Acceptance and Usability of OER in India: An Investigation Using UTAUT Model
Acceptance and Usability of OER in Indian Higher Education: An Investigation Using UTAUT Model
Nayantara Padhi 0
0 Indira Gandhi National Open University , India
In the global movement towards open knowledge society, open educational resources (OER) have become a prominent contributor as a medium of education, research and training. In India, the phenomenon of OER is still in nascent stage. Although the country has been massively investing on growth and usage of ICT, it still requires acceptance of OER as a medium of education, research or training. Particularly, adoption and usage of OER posses several challenges such as accessibility, reliability, copy right etc. There is plethora of research studies on the ICT usage in education in India, but there is hardly any empirical research evidence on OER in India. With this backdrop, at the first instance it is very much essential to investigate the acceptance and usability of OER in India. This paper focuses on faculty perception by applying Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Apart from this, the study also identifies the challenges associated with OER. For the purpose of this survey data is collected from 22 Indian universities located pan India. The outcome of this empirical research shall certainly useful and provide guidelines for the policy makers and users of OER in India. World-wide, open educational resources (OER) have come up as a very useful medium in the fields of education, research and training. The concept of the OER came into existence in 2002 during a conference hosted by UNESCO. After which OER has travelled across the globe in different formats such as OER, Open Courseware (OCW), open textbooks, digital library, open access journal etc. With the basic motto to provide open access to knowledge, one thing that strikes about OER is that there is a lot of activity surrounding this concept. OER is considered as democratization of knowledge and education. It believes in the concept of sharing and participation. The existing literature on the trends and usage of OER shows that OER is in the infancy stage in Indian higher education and is not utilized completely. Although there are many potential benefits of OER, at the same time challenges are also more in number. It is seen that the acceptance and usefulness of OER still posses a question. In this entire movement the faculty, educators, researchers and trainers play a pivotal role in establishing this concept. In order to get a comprehensive status about the acceptance and usability of OER in Indian higher education, this study aims to investigate about the acceptance and usability of OER in India. The study focuses on knowing the faculty perception about OER in India by using the well-accepted UTAUT model. This study aims to bridge the research gap of identifying the status of acceptance and usability of OER in India.
OER; Usability; Technology Acceptance; UTAUT; India
These are some of the major breakthrough initiatives in India in the form of digital repositories,
open courseware, open access journals, etc. Researchers like
Bansal, Chabra and Joshi (2013
; Sharma, Mishra and Thakur (2014),
and Venkaiah (undated) have provided
insights into the status, trend and challenges of OER in India. Barring these limited number of research
studies which are focused on the status of OER in India, there is hardly any study conducted by
any researcher to investigate acceptance and usability of OER in Indian higher education by the
stakeholders (teachers, researchers, trainers, students, employers).
Indian National, Digital library in Engineering,
sciences, and technology (INDEST)-Consortium for e
resources of engineering and technological
Kalasampada- Digital library: Resources of Indian
Vidyanidhi- Indian digital library of electronic theses
Vigyan Prasar Digital Library- Digital library contains
digital version of significant scientific works
CEC Learning Object repository- The econtent and
unique learning object repositories of providing higher
E gyankosh- National depository of digital learning
National Programme on technology enhanced
learning (NPTEL)- E learning platform for various courses
Eklavya- E learning portal
E-Grid- An online learning network
Brrihaspati- Open platform for learning
ShodhGanga- Repository of PhD theses
To bridge the research gaps that represent and in order to investigate the intention and perception of
Indian university teachers about the acceptance and usability of OER in India, UTAUT model is used
in this study. The UTAUT model (Figure 1) was formulated by Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis
(2003), by compiling eight acceptance models.
The UTAUT model (Figure 1) aims to explain user’s behaviour intention to use on information
system. It holds four key constructs: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence
and Facilitating Conditions. UTAUT is an advanced individual acceptance research by unifying the
theoretical perspectives common in the literature and incorporating four moderators to amount for
dynamic influences including gender, age voluntariness and experience (Venkatesh et al., 2003).
In the present study, UTAUT model is applied to investigate the acceptance and usability of OER in
India. In this moderating effect of gender, age, experience and voluntariness of use have been removed
because all the sample participants belong to one particular type of higher education institution and
their profession is teaching. With these alternations the research model is as presented in Figure 2.
The four constructs of UTAUT model are presented in Table 2.
The four constructs of UTAUT model and its impact on the Behavioural Intention (BI) of teachers to
use OER have been well fitted in the research model. The relevance of these four constructs and
hypotheses are presented in Table 3.
In this study each of the UTAUT constructs has four items, which are analysed (Table 4).
The present investigation adopted the questionnaire developed by
Mtebe and Raisamo (2014)
study the challenges and instructors intention to use OER in higher education in Tanzania. This
questionnaire was a modified version of the questionnaire developed by Venkatesh et al. (2003).
The questionnaire is a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree.
Data was collected using Google platform. The questionnaire was sent to 800 teachers of 22
universities (details about type of university provided in Table 5, A) of India. These universities are
located pan India. A total of 36 were undelivered. However, 202 responses were obtained. This
comes out to be 26.43% of all respondents. The respondents are teachers of different cadres
such as Assistant Professor to Professor (in different disciplines). The study was carried out during
The following statistical tools were used for analysis of collected data.
• Descriptive analysis: It is used to measure frequency of data.
• Reliability analysis: It is a measure to define the degree to which measurements are free from
error and therefore yield consistent results. To measure the reliability of instruments and
constructs. Chronbach’s alpha (α) was used.
• Correlation analysis: It is a measure of the degree to which a change in the independent
variable will result in a change in the dependent variable. Pearson correlation analysis is used in
• Regression analysis: It is a technique for modeling and analysing different variable with a focus
on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. The
multivariate linear regression is used for analysis.
The study used the Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 to analyse the
All the 202 respondents are teachers of 22 universities of India. Amongst these universities six were
ODL universities, 12 were face to face and 4 were dual mode. Table 5 represents the demographic
profile (A) as well as response to the basic questions on OER (B).
1. IGNOU, New Delhi, India
2. BRAOU, Hyderabad, India
3. VMOU, Kota, India
4. YCMOU, Nashik, India
5. NSOU, Kolkotta, India
6. TNOU, Chennai, India
b. Face to Face – 12
1. Delhi University, Delhi, India
2. JNU, New Delhi, India
3. Ambedkar university, New Delhi, India
4. Berhampur University, Odisha, India
5. Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India
6. Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, India
7. SNDT University, Mumbai, India
8. Xaviers University, Bhubaneswar, India
9. Mumbai University, Mumbai, India
10. Jammu University, Jammu, India
11. Andhra Unversity, Vizag, India
12. TISS, Mumbai, India
c. Dual – 4
1. Calcutta University, Kolkotta, India
2. Jamia Milia Islamia University, New Delhi, India
3. University of Mysore, Mysore, India
4. University of Pune, Pune, India
B. Response on Basics about OER
Are you aware of the concept of OER?
Will you share your courses as OER?
Have you ever used OER?
The three basic questions on OER reveal that 93.1% of respondents are aware of the concept of
OER but so far only 19.8% respondents have used OER in any form. Whereas 86.1% are willing to
share their courses as OER.
The results of the Chrobach’s alpha (α) co-efficient for the 19-item instrument were 0.888. The result
exceeds the recommend threshold value of 0.70.
Table 6 provides a summary of Pearson correlation analysis to test the relationships among the
UTAUT constructs and BI to use OER. The convergent validity and discriminate validity are also
As per social science research guidelines Factor (items) loading results of items higher than
0.50 indicate items are loaded significantly (Hair, Anderson, Tatham & Black, 1998). In the present
research model all the items are loaded significantly (p<.01) except in the case of the factor SI whose
significance is at p<.05. Therefore all the items in this model have adequate reliability and convergent
validity. The model also suggests that there is highly significant (at .01 level) relationship between
PE, EE and FC with BI and significant (at.05 level) relationship between SI and BI.
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
Multivariate linear regression analysis is used to assess the effect of PE, EE, SI and FC on intention
(BI) to use OER. Table 7 shows a summary of the research model.
To assess the model four constructs i.e., PE, EE, SE and FC were loaded as independent variable
and BI as dependent variable and then subjected to linear regression analysis. The model explains
51.3% of the variance (adjusted R square: .513) influence on teachers’ intention to use OER. This
can be considered as a good model as it is considered higher the adjusted R square value, it is
considered as better model
Confirmation of Hypothesis
Regression analysis was used to determine the standardised and non-standardised coefficients for
the constructs entered in the model. Table 8 shows the results of the regression.
The results indicate that that performance expectancy positively impact on intentions to use OER
(β = .342, P < .001). Therefore H1 is supported. It means, teachers feel that by using OER their
course development, teaching and outcome of learners will be better, easier and quicker. It will also
help in increasing learners’ outcome. At the same time, OER enables to have wider access to latest
resources by using OER.
Hypothesis 2. Effort expectancy has a positive impact on the intention to use OER.
The results show that effort expectancy has positive effect on intention to use OER ( β =.434,
P < .001). Hence, H2 is supported. It indicates that teachers are of the opinion that OER can
be learnt easily and also easy to learn. Interaction with OER is clear and easy for using and
integrating in courses.
Hypothesis 3. Social influence has a positive impact on the intention to use OER.
The results clearly indicates that social influence has no effect on intention to use (β =.042, P<.423).
The results show that the respondents’ social circle i.e. peers, friends, staff etc. have no influence on
them to use OER. Teachers feel that university may not encourage the use of OER in teaching and
learning. Therefore H3 is not supported.
Hypothesis 4. Facilitating conditions have a positive effect on intention to use OER.
The results show that facilitating conditions do not have positive effect on intention to use OER
(β = -.047, p < .521). Hence the H4 is not supported. It means teachers do not have resources
and supporting conditions to use OER. Respondents feel that they do not have requisite
knowledge for using and integrating OER in their courses. They are not confident about if they
will get any support from university for using OER or not.
Table 9 shows the confirmation of hypotheses.
Not significant (β = .042, p < .423
Not significant (β = -.047, p < .521)
Mtebe and Raisamo (2014)
study only the H2 (i.e effort expectancy) is supported. However, in
this study H1: performance expectancy and H2: effort expectancy are supported.
Opinion about not using OER
The last question of the questionnaire was ‘In your opinion why higher education in India do not use
OER?’ The following table provides a brief about various reasons or factors for not using OER. The
factors are derived from the opinion of the respondents.
The opinion revealed the key factors of not using OER. Although the teachers have fair knowledge
about OER, they feel there are many challenges with regard to usage of OER use. quality, accessibility,
facilitating conditions, sharing pattern, ownership, authenticity, copyright and plagiarism issues. At
the same time the respondents are of the view that OER can be used in Indian higher education
subject to proper policy in place and also encouragement to use OER. In table 10 the major factors
are presented and the each factor is substantiated with reasons.
• There is lack of awareness and also lack of knowledge and skill in how OER can
used• Lot of respondents is of this view that they are not well trained to use OER.
• Awareness is lacking on the learning and teaching side with regard to use of OER
• Not techno- savvy, absence of proper guidance.
• Perhaps because of problems related to access, attitude, linguistic barriers
• Lack of knowledge of availability of such resources.
• The faculty is not oriented about how to use OER in teaching.
• Due to Non Awareness. The Culture of using need to be developed as it can
seminate education and promote collaborative learning
• Lack of training to the teacher regarding OER technologies is the biggest hurdle
• Ignorance about OER
• Lack of awareness on uses rights (licensing) of OER material
• There are many factors like access, speed of Internet, economical conditions of the
students, reach in rural area, etc.
• Lack of resources / technology to access Internet.
• Insufficient access to OER for the students.
• Faculty does not have access to OER sites (e g, we do not have access to YouTube
and FB from university). This brings in challenges in accessing
• Shortage of multimedia based OER in Indian context,
• Shortage of OER in vernacular languages of India
• Lack of strong institutional policies
• Now a days Internet in flooded with OER, there must be some mechanism to
evaluate those OER and a comprehensive list can be prepared subject wise and
updated regularly by bodies like UGC, AICTE, MCI, etc.
• May be the faculty has doubts in the quality of OER as they are freely available.
Also the authenticity of the material is under question.
• Absence of proper database by Indian regulatory bodies is also a matter of
cern shown by respondents problems related to access, attitude.
• Even today, teachers and students do not use OER in regular teaching and
learning. It is treated as supplementary resource. Also OER faces the problem of its
authenticity. Since syllabus and evaluation pattern differs, OER available can not
used as it is.
• Cost of Use and technical illiteracy, non-support from the employer, mindset of
• May be due to plagiarism- Respondents fear about plagiarism issues that may arise
due to usage of OER.
• Copy right issues
• Fear because of no proper copyright guidelines.
• Many academicians do not want to share their content or want to keep ownership
• Apprehensions that the hard work of a person might just get copy pasted without
his approval or knowledge.
The present study has tried to bridge the research gap on the usage and acceptance of OER in
India. The results of the study indicate that the university teachers are very much aware of the
concept of OER. But, they are not yet sure about the usage of OER in teaching and learning.
Majority of them have not used OER in teaching but are willing to share their courses as OER.
The investigative UTAUT research model supports two construct i.e. performance expectancy
and effort expectancy and do not support two constructs i.e. facilitating condition and social
influence. The correlation analysis indicate that three variables i.e. performance expectancy,
effort expectancy and facilitating conditions are loaded significantly with intention to use OER
and social influence is significantly loaded. The adjusted R-square value establishes the model.
If we consider each construct independently and see their impact on intention to use OER then
the finding are as stated below:
• Teachers feel that by using OER their course development, teaching and outcome of learn
ers will be better, easier and quicker. It will also help in increasing learners’ outcome. At the
same time, OER enables to have wider access to latest resources by using OER.
• Teachers are of the opinion that OER can be learnt easily and also easy to learn. Interaction
with OER is clear and easy for using and integrating in courses.
• Teachers’ social circle i.e. peers; friends; staff etc. have no influence on them to use OER.
Teachers feel that university may not encourage the use of OER in teaching and learning.
• Teachers do not have resources and supporting conditions to use OER. Respondents feel
that they do not have requisite knowledge for using and integrating OER in their courses.
They are not confident about if they will get any support from university for using OER or not.
Suggestions for better usage of OER
It can be inferred from the study that teachers are aware of the usage of OER. They intend to use
OER because of two reasons i.e., increase in performance and easy to use. The challenges they
face are lack of facilitating conditions and positive social influence on the usage of OER. It is also felt
that there should be proper policy in place, the policy makers and regulating bodies should provide
guidelines. Proper infrastructure and training should be provided for fully utilizing the OER. Also if
there will be any encouragement or reward for using OER then teachers will feel motivated to use
OER in their teaching and research activities.
Lack of unity on the usage and acceptance of OER can be dealt only if these challenges and
concerns are dealt properly. To conclude, in the context of Indian higher education, OER is accepted
as an idea but the implementation and usage are still far away.
The research model and questionnaire of
Mtebe and Rasamo (2014)
study is used with their
Papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
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