Performance Based Evaluation of Carbonation Resistance of Concrete According to Various Curing Conditions from Climate Change Effect
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
Performance Based Evaluation of Carbonation Resistance of Concrete According to Various Curing Conditions from Climate Change Effect
Jang-Ho Jay Kim
Recently, extreme climate change has been occurring globally not only in the simple form of temperature increases but also in a wide range of extreme climatic events, such as abnormal drought conditions and frequent typhoons. Among these various events, the greatest problem is found in global warming. The earth's temperature has risen since the period of rapid industrial growth in the 1970s, and global warming occurs at the local level of regions and cities as well as the national level. The greenhouse gases that influence global warming include various types of chemical components, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). In addition, climate change is extending the construction period of concrete structures. Whereby increasing related economic losses. Pushing through construction projects without considering climate change is leading to concrete quality deterioration, causing poor constructions and consequently resulting in humans casualties and property damage. In particular, atmospheric CO2 generates calcium carbonate by reacting with concrete hydration products. This result is reinforcing bar corrosion and concrete durability reduction due to lowered alkalinity. Therefore, in this study, concrete durability performance with respect to carbonation resistance from curing conditions change due to wind speed and sunlight exposure time is evaluated. Based on concrete carbonation resistance data obtained using curing conditions of various wind speed and sunlight exposure time, performance based evaluation (PBE) is performed using the satisfaction curve (SC) developed from the carbonation resistance test results. Using the developed PBE of concrete performance, future concrete performance is predicted based on future climate scenario. Also, the concrete mix design solutions to the concrete performance degradation due to climate change effect is proposed.
satisfaction curve; performance based evaluation; concrete; carbonation resistance; climate change
Extreme climate change takes the form of geographically
diverse environmental conditions. The causes of climate
change can largely be divided into natural factors and human
factors. Natural factors include the increase in aerosol due to
solar activity, solar radiation, and volcanic eruptions, while
human factors include the excessive use of fossil fuels and
. The various consequences of
climate change include extreme climatic events such as super
typhoons, extreme snowfall, and heat waves, and in fact, the
frequency of such events is rising rapidly globally. Therefore,
construction technology and standards to respond to the
climate change that is currently occurring are urgently needed. In
addition, the Earth‘s temperature has risen since the period of
rapid industrial growth in the 1970s. This climate change has
caused a variety of problems, the most serious of which is the
increase in the average temperature due to global warming.
Moreover, the greenhouse gases that influence global warming
include various types of chemical components, such as CO2,
PFCs, N2O, and CH4
(Pachauri and Meyer 2014; Stoker et al.
. In particular, among the greenhouse gases, CO2
accounts for approximately 90%, and it can have a significant
impact on reinforced concrete. As a construction material,
concrete has exceptional durability performance, and it
accounts for over 70% of constructional materials used in
building infrastructures. However, concrete curing performance
may decrease due to physical and chemical factors depending
on the exposed environment. In particular, atmospheric CO2
generates calcium carbonate by reacting with concrete
hydration products. This results in the corrosion of reinforcing bars
and reduced concrete durability due to lowered alkalinity
(Chang and Chen 2006; Lo and Lee 2002; Fattuhi 1988;
AlKhaiat and Fattuhi 2002)
. As concrete carbonation occurs
slowly in a long term in terms of reaction rate, a great deal of
time and effort are required for measurement
(Kim et al. 2008;
Kwon et al. 2007; Jung and Kim 2010)
. Therefore, in this
study, concrete durability performance with respect to
carbonation resistance from curing conditions change due to wind
speed and sunlight exposure time. Concrete carbonation
resistance experiments are performed. Using wind speed and
sunlight exposure time. Also, performance based evaluation
(PBE) through the satisfaction curve (SC) based on the
carbonation resistance test results are performed. In addition, PBE
will be conducted along with future climate scenario for 2050,
and comparative analysis with past data.
Equation (3) can be summarized as Eq. (4).
2. Performance Based Evaluation
The PBE used in this study creates a SC using the Bayesian
(Phan et al. 2012; Kim et al. 2011 2012)
which uses information obtained from sampling, and uses no
other information than that obtained from sampling when
making a statistical inference. In addition, the method for
decision-making based on the information obtained
statistically in an uncertain situation, as used in this study, is based
(and sometimes relies) on the Bayesian probability method.
For example, based on the experimental data obtained on
wind speed and sunlight exposure time as concrete curing
conditions, for which existing studies are lacking, this study
predicts durability performance using Bayesian probability.
When durability performance is verified using this method,
casualties and property damages can be prevented.
According to the Bayesian theorem
(Ang and Tang 1984;
Box and Tiao 1973)
, if Event A occurrs and is classified into
Group B in the past, when the same Event A occurs in the
future, it is likely to be placed in Group B.
PðWijAÞ ¼ PðAjWiÞPðWiÞ=PðAÞ
Equation (1) represents posterior probability. As described
above, P(Wi|A) is the probability of an individual incident
belonging to Wi when the individual incident has Trait A.
When it is assumed that a total group of incidents is divided
into two groups of incidents, W1 and W2, the following
equation is established.
PðW1jAÞ þ PðW2jAÞ ¼ 1
This is because an individual incident certainly belongs to
either W1 or W2. When it is assumed that P(W1|A) = 0.7 and
P(W2|A) = 0.3 based on existing data, and a new individual
incident with Trait A is encountered in the future, A can be
classified as W1. Accordingly, when an individual incident has
Trait A, it is predicted that A would belong to the Wi with the
largest P(Wi|A) value. When it is assumed that P(W1|A) \
P(W2|A), it can be predicted that A belongs to Group W2.
Replacing both the right and left sides using Eq. (1) results in
Equation (4) represents the Bayesian theorem. When a
known individual incident has Trait A, the individual
incident can be determined whether it belongs to W1 or W2
using Eq. (4) based on which side of the equation is larger;
that is, the individual belongs to W1 if the left side of Eq. (4)
is larger and W2 if the right side is larger. The left side of
Eq. (4) is the likelihood ratio and the right side is the
threshold where both values can be obtained from past
experiences. In conclusion, a group of incidents is
determined depending on whether the likelihood ratio exceeds the
In addition, the PBE method conducts evaluation using a
SC, and is similar to the Fragility curve that utilizes
Bayesian method and is used in seismic performance evaluation
(Ang and Tang 1984; Box and Tiao 1973)
proposed the concept of the fragility curve using Bayesian
statistical method in evaluating vulnerability of a structure to
(Shinozuka et al. 2000, 2001; Singhal and
Kiremidjian 1988, 1996)
The fragility method developed by Shinozuka and Singhal
uses a fragility curve in evaluating the vulnerability of a
bridge or a structure probabilistically, and represents
conditional probabilities of an excess property in relation to a
limit target, such as a collapse of a structure in relation to
ground vibration intensity, using a normal distribution
function curve. Means and log standard deviations are
estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation equation
shown in Eq. (5).
FðaiÞ 1 xi
Here, F(.) denotes the fragility curve at a specific damage
stage, ai denotes the value of Peak Ground Acceleration
(PGA) for the bridge, i and xi is determined as 0 or 1
according to the damage to the bridge below the PGA value
ai and N is determined as the total number of bridges
surveyed after an earthquake. Under the assumptions of the
commonly used log normal distribution, F(a) can take the
form as shown in Eq. (6).
Here, a denotes PGA and U[.] denotes standardized
normal distribution function. In Eq. (6), c and f are the values
obtained to maximize lnL, which is expressed as Eq. (7).
Since SC is a statistical method to determine the success or
failure of a chosen variable using the satisfaction ratio
between 0.0 and 1.0, a large number of data are required.
However, experimental data required for creating a SC are
usually insufficient. In order to overcome this limitation, a
normal distribution curve is generated using actual
experimental data. Then, virtual data are derived from the curve.
F(a) ¼ U
d ln L
d ln L
The virtual data generation method that is used for this study
is explained in detail in a publication on SC development
(Kim et al. 2012)
This study aims to determine the changes in material
properties of concrete due to climate change using the PBE
method by generating SC that represent the changes in wind
speed and sunlight exposure time, as climate change factors
that can have greatest impacts on material properties of
3. Experimental Details
3.1 Mixture Conditions
The concrete mixing table used in this study is shown in
Table 1, and the mixing design was the maximum size of
coarse aggregate at 25 mm, water–cement ratio at 55%,
slump at 120 ± 2 mm, and 28-day target design strength at
27 MPa. Regarding concrete specimens for compressive
strength experiment and slump experiment, 100 9 200 mm
cylinder specimens were created based on KS F 2403 [KS F
3.2 Curing Conditions
Tables 2 and 3 show monthly averages of wind speed and
sunlight exposure time for Seoul over the past 10 years
[http://www.kma.go.kr/]. The wind speed data show that
most annual and monthly averages are between 2 and 3 m/s,
and the sunlight exposure time data also show that annual
and monthly averages are similar to one another as in the
case of wind speed data. However, the data show that
monthly averages of sunlight exposure time for July and
August are markedly lower than those of other months. This
indicates that sunlight exposure time is different from the
amount of sunshine. Sunlight exposure time refers to the
amount of time sunlight illuminates the Earth‘s surface, and
in July and August, due to the rainy season and typhoons,
the actual amount of time that the sunlight illuminates the
Earth‘s surface decreases. Therefore, in this study, consider
ing these facts, wind speed was set at 0, 2, 4, and 6 m/s, and
sunlight exposure time values were set at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h as
shown in Table 4. Then, experiments were conducted using
various combinations of the conditions.
3.3 Carbonation Resistance Test
Wind speed and sunlight exposure time curing shown in
Table 4 was conducted for 28-days, and then, the specimens
were moved to carbonation test equipment as shown in
Fig. 1, where an additional 28-days curing was conducted.
Carbonation test was conducted at 20 ± 2 C temperature,
and 95% or higher relative humidity, and 5 ± 0.2% CO2,
based on KS F 2584 [KS F 2584]. For carbonation test,
square mold specimen and circular specimen were used.
Square mold specimens are cross-sectionally square
(100 mm in length of one side), and the length of specimen
is 400 mm. For the purpose of a single measurement, a
circular specimen sized 100 mm 9 200 mm or
150 mm 9 300 mm is created and used. In this study, due to
the purpose of a single measurement, 100 mm 9 200 mm
circular specimens were used, and for each case, three
specimens were created. The measurement of carbonation
depth was conducted by breaking up the splitting surface of
the specimen. The reagent used in the carbonation was
produced in a solution to use in the experiment based on the
production process specified in KS M 8238. Phenolphthalein
solution specified in KS M 8238 was used as indicator, and
the solution was produced by melting phenolphthalein
powder 1 g in 95% ethanol 90 mL and adding water to make
it 100 mL. However, if the specimen is very dry, it can be
made with 95% ethanol 70 mL and more water added. In
this study, as curing humidity was set at 95% or higher,
reagent was produced with ethanol 90 mL. Measurement
period of carbonation depth is usually conducted in 1, 4, 8,
13, or 26 weeks, and in this study measurement was
conducted at the fourth week by considering curing period.
3.4 Carbonation Resistance Measurement
The method for carbonation depth measurement includes
obtaining 10 data points from two sides of each specimen,
which totals 30 points from six sides from three specimens for
each case, and then obtaining the mean of carbonation depth
for each case and rounding it up to the nearest 0.5 mm. When
spraying phenolphthalein solution on the cross-sectionally cut
surface of carbonated specimen, the part that has not been
carbonated turns purple in color. Carbonation progresses from
outside to inside, and the length between concrete surface and
the boundary of non-carbonated part is called carbonation
depth. The common equation to obtain carbonation rate
modulus (constant), A, is shown in Eq. (8), and constant Ct
can be obtained from experiment results.
Here, A denotes carbonation rate modulus, Ct denotes
carbonation depth (mm), and t denotes carbonation period
Ct ¼ Apffit
A ¼ pffi
4. Experimental Results
4.1 Concrete Strength Results
Table 5 shows compressive strengths and splitting tensile
strengths of specimen cured at various wind speed and
sunlight exposure time levels. The changes in compressive
strength show that 28-day compressive strength decrease to
approximately 40% of the target design strength of 27 MPa
in wind-speed conditions of 2, 4, and 6 m/s (except 0 m/s)
for all specimens. In relative strength comparison, the trend
of compressive strength showed reduction as the wind speed
increased, and vice versa. However, there was an exception
in which compressive strength was slightly greater at 6 m/s
than at 2 m/s of wind speed. Also, this discrepancy in
strength was observed when the sunlight exposure time was
longer. More specifically, for the cases of sunlight exposure
time 6–8 h (cases 3–4 and 7–8) and 4–6 h (cases 14 and 15),
the strength slightly decreased as the sunlight exposure time
increased. The examinations of the out of the ordinary
results revealed that they occurred because the average
compressive strength values from only three specimens for
each test case were used for the evaluation. It is safe assume
that if more specimens are used then, the trend will be
similar to the expected trend.
Also, the reason for the lower strengths in the wind speed
conditions is presumably that when concrete is subjected to
continuous wind during the curing process where hydration
reaction occurs, the moisture within concrete moves and
evaporates in the direction of wind, which interferes with
sufficient hydration reaction, and over time, leads to reduced
strength. In actual construction sites, such curing conditions
are also likely to cause cracks and result in quality
deterioration. On the other hand, it was found that the strength of
concrete cured at 0 m/s wind speed did not decrease, and
28-day strength was higher at longer sunlight exposure
4.2 Concrete Carbonation Depth and Rate
Tables 6 and 7 tabulate carbonation depth and rate
modulus for wind speed (0, 2, 4, and 6 m/s) and sunlight
exposure time (2, 4, 6, and 8 h), respectively. The
tables showed that maximum and minimum carbonation
depth of 8.9 mm and 5.2 mm, respectively, occurred under
the wind speed and sunlight exposure time curing conditions
of 6 m/s and 8 h and 0 m/s and 2 h, respectively. From
Table 6, the curing conditions of 6 m/s and 6 h gives a
higher carbonation depth result of 9.1 mm. Also, the
maximum and minimum carbonation rate modulus of 4.46 and
2.62, respectively, occurred under the wind speed and
sunlight exposure time curing conditions of 6 m/s and 8 h and
0 m/s and 2 h, respectively. Looking at Table 7, the curing
conditions of 6 m/s and 6 h gives a higher carbonation rate
modulus result of 4.53 mm. However, this value is an
irregular data due to an out of ordinary conditions. One
hypothesis that can be associated with this exception is that
the calculation of an average depth value was from only
three tested specimens for each test case, which would not
reflect the proper result. Figures 2 and 3 show the data in
Tables 6 and 7 as bar graph for comparison. As shown in
Fig. 2a, the carbonation depth results from wind speed
curing condition variation shows that the depth increases
from 0 to 4 m/s, while, the depth remains unchanged from 4
to 6 m/s. With respect to the depth from sunlight exposure
time curing condition variation, shown in Fig. 2b, the depth
increases at a same rate for the wind speed variations of 0
4 m/s under a constant sunlight exposure time of 2, 4, 6, and
As shown in Fig. 3a, the carbonation rate modulus results
from wind speed curing condition variation shows that the
depth increases from 0 to 4 m/s. However, the rate modulus
remains unchanged from 4 to 6 m/s. With respect to the rate
modulus from sunlight exposure time curing condition
variation shown in Fig. 3b, the rate modulus increases at a
same rate for the wind speed variations of 0–4 m/s under a
constant sunlight exposure time of 2, 4, 6, and 8 h.
Moreover, the carbonation depth and rate modulus
obtained from the specimens cured under thermo-hydrostatic
and wet curing conditions were approximately 10% of those
specimens from the cured under various wind speed and
sunlight exposure time. Also, the carbonation depth and rate
modulus of the air cured specimens equivalent to a general
environmental conditions were approximately 40% of those
from the various curing conditions specimens, with similar
trends in the carbonation depth and rate modulus results. In
conclusion, the carbonation depth increased as the wind
speed and sunlight-exposure time increased. The results
demonstrated that carbonation rate modulus decreases as
relative humidity increases in the curing process, which can
be associated with in climate conditions of greater wind
speed and sunlight-exposure time. From these harsher
climate conditions, curing becomes increasingly difficult and
porosity in specimens increase, making it easier for carbon
dioxide to penetrate faster and deeper. The results suggest
that climate factors play a major role in concrete carbonation
5. Satisfaction Curve
5.1 Satisfaction Curve of Carbonation Depth
Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 show the SCs on
carbonation depth and carbonation speed modulus as
functions of wind speed and sunlight exposure time. After
determining the success/failure statuses of experimental data
and ascribing them values of 0 and 1 based on whether they
meet designer‘s criteria, the mean and standard deviation can
be obtained using the Bayesian probability program, and
SCs can be generated based on them. To create the SCs,
required satisfaction criteria must be designated. In this
Wind speed (m/s)
Sunlight exposure time (hrs)
Fig. 2 Carbonation depth versus wind speed and sunlight exposure time. a Wind speed with 0, 2, 4, 6 m/s. b Sunlight exposure
time with 2, 4, 6, 8 h.
study, the criteria that are applicable to actual construction
sites were established. Casting was conducted in the room
with no direct contact with outside air or soil, and
reinforcing bars of D 35 or less were used, and the thickness of
concrete covering was assumed to be 20 mm. As a method
to evaluate carbonation durability evaluation of concrete
structure, the predicted carbonation depth value, (mm), can
be obtained using Eq. (9).
ylim ¼ c
Here, cp denotes environment coefficient for carbonation,
1.1; /k denotes durability reduction factor for carbonation,
which is generally 0.92; and ylim denotes carbonation limit
depth (mm) where reinforcing bars may be corroded, which
can be calculated using Eq. (10).
In the equation, c denotes design cover thickness (mm), ck
denotes the margin of limit carbonation depth, which is set at
10 mm for natural environment, and 25 mm for severe
carbonation attack environment. In this study, as cover
thickness was set at 20 mm, the predicted carbonation depth
value is about 8.36 mm.
Accordingly, required satisfaction specification was set at
8 mm, and to comparatively analyze various satisfaction
probabilities, 7 and 9 mm were added to the satisfaction
Graphs in Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7 show SCs on carbonation depth,
where satisfaction specification of 7, 8, and 9 mm was
applied. The graphs show that to evaluate the SCs, for
example, in the case of Fig. 6, when wind speed-based
carbonation depth criterion is set at 8 mm, to satisfy 50%
probability, wind speed must be at least 3 m/s during curing;
when the criterion is set at 7 mm, wind speed must be at
least 1 m/s. It is also shown that, in the case of Fig. 7, when
carbonation depth criterion is set at 7 mm, to show at least
80% satisfaction probability, 5 h of curing sunlight exposure
time should be provided. In the case of carbonation depth, it
was found that SC range is larger in wind speed than
Fig. 6 Satisfaction curve of wind speed parameter for
combine carbonation depth (7, 8, 9 mm).
4 5 6
Relative sunlight exposure time (hr)
Fig. 9 Satisfaction curve of sunlight exposure time parameter
for combine carbonation rate (3.5, 4.0, 4.5).
4 5 6
Relative sunlight exposure time (hr)
Fig. 7 Satisfaction curve of sunlight exposure time parameter
for combine carbonation depth (7, 8, 9 mm).
Relative wind speed (m/s)
Fig. 10 Satisfaction Curve of wind speed parameter for
carbonation rate (3.75).
4 5 6
Relative sunlight exposure time (hr)
Fig. 8 Satisfaction curve of wind speed parameter for
combine carbonation rate (3.5, 4.0, 4.5).
Fig. 11 Satisfaction Curve of sunlight exposure time
parameter for carbonation rate (3.75).
sunlight exposure time, which suggests that carbonation
depth is more affected by wind speed than by sunlight
5.2 Satisfaction Curve of Carbonation Rate
Figures 8 and 9 shows the SCs of carbonation rate
modulus as a function of wind speed and sunlight exposure time,
and carbonation rate modulus can be set at 3.5, 4, or 4.5,
based on Eq. (8). The results, however, show that
carbonation rate modulus (3.5, 4, 4.5) is proportional to carbonation
depth (7, 8, 9) mm, generating identical SCs. In Fig. 8, for
wind speed, 30% and 70% probability satisfaction of
designer‘s required satisfaction specification of 3.5 requires
0.8 and 1.2 m/s curing conditions, respectively. In addition,
in Fig. 9, for sunlight exposure time, curing conditions of
2.2 and 4 h are required. In this PBE, various criteria can be
set for designer‘s various required targets, and results of
setting required satisfaction criteria by changing carbonation
rate modulus to 3.75 are shown in Figs. 10 and 11.
6. Application of Future Climate Scenario
6.1 Result of RCP Scenario Application
Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios
developed in 2010 year provide four scenarios for how
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions concentration in the
atmosphere will be until 2050 year based on factors such as
air pollutants and land use change, including RCP 2.6 (the
Earth can recover from the impact of human activities), RCP
4.5 (GHG mitigation policies are implemented to a
significant extent), RCP 6.0 (GHG mitigation policies are
implemented to some extent), and RCP 8.5 (GHG emissions level
continues the same as the current level). In the four RCP
scenarios, RCP 2.6 is classified as a low GHG emissions
scenario, RCP 4.5 and 6.0 are classified as moderate GHG
emission scenarios, and RCP 8.5 is classified as a high GHG
emissions scenario [http://www.kma.go.kr/](KMA: Korea
Meteorological Administration). In this study, RCP 8.5 was
applied to the NIMS climate change scenario as shown in
Fig. 12 (KMA: Korea Meteorological Administration); this
choice was mainly for the following reason. The extreme
climate change is primarily caused by GHG, and the main
component of GHG is CO2. Therefore, RCP 8.5 was chosen
considering the most extreme climate situation in the future
among RCP scenarios. Among RCP scenarios, RCP 8.5 is
based on the highest CO2 emissions and amount in the
atmosphere, and is suggested to cause the most extreme cli
mate change in the Korean Peninsula and worldwide in the
future. In the NIMS (National Institute of Meteorological
Sciences) climate change scenario system, future predictions
are possible for the average temperature, relative humidity,
precipitation, and wind speed. Therefore, in this study, based
on the results of comparative analysis of the projections for
2046–2055 years and the existing data on average wind
speed for the last 10 years, the following conclusions were
drawn. Regarding sunlight exposure time, scenarios do not
Fig. 12 Application of RCP scenarios.
exist. Therefore, the sunlight exposure time was predicted by
applying the inverse of the results obtained by applying the
precipitation scenario as the sunlight exposure time refers to
the amount of time sunlight is shining on the ground surface
without hindrance; therefore, sunlight exposure time is
expected to decrease as precipitation increases.
Table 8 shows that the average wind speed is estimated at
2.42 m/s for the last 10 years, 2.62 m/s for 2046–2055,
indicating little change during the 50-year period. In Table 9,
the average sunlight exposure time was 5.3 h for the last
10 years, 4.74 h for 2046–2055, showing little change in the
50-year period, similarly to wind speed.
6.2 Application of RCP 8.5 Scenario to Carbonation Resistance PBE
Figure 13 shows the SCs that represent the change in wind
speed and sunlight exposure time by applying the RCP 8.5
scenario. The changes in satisfaction probabilities were
found to be small for carbonation even if the 2050 climate is
applied. When the Future Climate RCP 8.5 Scenario was
applied, the satisfaction curves showed the following
changes. The changes in the wind speed and sunlight-exposure
time between the last 10 and 50 years showed an
approximately 0.3 m/s increase and 0.56-h decrease, respectively. In
addition, the satisfaction curves shifted right and left,
respectively, as shown in Fig. 13. The results showed that
the satisfaction probabilities for wind speed with threshold
carbonation rate modulus of 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 increased by
approximately 5, 20, and 0%, respectively, whereas the
satisfaction probabilities for the sunlight-exposure time with
the same threshold values decreased by approximately 5, 2,
and 0%, respectively. The results suggest that the increase in
wind speed and the decrease in sunlight-exposure time lead
to increased water evaporation, porosity and lower
temperature, which would affect concrete curing process and cause
durability degradation. Carbonation penetration rate is
affected by gas permeability, strength, type of cement,
mixing condition, and construction condition, in a complex
manner. Among them, concrete mixing condition in
particular has the greatest effect on carbonation speed, and the
carbonation speed increases as W/B increases; therefore, it is
efficient to reduce W/B considering carbonation resistance
of concrete. Therefore, when W/C is decreased in the mix
used in this study considering water tightness, carbonation
satisfaction probability will be increased.
6.3 Solutions to the Concrete Carbonation
The following solutions based on literature are proposed to
increase concrete carbonation resistance
et al. 2006; Fattuhi 1986; Monteiro et al. 2015)
concrete structures are subject to carbonation, their
performance degrades due to the corrosion of reinforcement bars.
One method of resisting carbonation is to reduce W/B,
which is most influential in mixing, by about 5%, which can
reduce carbonation depth by about 30%; another is the use of
early-strength Portland cement rather general Portland
cement, which can decrease carbonation speed to about
40%. In addition, carbonation resistance can be increased by
the application of various coatings for hard concrete, as well
as by ensuring a sufficient thickness of concrete in general
construction. According to previous studies, nano-composite
hybrid-type polymer coating increases carbonation
resistance by 90%, and conventional epoxy coating increases
carbonation resistance by about 50%
(Park 2008; Jung 1992;
Choi and Choi 2009, Park et al. 2003)
In this study, experimental evaluations were carried out to
determine the effects of wind speed, and sunlight exposure
time curing conditions from climate change factors on
concrete strength and carbonation resistance. Then, SCs
were drawn for the performance based evaluation using the
Bayesian statistical method. The results obtained in the
present study can be summarized as follows.
1. Regarding compressive strength in various wind speed–
sunlight exposure time curing conditions, although
3and 7-day strengths were found to develop normally in
all conditions, 28-day long-term strength showed
strength degradation in all conditions except 0 m/s
wind speed. This performance degradation is thought to
have occurred because hydration reaction did not
properly occur due to movement of moisture within
specimens and water evaluation caused by curing
conditions of wind speed and sunlight exposure time.
2. The following conclusion was drawn based on concrete
carbonation resistance durability experiments. It was
found that in all conditions except a few curing
conditions, such as 0 and 2 m/s wind speeds, a
considerable level of concrete durability degradation
occurs. The prime cause of this phenomenon is thought
to be water movement and evaporation during curing
with wind speed and sunlight exposure time, which
increases porosity in concrete specimens, creates small
cracks causing concrete durability degradation.
3. PBE can be conducted based on SCs that are generated
with virtual data derived from experimental data
obtained from strength and durability experiments
using various curing conditions. As PBE allows
structure performance evaluation tailored to the
designer‘s various satisfaction requirements, it is
thought to be applicable to various construction sites
in the future.
4. The results of this study are based on a limited number
of curing conditions related to climate change. More
varieties of curing conditions and mixing conditions as
well as long-term measurements in the durability
assessment will be incorporated in future studies.
This research was supported by a Grant (13RDRP-B066470)
from Regional Development Research Program funded by
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean
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