory T cell generation [ 66 ]. IL-10-deficient Treg-of-B cells and Treg-of-B cells induced in the presence of anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibody remained their suppressive function suggesting that IL-10 was not critical for their induction [ 64, 67, 68 ]. These results suggest that the interaction between B-T cells is indispensable for the differentiation of Treg-of-B cells. Treg-of-B cells differ from well-known Treg cells To date, several molecules have been identified for their strong association with Treg-of-B cells that are conserved in single peptide-induced and anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies-induced methods. Treg-of-B cells expressed higher levels of LAG3, ICOS, PD1, GITR, OX40 (CD134), and CTLA4 compared to those on naïve CD4 +CD25- T cells (Fig. 1). Another group demonstrated that antigen-presenting B cells facilitated naïve T cells to convert into CD4+CD25+CD62L+Foxp3- IL-10-producing regulatory T cells [ 65 ]. Our published and unpublished data showed that Treg-of-B cells did not express Foxp3, Helios, or neuropilin-1 [ 67, 69 ], and these also confirmed by using Foxp3-GFP reporter mice [64]. These evidence differentiates Treg-of-B cells from Foxp3-expressing Treg cells (Table 1). Th3 cells are well-known that they exert TGF-βdependent inhibition and express LAP on surface [ 26 ]. Although Treg-of-B cells produced TGF-β compared with naïve CD4+CD25- T cells [ 68, 69 ], TGF-β did not play a role in their suppressive mechanism [64]. In our unpublished data, Treg-of-B cells did not express LAP. These indicate that Treg-of-B cells are different from Th3 cells. Tr1 cells are characterized by IL-10-mediated suppression and the higher production of IL-10 [ 27 ]. In recent years, CD49b, LAG3, and CD226 were identified as the surface markers for human and mouse Tr1 cells [ 35 ]. In our results, Treg-of-B cells produced a higher amount of IL-10 compared with naïve CD4+CD25- T cells [ 50, 64 ]. Repeated stimulation of B cells induced long-term Tregof-B cells with higher expression of ICOS, CTLA4, CD49b, and c-Maf, but not CD226. In addition to the difference in surface marker, IL-10 seems to be dispensable in the inhibitory mechanism of Treg-of-B cells and these would be described in the later section. These observations suggest that this Treg-of-B cell is a new type of regulatory T cells and different from Tr1 cells. In addition to regulatory T cells, Treg-of-B cells did not share characteristics with follicular T helper (TFH) cells. TFH cells expressed BCL-6, CXCR5, ICOS, PD1, and c-Maf and CXCR5 conferred TFH cells migration to B follicles [ 67, 70 ]. Although Treg-of-B cells expressed ICOS, PD1 and c-Maf, they did not express the critical molecule BCL-6 and CXCR5 (data not shown). These indicate that Treg-of-B cells could not migrate into follicle to facilitate B cell as TFH cells did. Furthermore, Treg-of-B cells were hypoproliferative to stimulation and did not express T-bet, GATA3, or RORγt ([ 64 ] and our unpublished data). Treg-of-B cells produced higher level of IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-4 and lower or no IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [ 68, 69, 71 ]. These data confirm that Treg-of-B cells have anergic characteristics and are not proinflammatory T helper cells. Application of Treg-of-B cells The therapeutic effects of CD4+Foxp3- Treg-of-B cells has been described in several murine disease models (Fig. 2). Adoptive transfer of Treg-of-B cells prevented mice from graft-versus-host disease in a murine model of heart transplantation [ 65 ]. Peyer’s patch B-cellinduced ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Treg-of-B cells protected mice from Th2-cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and IgE hyperproduction in allergic asthma in an antigen-specific fashion [ 50 ]. In addition, splenic B-cell-induced OVA-specific Tregof-B cells shared several characteristics with oral antigen administration activated CD4+CD25+ T cells, including elevated expression levels of ICOS, PD1, and CTLA4 and enhanced non-antigen-specific suppressive functions [ 69 ]. Monoclonal antibody-induced Treg-of-B cells prevented mice from osteolysis and joint inflammation in collageninduced arthritis [ 71 ]. Prophylactic transfer of Treg-of-B cells also protected mice from T-cell-induced Th1- and Th17-dominant inflammatory bowel disease [ 68 ]. Taken together, naïve B cell without cytokines or chemical supplements is able to induce functional CD4+Foxp3- regulatory T cells and that B-cell-induced regulatory T cells is an economical strategy for cellular therapy for different T-helpercell-dominant inflammatory diseases. Treg-of-B cells possess both IL-10-dependent and IL-10independent suppressive functions IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine is an issue in Treg-of-B cells suppressive function. As described above, IL-10 does not play a crucial role in Treg-of-B cells differentiation. Chen and Chu et al. reported that LAG3 +Treg-of-B cells produced higher amount of IL-10 and both IL-10 and LAG3 play the roles in their inhibitory mechanisms [ 71, 72 ]. Long-term Treg-of-B cells increased expression levels of CTLA4 and IL-10, both of which were involved in their suppressive functions [67]. IL-10-deficient mice were used to confirm the role of IL-10 in the regulation; however, IL-10-deficient Tregof-B cells remained suppressive activities [ 64, 68 ]. IL-10 seems to be dispensable in the inhibitory mechanism of Treg-of-B cells. Although IL-10 plays a more important role in long-term Treg-of-B cells than in short-term Treg-of-B cells, three-day short-term culture is sufficient for the generation of Treg-of-B cells. These suggest that there might be unknown inhibitory factors in Treg-of-B cells suppressive functions. Studies have demonstrated that ICOS controls IL-10 production and functional CTLA4 expression in Treg cells [ 73–75 ]. PD1 recruits SHP-1 and SHP-2 to intrinsically downregulate T cell receptor signaling, which maintains an anergic phenotype in Treg cells [ 76, 77 ]. Mouse Treg cells constitutively expressed GITR and OX40 and involved the tTreg cells development as well as their functions [ 78–80 ]. All regulatory-T-related molecules on Treg-of-B cells, including IL-10, TGF-β, LAG3, CTLA4, ICOS, PD1, GITR, and OX40, might confer partial suppressive activities to compensate for single blockage or neutralization. The critical molecules controlling Treg-of-B cell phenotype and regulatory mechanisms remain priorities for investigation. The inhibitory functions of Treg-of-B cell depend on the suppressive molecules on the surface or soluble mediators that require short distance. B-cell-induced CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells Reports have revealed the role of B cells in the development of Treg cells. Naïve primary B cells preferentially induced the expansion of allogenic CD4+Foxp3+ T cells rather than CD4+Foxp3- T cells [ 81, 82 ]. Splenic B cells converted allogenic naïve T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the presence of TGF-β and IL-2, and peritoneal B cells induce Th17 cells [83]. Human CD40activated B cells induced the differentiation of CD25 +Foxp3+CD62L+ regulatory T cells more efficiently than immature DCs [ 84, 85 ]. In contrast, reports demonstrated that murine CD40-activated B cells promoted CD4+ T cell proliferation and effector functions [ 86, 87 ]. Furthermore, the frequency of intrathymic B cells correlated with that of tTreg cells, and B cells colocalized with tTreg cells in the thymus [ 88, 89 ]. Intrathymic B cells expressed autoimmune regulator (Aire), increased the levels of MHC class II and CD80, and contributed to T cell negative selection for central T cell tolerance [ 90, 91 ]. Taken together, there are unknown criteria, such as MHC class II-TCR signaling, the B cell activation status, and different types of tissue resident B cells, that may fine-tune the expression of Foxp3 in B-cellinduced regulatory T cells. Conclusions To date, we know that naïve antigen-presenting B cell is sufficient to induce CD4+Foxp3- regulatory T cells without additional cytokines or chemicals in an IL-10- and IL-27-dispensable and cell-cell contact-dependent manner. The expression levels of characteristic molecules differentiate Treg-of-B cells from well-known T helper and regulatory T cells as a brand-new type of CD4 +Foxp3- regulatory T cells (Fig. 1). Treg-of-B cells possess IL-10-depedent, IL-10-independent, and cell-cell contact-dependent suppressive abilities in antigenspecific and non-antigen specific fashions. Compared to long-term Treg-of-B cells, short-term Treg-of-B cells act through multiple suppressive pathways, and thus a blockade strategy would be more easily overcome through compensation by other pathways. Treg-of-B cells exhibit immunomodulatory effects in Th2-, Th1-, and Th17-medated diseases and even allogeneic transplantation. Nevertheless, the physiological conditions or cues necessary for Treg-of-B cell generation remain unknown. What is the fine-tuning mechanism for B cells to induce CD4+Foxp3- or expand CD4+Foxp3+ T cells? What factors determine the kinetics, memory, and maintenance? And, most importantly, how could we use Treg-of-B cells in immunotherapy? Abbreviations Breg: Regulatory B; Foxp3: Forkhead box P3; ICOS: Inducible T-cell co-stimulator; IL-10: Interleukin 10; iTreg: in vitro-induced Treg; LAG3: Lymphocyte-activation gene 3; PD1: Programmed cell death protein 1; pTreg: Peripherally derived regulatory T; TGF-β: Transforming growth factor-β; Th3: Type 3 helper; Tr1: Type 1 regulatory T; Treg: Regulatory T; Treg-of-B: B cell-induced regulatory T; tTreg: Thymus-derived regulatory T Acknowledgements None. Funding This study was supported by the grant from Excellent Translational Medicine Research Projects of National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital (104C101-81). Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Authors’ contributions C-H C performed the literature reviewed and drafted the manuscript. B-L C supervised and critically reviewed the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Authors’ information None. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication None. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and we will help you at every step: 1. Sakaguchi S , et al. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases . J Immunol . 1995 ; 155 ( 3 ): 1151 - 64 . 2. Wildin RS , et al. X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy and endocrinopathy syndrome is the human equivalent of mouse scurfy . Nat Genet . 2001 ; 27 ( 1 ): 18 - 20 . 3. Bennett CL , et al. The immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is caused by mutations of FOXP3 . 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Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang. Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells, Journal of Biomedical Science, 86,