Open Praxis vol. 9 issue 4

Open Praxis, Dec 2017

This Open Praxis issue is an open issue that includes eight research papers and one book review.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

Open Praxis vol. 9 issue 4

Open Praxis 2304-070X Inés Gil-Jaurena 0 0 Editorial board Hemlata Chari, University of Mumbai, India Gangappa Kuruba, University of Botswana, Botswana Thomas P. Mackey, SUNY Empire State College , New York , United States Alan Tait , The Open University, United Kingdom Belinda Tynan, RMIT University , Melbourne, Australia Joel Warrican , University of the West Indies, Barbados Yang Zhijian, Open University of China (OUC) , China INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION - October–December 2017 OPEN PRAXIS Editorial policies Open Praxis is a peer-reviewed open access scholarly journal focusing on research and innovation in open, distance and flexible education. It is published by the International Council for Open and Distance Education—ICDE The aim of Open Praxis is to provide a forum for global collaboration and discussion of issues in the practice of distance and e-learning. Open Praxis welcomes contributions which demonstrate creative and innovative research, and which highlight challenges, lessons and achievements in the practice of distance and e-learning from all over the world. — Open Praxis provides immediate open access to content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Editorial team Editor Inés Gil-Jaurena, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain Consultative editor Beatriz Malik, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain Publisher and contact information ICDE—International Council for Open and Distance Education Lilleakerveien 23 0283 Oslo, Norway Journal history The ICDE Bulletin changed its name to Open Praxis in 1993. In 2003 became an electronic journal. In 2011 Open Praxis is relaunched as an scholarly and peer-reviewed open access journal, hosted by Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) in its first period (2011–2017). Copyright notice Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: a. Authors retain copyright and grant Open Praxis right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in Open Praxis. b. Authors also grant ICDE right to publish a printed compendium of Open Praxis published articles in an annual basis. c. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in Open Praxis. Open Praxis does not necessarily agree with opinions and judgements maintained by authors Introduction to Open Praxis volume 9 issue 4 Inés Gil-Jaurena Research articles The ecology of the open practitioner: a conceptual framework for open research Adrian Stagg Fractal: an educational model for the convergence of formal and non-formal education Larisa Enríquez Mainstreaming use of Open Educational Resources (OER) in an African context Tony John Mays Student Views on the Cost of and Access to Textbooks: An Investigation at University of Otago (New Zealand) Sarah Stein, Simon Hart, Philippa Keaney, Richard White Learning the psychology of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon through on-line practice Marcos Ruiz, María José Contreras The effects of participants’ engagement with videos and forums in a MOOC for teachers’ professional development Fernanda Cesar Bonafini Effect of Tell Me More on EFL undergraduate students’ English Language achievement George Gyamfi, Panida Sukseemuang Recognizing the expatriate and transnational distance student: A preliminary demographic exploration in the Republic of Korea William H. Stewart Book reviews Book review of MOOCs and Their Afterlives Daniel Dominguez 361 363 375 387 403 421 433 449 463 483 Introduction to Open Praxis volume 9 issue 4 Inés Gil-Jaurena Editor for Open Praxis. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia - UNED (Spain) Open Praxis is a peer-reviewed open access scholarly journal focusing on research and innovation in open, distance and flexible education. It publishes contributions which demonstrate creative and innovative research, and which highlight challenges, lessons and achievements in the practice of distance and e-learning from all over the world. This last Open Praxis issue in 2017 is an open issue that includes eight research papers and one book review. 14 authors from Australia, México, South Africa, New Zealand, Spain, the United States of America, Thailand and the Republic of Korea have contributed to the different sections. The first two papers deal with conceptual frameworks and models that can help to understand and improve educational practices. In the first paper (The ecology of the open practitioner: a conceptual framework for open research), Adrian Stagg from the University of Southern Queensland (Australia), after explaining the relevance of local context to interpret open educational practices and introducing Bronfenbrenner’s approach, uses his ecology of development levels to show how it can be used as a framework to undertake research to deeply understand OEP. In the first stages of an ongoing study, the author has applied the framework in four Australian universities. In the second conceptual paper (Fractal: an educational model for the convergence of formal and non-formal education), Larisa Enríquez from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, considering the challenges that universities currently face, presents a model for flexible education that deals with fours dimensions: student-centered teaching, concept-based curriculum design, heutagogy and openness. In an iteration mechanism, this leads to a fractal model. The author provides two examples of application of this model and defends its usefulness to improve education. The next two papers relate to educational resources, one focused on OER and the other in traditional textbooks. In the first one (Mainstreaming use of Open Educational Resources (OER) in an African context), Tony John Mays from University of Pretoria (SouthAfrica), presents a case study in a Kenyan university, framed in a wider research that included other African countries and institutions in the exploration of the transformative potential of OER. Using an interpretive and participatory methodological approach, the author explains the research process and findings in detail, and highlights the importance of aligning the introduction of OER with the overall institutional vision and mission, if willing to become mainstream. In the second one, Sarah Stein, Simon Hart, Philippa Keaney and Richard White [Student Views on the Cost of and Access to Textbooks: An Investigation at University of Otago (New Zealand)] present a survey-based study focused on affordability and accessibility behaviours related to textbooks, undertook in a face-to-face university where traditional (hard copy purchased) textbooks are the main resources used in the courses. Their findings challenge other studies’ results, and the authors express the need to listen to students’ voices and reflect about the changing nature of information provision. The next three papers address the study of three online educational practices and explore their effects on students’ learning. In the first case (Learning the psychology of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon through on-line practice), Marcos Ruiz and María José Contreras from Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia - UNED (Spain) report about an experimental study in a distance course, where students’ performance in the final exam was compared considering their previous participation in an online practical lab focused on a specific content included in the “basic psychology” course study program. The positive results encourage integrating more online apps and practice in the courses. The second case (The effects of participants’ engagement with videos and forums in a MOOC for teachers’ professional development), by Fernanda Cesar Bonafini from The Pennsylvania State University (United States), focuses on MOOC-Ed, presenting a statistical study about the learners’ profile and factors that predict completion. In this particular MOOC, the number of videos watched was not significant to predict completion; and engagement in discussion forums was. The author highlights the implications of these results. The third case (Effect of Tell Me More on EFL undergraduate students’ English Language achievement), by George Gyamfi and Panida Sukseemuang from Prince of Songkla University (Thailand), describes the use of an asynchronous online learning system (TMM) and its effect in the students’ proficiency in English. Initial placement in any of the four levels, progress and final achievement were measured through online tests, and the study shows the improvement considering the different levels, as well as the role of the time devoted to the program. Closing the research papers section, William H. Stewart from Gangnam-University of California Riverside (Republic of Korea), in his paper Recognizing the expatriate and transnational distance student: A preliminary demographic exploration in the Republic of Korea, attempts to recognize a specific type of students in the distance mode, different to the international student, and focuses in the case of South Korea to describe their profile. He also highlights difficulties encountered when undertaking this research about a yet quite unknown population. Finally, the issue includes a review, by Daniel Domínguez, of the book MOOCs and Their Afterlives: Experiments in Scale and Access in Higher Education, edited by Elizabeth Losh and published by the University of Chicago Press in 2017. In this issue 4th issue in 2017, we specially thank all the reviewers who have collaborated in the four issues in volume 9. Their names and affiliations are listed in the full issue and in the journal website ( Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License The ecology of the open practitioner: a conceptual framework for open research Adrian Stagg University of Southern Queensland (Australia) Open Educational Practices (OEP) have gained traction internationally over the last fifteen years, with individuals, institutions, and governments increasingly interested in the affordances of openness. Whilst initiatives, policies, and support mechanisms are evident, there is an ever-present danger of localised contexts being unintentionally unrecognised, which has a negative effect on mainstreaming the practice sustainably. This paper presents a conceptual framework for open research based on Bronfenbrenner’s’ Ecology of Human Development (1979) and asserts that it is through an understanding of complex influences and contexts of practice that strategic and operational processes to enable open education are manifested. It presents the framework through the lens of an emerging research project examining the experience of OEP in four Australian universities which will apply the framework as a guide for not only survey and interview question design, but also data analysis with the aim to inform broader policy development locally and nationally. Keywords: open educational resources; open educational practice; theory of ecological development; higher education; academic development; affordance theory Introduction The term Open Educational Resources (OER) has been researched for fifteen years. Over that time the Cape Town Declaration and the Paris Declaration have reached an international audience, operationalised by global progress in institutional and national policy, legislation, funding initiatives, research projects, conferences, symposia, and communities of practice. Despite this, awareness and capacity-building remain two of the seemingly indefatigable barriers to widespread engagement with Open Educational Practice (OEP). The position of OEP has been at the nexus of educational change as it relates to teaching practice, teaching resources, and the role of the student and teacher in an open and connected learning environment. As student and teacher context and prior experience is accepted as an integral part of constructivist, and connectivist pedagogies, so too should this inform the sustainable, embedded transformation that open education promises. This paper will propose a framework that aligns Bronfenbrenner’s ecology of human development (1979), and Sperber and Wilson’s relevance theory (1995), and situates the resulting framework within the context of open academic development. It is suggested that by examining the practitioner from an authentic perspective, more effective understanding of the key stakeholders in OEP will be possible. The ‘authentic perspective’ sought is one informed by actual, lived practice that recognises the effects of enablers and barriers within an individuals’ environment. It seeks to do so concurrently with an examination of the value proposition of openness in a global educational environment that provides a rationale for engagement with OEP to accompany the proposed framework. Finally, the application of this conceptual framework is considered as it relates to an emerging research project. Open educational practice: a question of context Whilst the promise of OER has been equity of access to education, to reduce the associated costs of education, broader participation and opportunities, and opportunities to raise the quality of education internationally, the priorities for OEP differ by geographic region. The results of an international community of practice across nine geographic areas (D’Antoni, 2008) highlighted the perceived priorities for resource investment to support OEP (Table 1). Whilst there are some areas of common concern, very few of the priorities are listed in consistent order. This is unsurprising when one considers that each geographic region has differences in culture, education, infrastructure, access, and equity of education. respRoengsieonnuamndbers Priority 1 Sub-Saharan Africa Awareness (n=54) raising Western Europe (n=97) North America (n=72) Latin America & Caribbean (n= 28) South & West Asia (n=27) East Asia (n=15) The Pacific (n=14) Central & Eastern Europe (n=10) Arab States (n=8) Awareness raising Communities Capacity development Capacity development Awareness raising Awareness raising Awareness raising Technology tools Priority 2 Priority 3 Priority 4 Communities Sustainability Copyright Awareness raising Capacity development Communities Awareness raising Copyright Capacity development Sustainability Capacity development Communities Research Awareness raising Learning support services Quality assurance Sustainability Communities Policies Communities Communities Communities Communities Research Standards Awareness raising Capacity development Priority 5 (if provided) Quality assurance Quality assurance Technology tools Quality assurance Policies Quality assurance Note that only priorities that were identified by at least 50% of respondents were included in this table. Whilst ‘awareness raising’ was identified as a key issue by many stakeholders, issues such as copyright, quality assurance, research, and even policy were not well represented. When the data is aggregated by stakeholder type (D’Antoni, 2008, p. 25) , the three highest ranked priorities for higher education institutions are research (81%), learning support services (74%), and awareness raising (71%). Capacity development is ranked fifth (66%) and communities and networking is ranked eleventh (of twelve, at 54%). The aggregate data presents a very different priority focus. Table 2 shows the representation by region in the response count. In the aggregate data, North America and Western Europe account for 52% of respondents, whilst others are represented significantly lower such as Arab States (2%), The Pacific (4%), and East Asia (5%). The contextual differences between each region make the aggregated data problematic for international strategies, but when viewed by region, an actionable list becomes more apparent. Western Europe North America Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America & Caribbean South & West Asia East Asia The Pacific Arab States Totals Central & Eastern Europe 97 72 54 28 27 15 14 10 8 325 30 22 17 9 8 5 4 3 2 100 In order to gain traction globally, open education resources, and OEP need to focus on enabling reuse and repurposing for localisation of education. Creative Commons and Public Domain licensing remain key levers for this process, but providing resources in non-proprietary formats (rather than assuming access to software) is an essential part of a sustainable movement. It is this reliance of proprietary formats that have hampered reuse in Sub-Saharan Africa (Muganda, Samzugi & Mallinson, 2016) for example, and a criticism of MOOCs (Godwin-Jones, 2014) which had previously promised to reach new learners. The considerations that drive repurpose-enabled resource and learning design only arise from a combination of awareness raising and regard for the context of other practitioners. Discounting the role of context in open education, however, implicitly empowers a very different, marginalising agenda. Almost a decade has passed since the publication of these research findings, but more recent work reinforces geographic differences in open education adoption. Latin America still focuses on capacity development and policy implementation as government policy making education mandatory and free does not have universal traction, and expenditure on education does not show marked increases (Toledo, Botero & Guzman, 2014). The capacity of teachers to improve the quality of education, especially in Argentina, Chile, Columbia, and Uruguay, remains a priority for action, as does the development of models for creation and dissemination of OER (Toledo et al., 2014), and general awareness-raising (Torres, 2013). Brazil’s government has actively invested in open education, open science, and open government initiatives (Pena, 2015) in response to citizen expectations for transparency, accountability and affordability. African researchers report similar needs for awareness-raising and capacity building (Mtebe & Raisomo, 2014). A 2016 survey (Muganda et al., 2016) found evidence of a strong desire among educators to work with OER, driven by challenges in effectively purchasing and disseminating commercial proprietary learning resources. The priority for community (as noted in the D’Antoni outcomes) has acted as a mechanism for partnerships such as the Open University UK (Mtebe & Raisomo, 2014), and the active participation of OER Africa (2016) in the higher education environment. Recent research conducted in Turkey (Islim & Cagiltay, 2016; Islim, Koybasi & Cagiltay, 2016) mirrors the findings for Eastern Europe; again showing that awareness-raising (this time focused on students), and perceptions of quality and standards were particularly salient. In direct contrast though, Turkish Faculty responded that the greatest priority for action was the protection of their intellectual property rights, and establishing incentives for (re)use of OER (Kursun, Cagiltay & Can, 2014). Across these regions, it can be reasonably argued that similarity remains in articulated priorities, despite nearly ten years of OER research and practice. This demonstrates that local context is still critical to understanding OER and OEP; that is, a universal approach is neither appropriate nor beneficial for increasing the traction and acceptance of open education globally. The affordances of openness, therefore, are interpreted locally, and the practitioner environment mediates the ability of the individual to fulsomely engage with OER and OEP. The role of context The term ‘affordances’ is used interchangeably with ‘opportunities’ in higher education; most often when describing educational technology. Open Educational Resources (OER) are no different. Tracing the term back to Gibson’s (1977) work is useful as it reinforces the need to reconsider language, or at least, purposefully understand and consistently use language meaningfully. Gibson’s lens was ecological physics, stating ‘the affordances of the environment are what it offers animals, what it provides or furnishes, for good or ill (1977, p. 68). That is, the ‘combination of properties’ (p. 67) found in an environment or component of that environment are judged by the inhabitants of the environment, who ultimately ascribe worth or value. As each species of animal occupies an environment niche, pre-existing conditions first need to be evident to support the species to occupy the niche. The pre-existing conditions, therefore, enable the affordances, and also shape ease of use of these affordances. In the same way, pre-existing conditions need to exist in an educational environment (and the levels will be explored using Bronfenbrenner’s work as a lens in the next section) for the affordances of OEP to be judged as ‘worthy’ or valuable’ by practitioners. The extent to which an affordance is evident, or perceived as such, is entirely dependent on environment inhabited by the practitioner. For example, the pre-existing condition of reliable, stable Internet access enables global sharing of resources. The Creative Commons licence is another pre-existing condition. When this ‘combination of properties’ (Gibson, 1977, p. 67) is realised, the affordances of OEP, namely accessing existing resources to save time and build on the work of others, and sharing local content, become apparent. If one has access to Creative Commons licensing, but an unreliable (or inaccessible) Internet connection, the affordances are interpreted differently –and the resulting action– is likewise different. Obviously, the above example is simplistic in its failure to recognise awareness levels, individual alignment with open philosophies, technical proficiency, pedagogical and licensing support, platforms to enable sharing, and even the presence of policies that support (or act as a barrier to) sharing. Furthermore, Gibson explicitly references the environment as shaped by humans to yield certain affordances, especially as they relate to making life easier and more controllable. In the same manner, OEP advocates seek to alter their environments, whether by policy, strategy, or support, to make the environment more ‘hospitable’ to OEP. Interestingly, Gibson does note that in making changes to the environment to benefit one species, others are either disadvantaged, or their survival becomes more difficult. This manifests as a commercial reality for entities that rely on closed or controlled access to proprietary sources of information –such as privatisation of research outcomes, and textbook publishing models– thus positioning free culture and open education as counter-movements to business interests. All of these ‘conditions’ form part of a larger contextualised ecology of practice – thus leading to Bronfenbrenner’s work. Why Bronfenbrenner? Engagement with Bronfenbrenner’s’ ecology of human development and its application to OEP is predicated on value propositions of education requiring articulation prior to an exploration of the framework. Firstly, if we accept the integral role of context in not only OEP, but in education globally, it is accompanied by a commitment to the notion that each educator and learner applies their own experiences, assumptions, knowledge, and values to an educational encounter. Paolo Freire’s pedagogy of the oppressed (1997) notionally rejects education as ‘banking’ – that is, that students are ‘empty accounts’ that are enriched only when the teacher makes a ‘deposit’ (of knowledge). Freire argued that accepting the banking metaphor was tantamount to ‘dehumanising’ the learner by actively discounting and devaluing their existing knowledge and experience in favour of prevailing information (which he linked to education as a tool of the oppressor). Constructivist and connectivist pedagogies explicitly build upon this position by actively applying student-centred learning design. Secondly is the somewhat problematic nature of semantics in the open education discourse. ‘Adoption’ of open practice has become part of the vernacular to describe the process whereby a practitioner accepts (‘adopts’) OEP; with an implied outcome of transforming practice to include openness. A more realistic description would be ‘engagement’; wherein a practitioner explores OEP through the lens of their own context. The outcome of engagement is conceptual and practical alignment between aspects of OEP and the practitioners teaching approach, mediated by influencing contextual factors. It is possible to repurpose a definition of student engagement and propose that a higher education practice is ‘the time and effort that practitioners put into their teaching practice, that leads to experiences and outcomes that constitute success, and the ways an institution allocates resources and organises professional learning opportunities and support services to induce staff to participate in, and benefit from such activities’ (adapted from Garrison & Vaughan, 2013, p. 27). The way in which practitioners are engaged with OEP, and how the institutional factors influence this will be discussed further in this paper. Bronfenbrenner’s work was heavily influenced by Wilhelm Dilthey who stated that generalised laws of psychological process were impossible, and instead argued for a descriptive psychology that ‘would capture the unique complexity of the individual with all its idiosyncrasies’ (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. VIII). Bronfenbrenner sought a middle ground of descriptive and explanatory psychology, believing that explanations of behaviour ‘are to be found in interactions between characteristics of people and their environments past and present’ (1979, p. X). Rather than seek ‘truth’ in laboratory settings, this approach advocated for understanding/comprehending/studying the enactment of behaviours in authentic settings underpinned by the belief that one’s environment is part of an overlapping, complex ecology that includes four distinct inter-connecting systems (described below). This complexity is observed as the inter-relationships between the practitioner and the broader environment (such as whether the local environment permits open practice); discrete parts of the environment (such as the interaction between government proprieties and educational funding); and even between the practitioner and aspects of the environment (such as how national research agendas can be linked to government funding, and how these two agendas then influence the publishing behaviour of an academic). Whilst the ecology is equally as valid for describing the student experience this paper will focus on the practitioner only. The inter-relationship of practitioner and ecology is expressed at four distinct levels: • Microsystem. These are the inter-relationships present in an individuals’ most immediate environment - including peer relationships and the personal working space – that impact on a persons’ development. • Mesosystems occur when two or more microsystems interact and an individual is able to correlate these systems. This could be in terms of expectations of others in the setting, or behavioural norms between settings. Whilst the conceptual bridging can often provide an individual with a sense of shared role across the microsystems, conflict can occur when an individual perceives that two entirely different roles from two distinct microsystems are now present in a single mesosystem – leading to a crisis of role identity. • Exosystems are the larger forces that have an (often) indirect influence over the individual. Institutional policy, expectations for graduate outcomes, requirements of professional accrediting bodies, and changes to work environment or structure are all examples of exosystems encountered by academic staff. • Macrosystem are the highest tier of the ecology, representing culture, socio-economic status, typology of country (such as developing, developed, industrialised, and semi-industrialised). The macrosystem is a societal construct of shared values, history, and identity, and can be altered or reconstructed through generational change. Each level has inter-dependencies and inter-relationships that influence an individual’s practice, assumptions, values, and ability to conceptualise change and development. In an educational setting, all four levels of the ecology informs the practitioners approach to teaching and learning, and frames their response to enhancing, transforming, or challenging their own practice. For OEP researchers, the ecology becomes a map of influencing factors providing a macro- and micro-view of an institution and how OEP may distinctly manifest (or develop) under those conditions, and how perceived role aligns with openness. What is development? The focus on the ecology levels (systems) acknowledges that developmental change is predicated on a change of role for the practitioner –whether actual or perceived– which is supported by the open education literature. Once empowered by a model of scarcity, higher education (and education more generally) has needed to adjust their role as information resources become both easily-accessible, and freely available. One such approach, the ‘pedagogy of abundance’ (Weller, 2011) is founded on changing economic models that are outmoded due to abundance, and non-economic models such as teaching practice. Previous models of education privileged the centrality of the ‘scarce expert’ (p. 226) who was responsible for the provision of informationas-knowledge (akin to the aforementioned ‘banking metaphor’ of Freire). This teacher-centred pedagogy has been challenged by information digitisation and broader access; the result being a repositioning of the teacher in the educational space. Approaches such as connectivist pedagogy (Siemens, 2013) is an example of student-centred learning and teaching which presents a catalyst for re-positioning the teacher – often from creator-of-content, to curator-of-content, and guide. In part, connectivism was a response not only to the digitisation of resources, but also the availability of OER. When a practitioner experiences examples of open practice, this alone can be a catalyst for change in role, as Bronfenbrenner states that ‘active engagement in, or even mere exposure to, what others are doing often inspires the person to undertake similar activities on her own’ (1979, p. 6). The success of these endeavours is contingent on the presence of supportive networks or processes that both present in the meso-, and exo-systems within the ecology and, are valued by the culture or subculture. Thus, the role of mediating artefacts (Conole, 2009), or those people and resources that can explicitly articulate, contextualise, and support open practice (whether as library guides, websites, access to learning designers, membership in a network), becomes integral to successful change and development. Development is influenced by the ability to correlate a range of settings and apply these settings to one’s own environment. Sperber and Wilsons’ (1995) relevance theory asserts that individuals always try to seek relevance in any setting (and thus establish value), and that they will usually expend as little energy as possible (a path of least resistance) to assimilate relevant knowledge into practice. Recognition of the epistemological, contextual, and situational value of change is part of the evolving nature of teaching experience; with relevance as a driving force for individual change in teaching practice. Thus, any type of professional learning support for open education needs to be purposefully and deliberately aligned with the micro-, meso-, and exo-systems of the ecology to maximise relevance, although there is space in this model to acknowledge that macrosystems will influence priorities and desired outcomes for professional learning. Traction for OEP is therefore established through relevance-making, and value proposition. The latter can be reasonably argued as part of relevance-making, but assumes different guises at each level of the ecology, that is, institutional policy-makers may ascribe a different value on openness at the strategic level than practitioners seeking the operational value of openness. When viewed through the lens of professional learning, this applies ‘contextual positioning’ (Amundsen & Wilson, 2012, p. 109-110) to development initiatives. This positioning chooses to focus on activities that will lead to ‘improving or enhancing an instructor’s individual teaching practice versus activities that engage faculty in teaching enhancement as a socially situated practice’ (p. 109), and that support is identified and implemented for individual use. Bronfenbrenner describes development as ‘a lasting change in the way in which a person perceives and deals with his environment’ (1979, p. 3; gendered language retained from the original text). Mindful of this definition, support, relevance-making, and value all become part of a sustainable change in practice – which is not possible without an understanding of context, or the ability to create aspirational realities. Reshaping reality: OEP as aspirational reality Bronfenbrenner was influenced by Piaget’s notion of child development as a series of rationalisations between the self-constructed imaginative world and the ‘constraints of objective reality’ (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. 10), and that this internal environment is in a constant state of refashioning to become more compatible with achievable reality. The highest form of development, he argues, is the ‘growing capacity to remould reality in accordance with human requirements’ (1979, p. 10). This stance is mirrored by Gadamer (1989) in the construction of ‘the lifeworld’ (that an individual is the product of history and culture) that he asserts exists not only as an individual reality, but as part of a communal whole. The lifeworld is therefore influenced by, and able to influence, broader reality. A concurrent, cyclical development process is thus possible as the individual undertakes internal development (such as capacity- and knowledge-building that may alter values and priorities) that allows greater agency for external development within the achievable reality. That is, new realities are more achievable as a result of internal development processes. The role of individual and communal realities is an important touchstone for OEP as it is not just the individual’s ability to conceive changes to their reality (and the means by which to achieve them), but also the positioning of openness. It could be argued that if openness is presented as a too radically ideological reality, it dis-incentivises engagement. Presenting OEP in combative terms (i.e. ‘the battle for open’) or as a ‘disruptive’ idea that will lead to the destruction of traditional education systems may be counter-productive to gaining traction in higher education. A more strategic approach for OEP to gain a significant foothold in higher education is one designed around achievable, local aspirational realities, coupled with opportunities for professional learning and support – all of which requires contextual understanding for success implementation. Ecology, development, and reality: applying Bronfenbrenner an OEP research project Thus far, this paper has established –based on context– the need for a deeper understanding of open education practitioners (both emerging, and established) environments of practice and the manner in which these environments act as enablers and barriers to OEP. The ecology of development has been leveraged as a mechanism for articulating and exploring contextual influences on practice, as well as the role of constructed and mediated realities in development. This approach privileges the role of contextual focus for strategic and operational initiatives related to OEP and provides a lens for communicating the value of openness in higher education, and will be enacted (as described below) by the author as part of emerging research. The role of the conceptual framework is to organise the aspects of inquiry contained within the research project as a way of representing them to an end-user, or reader (Antonenko, 2015). It provides purposeful articulation of the phenomena to be observed, and in whom they will be observed. Additionally, it seeks to represent (often visually) theory that demonstrates alignment between the phenomena to be researched, and the methods employed to do so (Ravitch & Riggan, 2012), as a foundation for empirical research. Table 3 provides a sample representation of the data sources within a proposed survey that are linked to the levels of ecology. Each level provides a conceptual ‘boundary’ for data, but these are porous boundaries due to the relational nature of the influencing factors. When applied to the author’s emerging research on the Australian higher education (HE) experience of OEP, an analysis of the influences on engagement with OEP is sought to establish ‘institutional identities in openness’ across four case study sites. The case study sites have been selected as a mix of metropolitan, and regional; research-focused, and teaching-focused, and a selection of those teaching primarily on-campus, as well as those teaching primarily online cohorts. Each of these characteristics describes a type of institutional focus and environment that may demonstrate differences in the engagement with, and value proposition of, OEP. It is initially hypothesised that even within a single country; contextual differences will be evident based on the key characteristics of the participating institution. Level of ecology Examples Alignment with survey questions Age, length of time employed in the HE sector, professional or academic staff. Degree level taught, primary mode of teaching, ‘ownership’ of course design. Awareness of open resources within their discipline, influence of commercial publisher resources in course design, types of material included in course design. Institutional policy, disciplinary requirements, accrediting professional body compliances. • Demographic questions • Who has the decision-making power over the resources included in your course(s)? • Please tick from the list the types of self-authored resources included in your course (examples include but are not limited to videos, eBooks, textbooks, recorded lectures, study guides). • Please tick from the list the types of commercial publisher-authored resources included in your course (examples include but are not limited to videos, eBooks, textbooks, recorded lectures, study guides). • Does your institution have policies that support openly licensing your teaching materials? • What mechanisms or resources are in place at your institution to support open practices? (select from a list including but not limited to general websites, librarians with specialist knowledge, copyright officers) Individual Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem High-level barriers to OEP engagement, • Please select from the list any national policy, disciplinary culture. barriers you have experienced to open practice (list includes but is not limited to access to internet, access to technology, no support within the discipline for openness, lack of access to specific software packages) The case study method will be used as it supports the investigation of a phenomenon in context (Yin, 2014), rather than seeking an artificial divide between context and activity. It is applied when the researcher approaches continuing phenomena situated in complex circumstances and to examine the behaviour of groups within a particular structure (Yin, 2014). The method therefore directly supports studying and comprehending the complexity of contextual open practice. Whilst previous studies (Bossu, Bull & Brown, 2015) have examined the Australian OEP environment, this was undertaken at the ‘exosystem’ and ‘macrosystem’ levels only. This study uniquely contributes to an understanding of OEP by examining the impact and inter-relationship between all systems in the ecology in order to propose processes for guiding OEP initiatives that recognise and operate alongside local practices. Analysis of the survey indexed against the ecology levels is anticipated to illuminate areas for further investigation through semi-structured interviews with practitioners, referred to by Gillham (2000) as ‘the most important form of interviewing in case study research (p. 85). As the research is positioned to inform change and improve engagement with OEP, the ‘methodology of friendship’ (Fontana & Frey, 2008, p. 117) is intentionally aligned with the desired outcomes. Arising from Kong, Mahoney and Plummers’ (2001) work, the methodology of friendship assumes that the neutrality of the interview as data collection is compromised by complex contextual factors; thus the interviewer takes ‘an ethical stance in favour of the individual or group being studied. The interviewer becomes an advocate and partner in the study, hoping to be able to use the results to advocate social policies’ and change in practice (Fontana & Frey, 2008, p. 117). As openness contains an ideological component, and the author is dispositionally empathetic to openness, this method pragmatically frames the interview component for this research. The research design intentionally embraces the idea that ‘the more methods we use to study [practitioners], the better our chances will be to gain some understanding of how they construct their lives and the stories they tell us about them[selves]’ (Fontana & Frey, 2008, p. 152). It is this deeper emerging narrative of OEP that is sought by engaging with, and implementing this framework. Future directions This conceptual paper forms the model for emerging mixed methods research of the Australian higher education experience of OEP. The conceptual model informs and is interwoven in the mixed methods approach for this research, with explicit links to all questions in the initial survey and the semi-structured interviews that form the secondary data collection phase. A case study approach has been selected for four Australian institutions to provide a deep understanding of individual cases as a basis for a broader meta-analysis. Over the course of this research, the conceptual model will be tested, refined, and re-presented as part of the overall research outcomes. It is suggested that such an approach is transferable across the sector (and to other geographic regions) as it is inherently disposed to revision and repurposing based on context. Conclusion Context is the foundation for understanding teaching and learning practice, and the influences on practitioners are evident at varying levels of a complex ecology. In order to gain momentum, OEP must be positioned in such a manner as to offer a value proposition to practitioners, whilst incentivising change of practice. Successful implementation of any OEP strategy requires a fulsome understanding of this ecology to present achievable aspirational reality shifts for the sector, institutions, faculties, and individual staff, whilst concurrently operationalising support mechanisms to purposefully engage practitioners in professional development related to OEP. Presenting OEP as a direct threat, challenge or radical reconceptualization of teaching role is counter-productive, but institutions should instead seek approaches that are consistent with incremental change aligned with institutional and individual values in education. Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Open Praxis, vol. 9 issue 4, October–December 2017, pp. 375–386 (ISSN 2304-070X) Fractal: an educational model for the convergence of formal and non-formal education Larisa Enríquez Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México - UNAM (México) For the last two decades, different authors have mentioned the need to have new pedagogies that respond better to current times, which are surrounded by a complex set of issues such as mobility, interculturality, curricular flexibility, accreditation and academic coverage. Fractal is an educational model proposal for online learning that is formed by four basic elements that allow higher education institutions to advance in four different dimensions: teaching, knowledge, personal development and access. The elements that make up the model are: student-centered teaching, concept-based curriculum design, heutagogy, and openness. The present work describes the educational model and two possible applications of it in the area of Education, thus giving rise to an option that could transform the curriculum of a degree, while integrating in the formal environment of online education, the space for non-formal education. Keywords: Concept-based curriculum; heutagogy; student-centered teaching; concept domain Introduction For the last two decades, different authors (Tünnerman, 2003; Adell & Castañeda, 2012; Bates 2015; Cobo, 2016) have mentioned the need to have new pedagogies that respond better to current times, which are surrounded by a complex set of situations that require reflection and to re- think about the way we educate students. In the specific case of universities, different drivers of change (both external and internal) are identified, which demand us to consider new perspectives in order to continue developing knowledge, understanding, research and outreach tasks that have traditionally been developed. Among the external factors, we find demographics, technological and labor aspects that have quickly changed the social and professional context, bringing up mobility, migration and permanent training into the scenario. Likewise, we also find internal factors related to the daily activities that occur within the universities. Since the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century, several authors have pointed out the need to adapt universities’ models to those that are more in line with the current context we live in, considering pedagogical methods centered on collective and self-directed work which allow, through curricular flexibility, personal learning paths with interdisciplinary approaches that combine formal and non formal education. These methods should also consider the strategic use of information and communication technologies, not only to provide materials, academic counseling and the development of learning networks beyond the formal classroom, but also to promote scientific and technological knowledge (González-Casanova, 2001; Tünnerman, 2003; Miklos & Arroyo, 2008; Redecker et al., 2011; Bates, 2011). In particular Schuetze, Bruneau and Grosjean (2012) mention: The old, isolated, ivory-tower university is outmoded as universities are driven in new directions. The trend toward networks of research and learning; internationalization with its unfinished agenda; the information and communication technologies with their potential, still largely untapped; Larisa Enríquez competitiveness and the attempt to create market niches; and commercialization have, or will have, effects that are difficult to capture by one single uniform model (Schuetze, Bruneau & Grosjean, 2012, p. 9). At the same time, as there are opinions and specialists who talk about the transformation of universities, there are also experts in governance and university reform who have pointed out the difficulties that the traditional big universities are undergoing in order to renew and reinvent themselves since, in many cases, the internal processes that exist to modify organizational structures and curricula are long and complicated. Having said this, how could more flexible and open educational schemes be offered where formal and non-formal study converged? How can we reconcile the work carried out by teachers with the students’ personal learning interests? What characteristics should educational models on which the new universities rely, have? Elements of a flexible model of education As it has been said in the introduction to this paper, the challenges facing universities are complex and it is believed that is difficult to address all of them in a single proposal. Even Enríquez (2017) points out how this concern has led to the birth of educational proposals, some of which arise within existing institutions that share a renewal interest while other proposals have been born completely as new institutions, under alliances with companies or non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations or, among institutions of education and research. Examples of these proposals are found in MOOC’s (Massive Open Online Courses), Quest University of Canada (, Alternative University in Romaine (, University of the People (, Knowmads (, to name a few. All of these examples have a solid foundation in curriculum flexibility, which also include some other features such as the fusion of standardized contents with individualized content, learner-control with teacher-control, academic community with open communities; giving in this way, solutions that combine formal and non-formal alternatives to build knowledge (if we consider non-formal learning as Rogers describes it). Non-formal learning includes active, participatory, democratic, responsible, reflexive, critical and inter-cultural elements. Non-formal skills tend to be similar to everyday life skills, or at least, to be a means by which individuals can cope with their lives in different contexts. Non-formal competences could be specified in terms of acting as a bridge between formal knowledge on the one hand and informal aspirations, wishes and perceptions on the other (Rogers, in Singh, 2015, p. 38). The educational model presented below is composed of four elements that are considered, to give rise to advance in four specific dimensions: curricular flexibility, adaptability to the environment, pertinence and academic belonging and, ease of access. The central elements of the model to achieve these objectives are student-centered teaching, concept-based curriculum design, heutagogy and openness (see Figure 1). Fractal: an educational model for the convergence of formal and non-formal education The reason and specific focus of each of these elements is briefly described below. Concept-based curriculum design It is common to find, in the traditional models of education, that the content of the academic programs is composed by subjects or units that has generated, among other things, extensive detailed programs that, in the vast majority of cases, isolate a topic from the others. However, if we consider the essential concepts of a curriculum, we can optimize teaching and learning by concentrating on deep understanding of each term which, depending on the context to which it is translated, takes on new meanings (if we consider concepts to be cognitive units of meaning, which arise from the interaction with the environment and the previous knowledge we have, in the moment we relate this concepts with new ones, we can create new knowledge and even new concepts). According to Erickson’s work, concept-based curriculum design not only reduces curricular load in a course, but also helps to focus teaching on general and relevant aspects while making learning methods and strategies used by students more flexible (Erickson, 2008). Erickson herself points out that concept-based design, when it is connected with prior knowledge, brings relevance and meaning to students’ learning while causing students to process facts and skills Methodology Operational Definitions departmental and/or university record keeping can benefit from a slight modification in recording whether or not their distance students live abroad and where. In effect, the result is a blueprint that can streamline future studies in Korea and elsewhere in the world. Given the notable ambiguity in speaking clearly about the GDS population, this researcher developed and proposed a taxonomy based on the student’s relationship to their host country and that of the academic institution (Appendix A). This descriptive relationship is beneficial for two reasons since a) it avoids socioeconomic, cultural, and/or ethnic bias which is easily observed (and exemplified) in the argument between the terms expatriate and immigrant (and the classifications used by Habib et al., 2014) , and b) because it adequately describes the nuance central to the expatriate/transnational distance student phenomenon. Therefore the two terms below are the foundational lenses for this study. • Expatriate Distance Student: A student from country A, sojourning via a non-tourist visa in country B, attending university online in country A. • Transnational Distance Student: A student from country A, sojourning via a non-tourist visa in country B, attending university online in country C. Visibility The expatriate/transnational distance student population, though not a sensitive one, is transparent (Creswell, 2015) . While census data is collected and published by the Korean Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and Immigration Department, there is no obvious way to extrapolate the number of foreign residents who could be expected to complete distance programs online while abroad. This makes random or probabilistic sampling unfeasible (Creswell, 2015; Levin & Fox; 2011) . While data published by the MoJ does contextualize and categorize the amount of foreign residents in Korea by visa type and age (among other categories), and serves as an invaluable point of reference, there is no obvious way to identify the population beyond snowball sampling. For example, as of 2015 the foreign population of Korea was reported at 1,899,519 people or roughly 3.69% of the population (MoJ, 2016, p. 36) . If we examine residents by nationality and visa type, a more complex portrait emerges. Respondents in this study represented four nations (Canada, the U.S., the U.K., New Zealand) however Korean immigration only reports on Canada and the U.S. due to their relatively large number of foreign residents at 25,17 and 138,660 respectively (p. 45). It should be noted that although the foreign resident numbers for the U.S. are considerably larger than many nations (though only roughly 7.5% of all foreign residents), this is skewed by the presence of the American military under Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) visas. When looking at visa type and subsequent issuances, that amount can be more realistically contextualised. The highest number of visa types (E-2) reported in this sample totaled at 16,144 for all eligible nationalities combined (MoJ, 2016, p. 37) . In other words, there are far fewer U.S. citizens living in Korea outside of the military than the numbers would suggest prima facie. More to the point is that the number of foreign residents in Korea is at present a very small fraction of the total population, and the nationalities represented in this study represent an even smaller fraction of the foreign population. The challenge of estimating representative statistics notwithstanding, this endeavor also uncovered difficulties/limitations with identifying expatriate/transnational distance students at this researcher’s own university department’s distance program. While students must provide addresses when applying to and enrolling in the program, many list their home-addresses of record as a matter of convenience, not their current actual residence. A search of the department’s database by an academic advisor produced only a single address abroad, despite common knowledge that there were around 10 students living abroad in South Korea currently enrolled in the program. Thus in order to recruit participants from within the department as a matter of convenience, the survey was simply advertised on the department’s Moodle homepage. The primary sampling plan was to announce a basic demographics survey and recruit participants currently in South Korea. To do so, this researcher built a website to advertise the nature and scope of study. This served multiple purposes such as acting as a simple access point for all related information, along with indicating the initial announcement and subsequent open response period (Andrews, Nonnecke & Preece, 2003; Archer, 2008; Bennett, & Nair, 2010) . The survey was advertised on 13 internet/social media forums that cater to expatriates locally (in addition to word of mouth). Given the context of public social media forums, it was important to establish credibility as a researcher and research project. The website was hosted on this researcher’s university’s server, and all contact was directed to a university email address that shared the same domain name (Perkins, 2011) . The design of the website also took into account advice from the literature for universal access as it was made mobile friendly (Andrews et al., 2003) , and the survey tool chosen, SurveyMonkey, specialized in conducting surveys (Waclawski, 2012) . Moreover, SurveyMonkey would also provide better data security (Barchard & Williams, 2008) , easier logic features, and a question bank to draw from if needed (Waclawski, 2012) . Several revisions of the overview page, as well as the layout of the information were made in order to make it as clear as possible to respondents (Evans & Mathur, 2005) . This researcher also had the survey items reviewed and piloted by several known acquaintances who fit the definition of expatriate distance student as a formative evaluation for wording, clarity, and to point out any discrepancies or errors (Bennett & Nair, 2010; Burford et al., 2009; Morrison, Ross, Kalman & Kemp, 2011) . By observing and timing trial runs, the length of time needed to complete the survey was documented and advertised as an effort to increase participation (Andrews et al., 2003; Archer, 2008; Sinkowitz-Cochran, 2013; Trouteaud, 2004) . The survey ultimately resulted in 25 fixed items that ranged from basic demographics (e.g., gender, age range, area of residence) to characteristics of the academic program (e.g., level of study, location of the program). A 26th item was an optional, open-ended text-box that allowed respondents to add any additional or clarifying information. Equally important was recognizing the complication of respondents potentially having completed more than one program online while living abroad. For such a scenario, participants were asked to simply list the most recent/highest level of study and list additional online programs such as certificates, licenses, or other degrees in the optional text box. The survey was advertised prior to the opening date for two weeks, and collected responses through various channels (i.e. email link, web link, embedded form) for one week following the announcement period. Throughout the collection period, additional reminder-announcements were made, and reminder/follow-up emails were sent to participants who signed up for the survey mailing list in an effort to increase the response rate (Edwards et al., 2009) . Results The initial response count was 38 over the seven-day collection period with 5 incomplete responses. The completed total response rate was n=33. The most effective channels through Survey Monkey proved to be the direct email link (19 responses) for the mailing list, with the direct web link (17 responses) that was advertised on various public and private social media forums coming in second. The embedded survey form on the research project website was the least effective (2 responses). Response activity was also clustered around the opening of the collection period, though throughout the week there was a low but consistent response rate until day 6. This researcher offers the following profile extrapolated from the data. A far more detailed presentation of the demographics is presented in tables B and C in the appendices B and C. • The expatriate/transnational distance student in South Korea is: • Disproportionately male (87.8%) • Most likely single/not-married (57.6%) • Around 35 years old at the start/during the program (45.5%) • Begins the program on average around 5 years of expatriation (60.6%) • Lives in the capital-metropolitan area (81.9%) • Studies almost exclusively at the master’s degree level (84.9%) • Most likely to be studying online in their home-country (69.7%) • Has no prior online course experience (78.8%) • Has a program GPA of around/above 3.6 (69.7%) • The program and field of employment/study are congruous (84.8%) Discussion As an exploratory study, the primary goal was to collect and offer data that was descriptive and indicative rather than anything generalizable to other populations, or anything predictive as was noted in a study with similar scope and purpose conducted by Hughes in 2013. This would allow comparison to other literature regarding characteristics of distance students, and more importantly provide a starting point with insight and context for discussion and further exploration. The general profile of the expatriate/transnational distance students fits the three characteristics of the non-traditional student proposed by Bean and Metzner in 1985, but more relevantly is very similar to the students in studies that Selwyn (2011 a/b) conducted, particularly in terms of age, prior educational attainment, and GPA. Although the data has stated limitations from sampling methodology and sample size, the most salient characteristic that stood out was the gender distribution similar to MOOCs. Broadly speaking higher education statistics tend to have women students/degree earners as a slight majority (Hoyt & Simon, 2016). Although the most recent data published by the Ministry of Justice detailing Korean immigration statistics does not report the gender distribution of visa types, they do provide entry numbers by gender with a majority being women at 55.6%, and by gender and age with there being nearly double the amount of women entering Korea between the ages of 20-29 at 1,060 versus 1,908 respectively, and a slightly higher amount of women between the ages of 3039 at 1,243 to 1,452 respectively (MoJ, 2016, p. 24) . Although these numbers vary from year to year and age bracket to age bracket, there is a large disparity between that of foreign male and female entries. The results for expatriate/transnational students cannot be generalized without the caveat of them potentially being grossly inaccurate, but the gender ratio is definitely not reflected by Korean Immigration statistics (MoJ, 2016) , or general higher education statistics (Hoyt & Simon, 2016) . It is possible that they are mostly male for reasons that are unclear; but this requires more data. Moreover, if universities and/or departments tracked these characteristics, there would be an additional point of reference to compare against local immigration statistics, especially if relying on a sample selected from a single university/department. This researcher has provided a two-way chi-square test to examine the likelihood of a relationship between categorical data; and in this particular case, gender, in table 1. This is appropriate since it does not assume “a normal distribution in the population nor interval-level data” (Levin & Fox, 2011, p. 235) . A basic cross-tab and chi-square analysis suggests that the following potential relationships are statistically insignificant. This researcher offers the reminder that the focus of this paper, however, is on offering the conceptual taxonomy, a practical research method, and highlighting future research avenues and issues more so than an emphasis of the results given the small sample size. The chi-square statistic is 0.0606. The p-value is .805539. The second preliminary data point that stood out was student age. Nearly 55% of respondents reported being older than 35 within the ranges of 35-44 and 45-54 being the most prominent. Bean and Metzner’s (1985) criteria for the non-traditional student all apply (i.e. classified as a part time student, not living on campus, and being older than 24) but arguably to a degree far beyond what was originally imagined, even in the case of graduate students. Living in a different country with a different language and culture for years is arguably quite different from not living on campus. Nonetheless, additional chi-square tests in table 2 suggest some statistical relationships but also reveal the challenge of having low cell counts in several categories. Levin and Fox (2011) noted that the counts per cell should not be too small, although exactly what this threshold should be depends on a number of factors. Notable again was the gender distribution. According to the Ministry of Justice (2016), as of 2015 there were more women entering the nation than men for comparable age categories. χ2 = 4.536, df = 3, χ2/df = 1.51, P(χ2 > 4.536) = 0.2091 Expected values are displayed in italics Individual χ2 values are displayed in (parentheses) Moreover related to age was the length-of-time abroad when students decided to enroll in online programs. It is not widely known what the average length of expatriation is in South Korea but this researcher suggests/speculates from personal experience (having lived nearly a decade incountry) that two to three years is probably the most common. Respondents that have lived in country for a decade or more are quite interesting from this researcher’s perspective as it is unclear as to what the impetus is to complete a graduate degree at such a later point in time. This is detailed in table 3. χ2 = 9.246, df = 5, χ2/df = 1.85, P(χ2 > 9.246) = 0.0996 Expected values are displayed in italics Individual χ2 values are displayed in (parentheses) A fourth point that was surprising was the uniformity in the degree of study. In order to have the visas listed (in most if not all cases), an undergraduate degree is necessary. Thus, studying at the master’s level is completely logical. Yet, for those that already had master’s degrees prior to expatriating to Korea, there are only two instances of doctoral level study, and reasons for this are not forthcoming. However, there were few instances of licensure or certificate programs, or doctoral level study. Some respondents noted that a certificate of some kind was completed as a component of their master’s program, or in addition to it (given the structure of the survey, it was included in the optional comments section). Graduate or professional certificates may not be valued as much as a full degree is. As noted earlier, while master’s level study is logical, there is no obvious reason why those who came to Korea already possessing graduate degrees are not pursuing additional or higher levels of study such as a doctorate, especially if they work in higher education. A brief explanation of the visa categories is described below but not all statuses necessarily have a direct relationship to any particular employment industry. This is exemplified with the F categories of visa, and to a much lesser degree with the E category. Broadly speaking, the visa classifications that participants held are described below, with an additional set of chi-square analyses in table 4. • E1 - University Professorship ο While this is required for official designation as a professor, many working for Korean universities do not necessarily hold this visa and are designated assistant professors or work in other non-credit programs. In practice, this is not necessarily adhered to and circumvented with the E2. • E2 - Foreign Language Instruction in Conversation Only ο As noted above, in practice this visa status is should granted solely for instruction in conversational aspects of a foreign language, although practically speaking many work in areas beyond the scope of the designation (e.g., writing instruction). • E7 - Specialized Skill ο This researcher is personally mostly familiar with E-7 visas for international school teachers (i.e. licensed content area teachers), though other jobs like copy editing or programming can qualify under this broad (if not vague) designation. • F1 - Visiting relatives for an extended period of time ο An ethnic Korean who is not a Korean national might be visiting parents, grandparents, siblings, etc. who are citizens for a period greater than 90 consecutive days. • F2 - Long Term Residency Visa (merit based) ο This is a merit/point-based visa that, among more germaine requirements, requires significant Korean language skill. Holders of this visa are not restricted to any one area of employment. • F4 - Ethnic Koreans who are not Korean citizens ο This visa is often obtained by members of the Korean diaspora around the world who have originally never had Korean citizenship, or whose family left Korea as a minor, or gave it up to maintain/obtain a different nationality. Adoptees also qualify under this designation. • F6 - Marriage to a Korean citizen • H1 - Working Holiday Male Chi-square = 5.64 Degrees of freedom = 7 Probability = 0.582 In briefly scanning the types of programs students were enrolled in, they are almost entirely related to education, which is congruous with the visa categories. Additionally, the geographic distribution of students in the various Korean provinces also reflects the regular population distribution within Korea with about half of the nation residing in the capital (approximately 10 million) or the surrounding metropolitan area (an additional 13 million). Contributions Although this study is a proverbial first step into uncharted territory, it has provided three pillars for future research to build on in the form of a student definition and taxonomy for global distance students, experiences from with a practical research methodology along with limitations/suggestions, and a discussion of avenues for future research below. Globalization has challenged the traditional relationships between nations and people, and with greater patterns of migration and access to higher education, there are new relationships to consider and explore in the domain of distance education and the students therein. The hope is that this paper provides the distance education community with a better way to address distance students as a whole, and more effectively identify and address their needs. Moreover, universities and departments can better tailor programs to meet the needs of such students or simply market their programs more effectively. For example, in the field of education, the Korean context presents a number of challenges to the application of inquiry based learning or selfdirected. learning given that this not the norm in Korean education. How western-based education departments understand or address this for expatriate/transnational distance students remains to be seen. Other legal compliances such as the American FERPA or COPPA do not exist in this context. Similar regulatory/statutory content may ultimately prove to be less useful from a practical standpoint, among other significant differences in how the education system functions, and the perpetually limited roles and influence that expatriate/transnational students have in it as working professionals. This goes far beyond the pedagogical implications for learners that Selinger (2014) described. Other more germain requirements like degree authentication through apostilles and notarization regulations are required in Korea and presumably other comparable requirements exist elsewhere. The question is whether or not universities, their departments, and support services are prepared to accommodate these unique needs that otherwise do not necessarily exist for national students. Limitations Conclusion First was the unexpected difficulty of identifying distance students under this categorization from within a known database (i.e. a department database), in addition to recruiting participants from an in-situ population locally. These hurdles necessitated the use of non-probabilistic respondentdriven sampling that limited the ability to obtain more data in the form of a larger sample, as well as broader applicability. However, as noted by Hughes (2013) in relation to a similarly small sample of 25 participants with international students, “the findings are intended to be descriptive and indicative, rather than predictive or generalisable” and to offer “personalised, contextualised insights” (p. 139). This paper has discussed the complexity and nuance of the global distance student population by clearly articulating a definition of the expatriate and transnational distance student. This distinction highlights this phenomenon’s absence in the literature, as well as the more than likely unintentional but problematic biases in other definitions. The findings presented here provide a first look at how the expatriate/transnational distance student is manifested in South Korea through a simple demographic lens, along with their related academic programs. From this vantage point, both the expatriate and transnational distance student fall in line with other descriptions of distance students in the literature, but also raises questions for which there are no clear answers. The insight and context are meant to serve as a starting point for further investigation to address these questions, and explore others not currently asked. This is envisaged in not only the Korean context, but at a regional, and global scale as well. Future Research There are numerous opportunities and avenues for future research. In a local context, possibilities include expanding the sampling scope within South Korea through more active participant recruiting methods in addition to having a much longer announcement and data collection period. This should more effectively address the relatively small sample size in this study. The demographic study can be replicated in other countries to see if there may be trends among the expatriate and transnational distance student population in national, regional, and global scales, or if there are disparate characteristics from host-nation to host-nation. The sample collected in this study indicated a significant disparity in the gender ratio, but without more data, it is difficult to suggest this is accurate. This scale at which this trend occurs can further be explored. The potential for future qualitative studies such as phenomenological inquiries would give voice to this particular group and provide deeper insight in the essence of a being an expatriate/ transnational distance student that is not widely known. Additionally, exploring why foreign residents are opting to attend university in their home countries when earning a local degree would not require the authentication process that is required by the Korean government for visas and the Ministry of Education for Korean nationals who have earned degrees abroad. Yet as this study indicates, there are students willing to incur the extra work and complexity for reasons unknown. Exploring aspects of isolation would be interesting as well since distance students living in nations with cultures and languages that are different from their own may compound the online isolation often described by distance students more broadly. There is no clear data, either, on the success/ attrition rates of this particular population that would yield insight on why either result is the case. While the sample here reported significantly high GPA’s, how many do not actually complete their programs and why? Such data could inform university, department, and/or program policies, provide better guidelines for academic support staff, or offer suggestions for instructors to adapt curriculum and/or pedagogical approaches for such students. Moreover, given that local academic opportunities exist in Korea at all academic levels, often with generous scholarships for foreign residents, it is not known why students are choosing to study elsewhere. In this particular study, the majority of degree programs were focused on master’s degrees in language education and reputable, nearly 100% scholarship granting programs are offered locally in English in the same field! As distance students, numerous opportunities exist to explore technology specific issues as well such as self-regulation or self-directedness in a virtual environment situated in a foreign culture. In short, there is a virtually limitless horizon to explore and numerous future discussions to have. This researcher hopes to start that discussion by providing a taxonomy to identify and describe expatriate and transnational distance students in a way that is practical, equitable, and globally applicable, share experiences of expected challenges that may be proactively addressed in light of this study, and to inspire the distance education community to explore national, regional, and global trends that are intrinsic to the expatriate and transnational distance student phenomenon. Table A: Proposed Concepts and Definitions Term Appendices Appendix A Global Distance Students (GDS) International Student Expatriate Student Transnational Student Face-to-Face Distance Face-to-Face Distance Face-to-Face Distance To encompass all subcategories of international, expatriate, and transnational distance students A student who requires a student visa to attend the institution onsite. A student who is designated as an international student by proxy of citizenship that is different from that of the institution’s country. No visa is needed to attend online and the student resides in their home country of citizenship. A student who does NOT require a student visa to attend the institution onsite by proxy of another non-tourist sojourn status (e.g., working visa, residency visa, dependant visa). A student who does NOT require a student visa to attend the institution at a distance by virtue of having the same citizenship as the the institute, and sojourns abroad with a legal non-tourist status (e.g., work visa, residency visa, dependant visa). A student that lives in a geographically dense or deliberately connected group of nations where commuting to country C is possible, while living in country B, and having citizenship from country A. (e.g., the EU). A visa may or may not be necessary for student status. A student whose nationality is different from both their current legal residency, and neither have a visa or citizenship of the institution they are studying at (i.e. a national of nation A, sojourning via a non-tourist visa in nation B, attending a university in nation C). They are designated as an international student by the institution but have local non-tourist sojourn status. Distance student classification Nationality Gender Relationship status Age while completing the program in country Visa status during the program Geographic location within Korea Appendix B Employment Status Number of prior earned degrees (Bachelor’s and higher) Prior distance course programs taken Principal industry of employment Length of expatriation in Korea at time of the program Average number of courses taken per semester Grade point average Geographic location of the program Type of institution Program delivery method Level of study Cost of program in local currency (1 million won = app. 900 USD) Length of academic semester Major/focus of program Table C (Continues...): Characteristics of participant’s academic programs Academic program characteristics % of total B. Information Science & Technology 3 Ed.D. Literacy, Culture, & Language Education 3 Ed.D. Educational Technology 3 DELTA Certificate 3 Teacher Licensure 3 Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Open Praxis, vol. 9 issue 4, October–December 2017, pp. 483–484 (ISSN 2304-070X) Book review of MOOCs and Their Afterlives Losh, E. (ed.). (2017). MOOCs and Their Afterlives: Experiments in Scale and Access in Higher Education. University of Chicago Press. 384 pages. ISBN: 978-0226469454. Reviewed by: Daniel Domínguez Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia – UNED (Spain) What was once known as open and distance learning is now almost entirely incorporated into the conceptual framework of massive open online courses (MOOCs). It is well known that MOOCs are not always courses, nor always open, nor always massive. There are a wide variety of MOOCs, making it difficult to establish a clear definition according to course type. Nevertheless, MOOCs currently serve as a frame of reference for discussing digital education. This book attempts to enlighten the reader about the MOOC phenomenon by carrying out a rigorous exploration of this conceptual and applied amalgam. The aim of this book is to carry out a review of the experimental work carried out in the field of digital learning. The information included should assist the reader in identifying what are known as the “afterlives of the MOOCs”. The editor’s main achievement was to categorize cases and experiences according to theme. The chapters found in “Part 1: Data Driven Education” focus on issues of scale. Scale has historically been a significant challenge for open & online learning experiences. In the early years of distance education, scale was considered to be double advantageous. First, distance courses initiatives facilitated access to learning, mainly in higher education, to a greater number of people. And also, the scalable organizational methodologies simplified course management and institutional logistics through incremental processes that could respond to the demands of a growing number of enrolled students. These two approaches now add a new one, related to the management —also “scalable”— of the data generated in digital learning practices. Here too, the scale functions in two directions. On the one hand, information analytics facilitates the provision of personalized learning services to large and heterogeneous groups of students. On the other hand, by receiving direct attention, smaller groups of students can benefit from knowing about behaviour patterns that have been elucidated through data science techniques. This section may be of interest to designers of institutional courses for large groups of students (xMOOCs?) and instructional design professionals. The chapters in “Part 2: Connected Learning” cover connected learning experiences and delve into the learning theories that are applied in the design of MOOCs. There are varying approaches to “connectivity” in the different education theories. One approach gives rise to “connectivist” MOOCs, which are based on Connectivism Theory. Some courses, however, are based on Connected Daniel Domínguez Learning. These rely on peer collaboration, are guided by student interest, and are open to a network of community actors. Examples of both approaches can be found this section. “Part 3: Openness and Critical Pedagogy” covers alternative theoretical approaches that give rise to practices that have a cross-conceptual basis. This cross-conceptual approach is observed in the case of feminist and critical theories, which encourage the creation of peer communities that reject the figure of the professor/instructor and seek alternatives to the traditional banking and industrial models of knowledge dissemination that are characteristic of conventional digital distance learning environments. Cross-conceptual approaches are also seen in theories that are centred on opening up the didactic process and community participation in course development. The book ends with “Part 4: The Pathos of the MOOC Moment” and “Part 5: MOOC Critiques”. These sections deal with some of the problematic aspects of the emergent field of MOOCs from a variety of perspectives. Some of the subjects covered are: the perceived paternalism associated with the digital universalization of education, the paradoxical feelings students have of isolation versus companionship when studying in digital spaces, and the externalization of education, which can lead to the platforms and data falling into the hands of profit-seeking corporations. The subjects covered in this section are quite diverse, perhaps too diverse. In summary, this book reflects the current state of MOOCs, their doctrines, their potential, and the questions they precipitate. This text will be especially interesting for education professionals interested in designing and participating in an open online course. This book should also interest educational institution administrators that want to expand their field of action into the terrain of the Internet or who want to innovate online experiences that are already in place. The principal value of this book is that it allows the reader to understand the current reality of open and distance learning, a reality that has already gone beyond MOOCs. Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Open Praxis, vol. 9 issue 4, October–December 2017, pp. 485–486 (ISSN 2304-070X) List of reviewers 2017 (volume 9) In alphabetical order Bernard Nkuyubwatsi, EUCLID University, Rwanda Ebba Ossiannilsson, Ossiannilsson Quality in Open Online learning (QOOL) Consultancy, Sweden Brenda Padilla Rodríguez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, México Nicola Pallitt, University of Cape Town, South Africa Michael Paskevicius, University of Victoria, Canada Luis Pedro, University of Aveiro, Portugal Ayesha Perveen, Virtual University of Pakistan, Pakistan Juliana Elisa Raffaghelli, Istituto per le Tecnologie Didattiche - CNR, Italy Fernando Ramos, University of Aveiro, Portugal Kristen Rebmann, San Jose State University, USA Octavio Reyes, Universidad Virtual del Estado de Guanajuato (UVEG), Mexico Silvar Ribeiro, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Brasil Vivien Rolfe, University of the West of England, United Kingdom Du Ruo, The Open University of China, China Mohsen Saadatmand, University of Helsinki, Finland Thomas Salmon, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa Ramesh Chander Sharma, Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, India Saunand Somasi, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Stefano Stefan, University of California, Irvine, USA Christian Stracke, Open Universiteit (OUNL), The Netherlands Chryssoula Themelis, Lancaster University, United Kingdom Gemma Tur, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain Inge de Waard, Open University, United Kingdom Sukaina Walji, University of Cape Town, South Africa Egbert Weisheit, Studienseminar Gymnasien (Teacher Education College), Kassel, Germany Muhammad Zaheer, Virtual University of Pakistan, Pakistan Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License OPEN PRAXIS Allen , I. E. , & Seaman , J. ( 2013 ). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States . Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from Allen , I. E. , Seaman , J. , Poulin , R. , & Straut , T. T. ( 2016 ). Online report card: Tracking online education in the United States . Retrieved from Andrews , D. , Nonnecke , B. , & Preece , J. ( 2003 ). Electronic survey methodology: A case study in reaching hard-to-involve Internet users . International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction , 16 , 185 - 210 . 04 Aragon , S. R. , & Johnson , E. S. ( 2008 ). Factors influencing completion and noncompletion of community college online courses . American Journal of Distance Education , 22 , 146 - 158 . Archer , T. M. ( 2008 ). Response rates to expect from web-based surveys and what to do about it . Journal of Extension , 46 . Retrieved from Barchard , K. A. , & Williams , J. ( 2008 ). Practical advice for conducting ethical online experiments and questionnaires for United States psychologists . Behavior Research Methods , 40 , 1111 - 1128 . 1111 Bean , J. P. & Metzner , B. S. ( 1985 ). A conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition . Review of Educational Research , 55 , 485 - 540 . Bennett , L. , & Nair , C. S. ( 2010 ). A recipe for effective participation rates for web-based sur - veys . Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35 , 357 - 365 . 02930802687752 Burford , B. , Hesketh , A. , Wakeling , J. , Bagnall , G. , Colthart , I. , Illing , J. , et al. ( 2009 ). Asking the right questions and getting meaningful responses: 12 tips on developing and administering a questionnaire survey for healthcare professionals . Medical Teacher , 31 , 207 - 211 . http://doi. org/10.1080/01421590802225762 Creswell , J. W. ( 2015 ). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Dumais , S. A. , Rizzuto , T. E. , Cleary , J. , & Dowden , L. ( 2013 ). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first-and continuing-generation college students . American Journal of Distance Education , 27 , 100 - 110 . Edwards , P. J. , Roberts , I. , Clarke , M. J. , DiGuiseppi, C. , Wentz , R. , Kwan , I. , et al. ( 2009 ). Methods to increase response to postal and electronic questionnaires . Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 3 , Art. No.: MR000008 . Erichsen , E. A. , & Bolliger , D. U. ( 2010 ). Towards understanding international graduate student isolation in traditional and online environments . Educational Technology Research and Development , 59 , 309 - 326 . Evans , J. R. , & Mathur , A. ( 2005 ). The value of online surveys . Internet Research , 15 , 195 - 219 . Froese , F. J. ( 2012 ). Motivation and adjustment of self-initiated expatriates: The case of expatriate academics in South Korea . The International Journal of Human Resource Management , 23 , 1095 - 1112 . 2011 .561220 Gemmell , I. , Harrison , R. , Clegg , J. , & Reed , K. ( 2013 ). Internationalisation in online distance learning postgraduate education: A case study on student views on learning alongside students from other countries . Innovations in Education and Teaching International , 52 , 137 - 147 . 10.1080/14703297. 2014 .881264 Habib , L. , Johannesen , M. , & Øgrim , L. ( 2014 ). Experiences and challenges of international students in technology-rich learning environments . Journal of Educational Technology & Society , 17 , 196 - 206 . Hachey , A. C. , Wladis , C. W. , & Conway , K. M. ( 2013 ). Balancing retention and access in online courses: Restricting enrollment … Is it worth the cost ? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice , 15 , 9 - 36 . Hall , E. T. ( 1959 ). The silent language . New York: Doubleday. Hall , E. T. ( 1976 ). Beyond culture . New York: Doubleday. Hoyt , C.L. , &, Simon , S. ( 2016 ). Gender and leadership . In P.G. Northouse (Ed.). Leadership theory and practice (pp. 397 - 426 ). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Hughes , H. ( 2013 ). International students using online information resources to learn: complex experience and learning needs . Journal of Further and Higher Education , 37 , 126 - 146 . http://doi. org/10.1080/0309877X. 2011 .644778 Kauffman , H. ( 2015 ). A review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learning . Research in Learning Technology , 23 . 26507 Kaupp , R. ( 2012 ). Online penalty: The impact of online instruction on the Latino-White achievement gap . Journal of Applied Research in the Community College , 12 , 8 - 16 . Kelly , K. L. , & Schorger , J. R. ( 2003 ). Putting the DISTANCE in distance education: An international experience in rural special education personnel preparation . Rural Special Education Quarterly , 22 , 1 - 11 . Lee , D. Y. ( 2011 ). Korean and foreign students' perceptions of the teacher's role in a multicultural online learning environment in Korea . Educational Technology Research and Development , 59 , 913 - 935 . Lewis , R. ( 2010 ). When cultures collide: Leading across cultures . United Kingdom: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Levin , J. , & Fox , J. A. ( 2011 ). Elementary statistics in social research: The essentials . Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Liu , S. Y. , Gomez , J. , & Yen , C. J. ( 2009 ). Community college online course retention and final grade: Predictability of social presence . Journal of Interactive Online Learning , 8 , 165 - 182 . Lorenzo , G. ( 2015 ). A research review about online learning: Are students satisfied? Why do some succeed and others fail? What contributes to higher retention rates and positive learning outcomes? Internet Learning , 1 , 44 - 54 . Ministry of Justice [MoJ] ( 2016 ). Korean Immigration Service Statistics . 1 - 1055 . Retrieved from http:// strNbodCd=noti0096&strOrgGbnCd=10 4000 &strFilePath=imm/&strRtnURL=IMM_ 6050 &strNbodCdGbn=&strType=&strAllOrgYn=N Morrison , G. R. , Ross , S. M. , Kalman , H. K. , & Kemp , J. E. ( 2011 ). Designing effective instruction (6th ed .). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Packham , G. , Jones , P. , Miller , C. , & Thomas , B. ( 2004 ). E-learning and retention: Key factors influencing studentwithdrawal . Education+Training , 46 , 335 - 342 . Perkins , R. A. ( 2011 , June 24). Using research-based practices to increase response rates of webbased surveys . Educause Review . Retrieved from -to-increase-response-rates-of-webbased-surveys Pollock , D. C. , & Van Reken, R. ( 2009 ). Third culture kids: Growing up among worlds . Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Roblyer , M. D. , & Davis , L. ( 2008 ). Predicting success for virtual school students: Putting researchbased models into practice . Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration , 11 . Retrieved from Selinger , M. ( 2004 ). Cultural and pedagogical implications of a global e-learning programme . Cambridge Journal of Education , 34 , 223 - 239 . Selwyn , N. ( 2011a ). Digitally distanced learning: A study of international distance learners' (non)use of technology . Distance Education , 32 , 85 - 99 . 2011 .565500 Selwyn , N. ( 2011b ). “Finding an appropriate fit for me”: Examining the (in)flexibilities of international distance learning . International Journal of Lifelong Education , 30 , 367 - 383 . 80/02601370. 2011 .570873 Simonson , M. , Smaldino , S. , Albright , M. , & Zvacek , S. ( 2012 ). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed .) Boston, MA: Pearson. Sinkowitz-Cochran , R. L. ( 2013 ). Survey design: To ask or not to ask? That is the question ... Clinical Infectious Diseases , 56 , 1159 - 1164 . Stoessel , K. , Ihme , T. A. , Barbarino , M. L. , Fisseler , B. , & Stürmer , S. ( 2015 ). Sociodemographic diversity and distance education: Who drops out from academic programs and why? Research in Higher Education, 56 , 228 - 246 . Trouteaud , A. R. ( 2004 ). How you ask counts: A test of Internet-related components of response rates to a web-based survey . Social Science Computer Review , 22 , 385 - 392 . http://doi. org/10.1177/0894439304265650 Tyler-Smith , K. ( 2006 ). Early attrition among first time eLearners: A review of factors that contribute to drop-out, withdrawal and non-completion rates of adult learners undertaking eLearning programmes . Journal of Online learning and Teaching , 2 , 73 - 85 . Waclawski , E. ( 2012 ). How I use it: Survey Monkey . Occupational Medicine , 62 , 477 - 477 . http://doi. org/10.1093/occmed/kqs075 Xu , D. , & Jaggars , S. S. ( 2013 ). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas . CCRC Working Paper No. 54 . Community College Research Center, Columbia University. Retrieved from adaptability-to -online-learning .pdf Yoo , S. J. , & Huang , W. D. ( 2013 ). Engaging online adult learners in higher education: Motivational factors impacted by gender, age, and prior experiences . The Journal of Continuing Higher Education , 61 , 151 - 164 . 2013 .836 Ziguras , C. ( 2008 ). Cultural and contextual issues in the evaluation of transnational distance education . In T. Evans, M. Haughey , & D. Murphy (Eds.), International handbook of distance education (pp. 639 - 653 .). United Kingdom: Emerald.

This is a preview of a remote PDF:

Inés Gil-Jaurena (ed.), various authors. Open Praxis vol. 9 issue 4, Open Praxis, 2017, 361-484, DOI: 10.5944/openpraxis.9.4.810