Simplified TeV leptophilic dark matter in light of DAMPE data
HJE
Simpli ed TeV leptophilic dark matter in light of DAMPE data
Guang Hua Duan 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 10
Lei Feng 1 2 3 4 9 10
Fei Wang 1 2 4 5 9 10
Lei Wu 1 2 4 8 9 10
Jin Min Yang 0 1 2 4 6 7 9 10
Rui Zhengg 1 2 4 9 10
0 Department of Physics, Tohoku University
1 Beijing 100049 , China
2 Chinese Academy of Sciences
3 Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory
4 Nanjing , Jiangsu 210023 , China
5 School of Physics, Zhengzhou University
6 CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics
7 School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
8 Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University
9 Davis , CA 95616 , U.S.A
10 Zhengzhou 450000 , P. R. China
Using a simpli ed framework, we attempt to explain the recent DAMPE cosmic ux excess by leptophilic Dirac fermion dark matter (LDM). The scalar ( 0) and vector ( 1) mediator elds connecting LDM and Standard Model particles are discussed.
We nd that the couplings P
P , V
A and V
V can produce the right bump
in e+ + e
section < v >
ux for a DM mass around 1.5 TeV with a natural thermal annihilation
cross3 10 26cm3=s today. Among them, V
V coupling is tightly constrained
by PandaXII data (although LDMnucleus scattering appears at oneloop level) and the
surviving samples appear in the resonant region, m 1 ' 2m . We also study the related
collider signatures, such as dilepton production pp !
1 ! `+` , and muon g
2 anomaly.
Finally, we present a possible U(1)X realization for such leptophilic dark matter.
1 Introduction
2
3
4
5
1:4 TeV was reported in DAMPE data, which
implies the existence of a nearby monoenergetic electron sources because of the cooling
process of high energy cosmicray electrons [4, 5]. No associated excess in the antiproton
ux has been observed. Both astrophysical sources (e.g., pulsars) and DM interpretations
are discussed in ref. [4]. It is found that DM should annihilate to e or fe ;
;
g with
1:1:1 and the mass of DM particle is about 1.5 TeV if the nearby DM subhalo located at
0:1
0:3 kpc away from the solar system [4]. Several leptophilic DM model have been
proposed to explain this excess [6, 7].
In this work, we attempt to explain this tentative cosmicray eletron+positron excess
by using a simpli ed framework, in which the DM sector has no direct couplings to quarks,
only couples with leptons mediated by a scalar or vector eld. Such a leptophilic DM can
satisfy the measured relic density at tree level and may accommodate the null results from
direct detections by inducing interactions between dark matter and quarks at the loop level.
Many studies have been devoted into the idea that DM does not interact with quarks at
{ 1 {
avor blind [8, 8{39], while a few other studies assume gauged
avor interactions [33, 40{
48]. The leptophilic DM framework allows for a more general analysis of interactions that
involve only DM and leptons at the tree level. It permits di erent coupling strengths
between lepton avors, o diagonal avor couplings, and lepton avor violation.1
The structure of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we introduce the
e ective lagrangian for leptophilic DM and loop induced LDMhadron interactions. In
section 3, we present our numerical results for the DAMPE excess and discuss the related
collider signatures. In section 4, we give a possible realization of leptophilic DM in U(1)
extensions. Finally, we draw our conclusions in section 5.
2
Simpli ed leptophilic dark matter
The main goal of our study is a model independent analysis of leptophilic Dirac fermion
DM ( ) for the DAMPE excess. We parameterize the relevant DMlepton interactions as
L 3 i
+ i` ``;
where i is a mediator eld with i = 0; 1 corresponding to spin0 and spin1 boson
respectively. We assume that i only couples with leptons e; ; in our calculations. Then, the
;` are scalar (S), pseudoscalar (P), vector (V) and axialvector (A)
scalartype:
vectortype:
= gS + igP 5
;
= g
V + g
A 5
;
` = g`S + ig`P 5
;
` = g
`V + g`A 5
;
and g` are the coupling strengthes of the mediator to DM and SM leptons,
χ
Φ
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.3)
Lorentz structures of interactions given by where g respectively.
! ``;
{ 2 {
In our framework, the dominant LDM annihilation channels are
with the corresponding Feynman diagrams in gure 1. For a pair of LDM, the CP value of
the system is given by ( 1)S+1. Due to the CP and total angular momentum conservation,
1For a review of avored dark matter, see ref. [49] and the references therein.
S
S
P
P
V
V
A
A
χ
N
`
S
P
S
P
V
A
V
A
v(
! ``)
( N !
pwave
pwave
swave
swave
swave
swave
pwave
pwave
2
em

e2mv2

1

v
2

the quantum states of j
i are 3P and 1S for the scalar and pseudoscalar mediators, while
the corresponding states for vector and axialvector mediators are 3S and 1P , respectively.
Then, one can estimate the dominant contributions of LDM annihilation cross section, as
shown in table 1. It should be noted that the coupling A
A can produce the swave
contribution, however, which is highly suppressed by mass ratio m`2=m2 .
Since the LDM only interacts with leptons, it can produce the signal by scattering
with electron of atom at tree level or with nucleus at loop level in DM direct detection
experiments, as shown in
gure 2. The velocity of DM particles near the Earth is of the
same order as the orbital velocity of the Sun, v
0:001c. So the recoil momenta is of order
a few MeV, which is much smaller than our mediator mass. Then, we can integrate out
heavy mediator elds and obtain the e ective operators:
Le =
1
2
(
) (` ``) ;
where
= m =pg g` is the cuto
scale for the e ective eld theory description. With
this setup, one can calculate DMelectron scattering cross section at tree level:
e0 =
e1 =
me2g2 g2 (
`
m4 0
me2g2 g2
`
m4 1
(gSgeS)2 + (gSgeP )2 + (gP geS)2 me2
m2
v
2
2
(gV geV )2 + 3(gAgeA)2 + (gV geA)2 + 3(gAgeV )2 v
+
(gP geP )2 me2 v4 ;
)
3
2
2
m2
:
(2.4)
(2.5)
(2.6)
{ 3 {
We can nd that DMelectron scattering cross sections for S
P , P
S and P
are suppressed by both small mass ratio me=m
and low velocity v
10 3, while for V
A
and A
V couplings the cross sections are only suppressed by velocity. All of them are
below the current sensitivity of DMelectron scattering experiments.
The loop induced DMnucleus scattering cross sections for spin1/0 mediator at
oneloop/twoloop level in leading log approximation [50] are given by:
N0 =
N1 =
2
where mN and Z are the nucleus's mass and charge respectively, and
reduced mass of DMnucleus system. The above twoloop result of
operator product expansion in heavy lepton approximation. We set the renormalization
scale
= m
and both nuclear form factors F (q) for
1 and F~(q) for
0 to unity for
simplicity. According to eq. (2.7) and (2.8), we present the scattering cross section suppression
by small parameters for loop induced DMnucleon scattering for eight Lorentz structures
in table. 1. It can be seen that the DMnucleus scattering cross sections for P
S and
V couplings are suppressed by v2, as comparison with S
S and V
V couplings.
N = m +mN
m mN is the
N1 is obtained by using
Numerical results and discussions
According to the analysis of ref. [4], the excess of e+ +e
ux in DAMPE can be interpreted
by a DM particle with the mass about 1.5 TeV if the nearby DM subhalo locates at
0:1
0:3 kpc away form the solar system. We t the AMS02 and DAMPE data assuming
the DM annihilate into leptons with the branching ratio e :
:
= 1 : 1 : 1. Such a
condition can evade the constraints from CMB and the di use gamma rays from dwarf
spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) [4]. In the tting, we used numerical codes are GALPROP [51]
and DRAGON [52] to calculate the propagation of CR electrons/positrons in the galaxy.
We use the analytical solution presented in ref. [53] to calculate the propagation of nearby
CR electrons. In the rst step, we use the LikeDM package [54] to calculate the likelihood
(or
2) and
t the AMS02 and DAMPE data with powerlower background and extra
astronomy contribution (see [
55
] for more details). Then we add the contribution of local
DM halos directly as the local CR source only contributes the region around 1:5 TeV. The
is 1
108m
with a distance 0.1 kpc away from the solar system.
tting result is shown in gure 3, in which the mass of DM particles is assumed as 1.5 TeV
with the annihilation cross section h vi ' 3 10 26cm3s 1 and the mass of nearby subhalo
In order to satisfy DM annihilation cross section, h vi ' 3
10 26cm3s 1, required
by DAMPE data, we focus on P
S, P
P , V
A and V
V couplings which can
produce swave contributions in our following study. In the following calculations, we
assume a universal coupling of the mediator and three generation leptons, g` = ge =
{ 4 {
,
DAMPE
HJEP02(18)7
mediators can induce the process e+e
! `+` , they are strongly constrained by LEP
measurements of fourlepton contact interactions [58] and dilepton resonance searches in
e+e
! `+`
of the coupling and mass of mediators 0;1 at 90% C.L.,
[59]. According the analysis in ref. [60], one can derive the following bounds
g`V =m 1 <
g`A=m 1 <
gS;P =m 0 <
`
(2:0
6:9
(2:4
6:9
(2:7
7:3
10 4GeV 1
;
10 4 GeV 1
10 4GeV 1
;
10 4 GeV 1
10 4GeV 1
;
10 4 GeV 1
mZ0 > 200 GeV
mZ0 > 200 GeV
mZ0 > 200 GeV
; 100 GeV < mZ0 < 200 GeV
; 100 GeV < mZ0 < 200 GeV
; 100 GeV < mZ0 < 200 GeV
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
In
gure 4 we project the samples satisfying the requirements of DM relic density
within 2
range of Planck observed value, LEP bound and the DAMPE excess on the
plane of g versus m
for di erent values of g`. All samples are required to produce
averaged annihilation crosssection h vi today within (2
mass of DM is close to m =2, DM annihilation cross section will be enhanced by resonance
e ect. In order to satisfy the DM relic density requirement, the couplings gV and g`V have
to become small, which will suppress the DMnucleus scattering cross section so that the
PandaXII bound can be evaded [61]. For P
S coupling, the DMnucleus scattering cross
section is highly reduced due to twoloop suppression, while for P
P and V
A couplings,
4)
10 26cm3=s. When the
{ 5 {
P χ
V χ
g ℓV =
g ℓV =
g ℓV =
g ℓV =
m Φ 0
m Φ 1
⊗
⊗
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
g ℓA =
g ℓA =
g ℓA =
g ℓA =
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
g ℓS =
m Φ 0
m Φ 1
today within (2
is also shown [61].
observed value, LEP bound and the DAMPE excess, projected on the plane of g versus m
for
g` = 0:05; 02; 0:5; 0:8. All samples are required to produce averaged annihilation crosssection h vi
4) 10 26cm3=s. The 90% C.L. exclusion limits from the current PandaXII data
the DM has no interactions with nucleus. The surviving samples for V
V coupling are
largely excluded by the PandaXII limits of DMnucleus scattering. There are also limits
from other direct detection experiments such as XENON1T [62] and LUX [63]. However,
their current bounds are weaker than that of PandaXII.
It should be mentioned that the vector mediator
1 can be produced at the LHC
because of the loopinduced coupling between the mediator and light quarks, as shown in
gure 5. The cross section in the narrow width limit is given by [64]
pp!l+l =
BR 1!l+l
3s
X Cqq(m2 1 =s) gV 2
q
+ gqA2
;
q
Cqq(m2 1 =s) for the quark q reads
where BR 1!l+l is the branching ratio of the decay
1 ! l+l . The parton luminosity
Cqq(y) =
Z 1
y
dx fq(x) fq(y=x) + fq(y=x) fq(x)
;
x
{ 6 {
⊗
⊗
(3.4)
(3.5)
¯
q
ℓ
γ, Z
Φ
1
ℓ
−
ℓ
+
2.1
2.5
3.0
3.6
muon
a .
with fq;q(x) being the quark and antiquark parton distribution function (PDF). We use
MRST [65] to calculate the PDFs.
The loopinduced couplings to quarks g
qV and gA
q
are evaluated with package runDM [66]. The renormalization scale of the PDF and the
couplings to quarks is set at m 1
DM relic density, the DAMPE e+ + e
. We choose some benchmark points that satisfy the
ux excess and the PandaX limits and calculate
the corresponding cross section of the dilepton process pp !
1 ! `+`
at the 13 TeV
LHC, as given in table 2. We note that they are much lower than the current LHC13 TeV
sensitivity [67]. We also evaluate the associated production processes pp ! `+`
0;1 and
nd they are negligibly small.
In table 3, we give the corrections to the muon g
2 that arise from our leptophilic
interactions [68]. It can be seen that the couplings V
V and P
S can produce a positive correction, which, however, is less than the value required by explaining the deviation of the muon g 2 from its experimental measurement.
4
An an example of realizations of LDM, we introduce a Dirac fermionic DM
eld ( ) by
imposing a Z2 symmetry, under which all SM matter particles are even while
is odd.
{ 7 {
U(1)X
U(1)0
0
0
URa
0
0
DRa
0
0
QSX
0
0
Q0
T
QFX
Q0F
0
Q0
respectively. The Dirac fermion F that has charges of U(1), is introduced to generate kinetic mixing
between the two U(1) gauge bosons.
Besides, we add a new U(1)X gauge interactions for leptons only, with the corresponding
possible way is to introduce new matter particles to cancel the anomaly. For example,
we can add the fourth chirallike family with nontrivial U(1)X quantum number, which
satis es the anomaly cancelation condition
X(3ni + mi) + 3k + l = 0;
i
with ni; mi; k; l being the U(1)X quantum numbers for quarks(ni), leptons(mi) of the rst
three family and the fourth family quarks(k) and leptons (l), respectively, such as l =
3m
with universal mi
m for e; ; leptons and trivial quantum numbers for all quarks. The
fourth family can be very heavy by mixing with heavy vectorlike fermions and can be
compatible with current collider constraints.
Since the DM direct detection experiments will give stringent constraints, we require
that the Dirac fermion DM
will not carry U(1)X quantum number but will transform
nontrivially under an additional U(1)0 gauge symmetry. Such U(1)0 gauge symmetry will
be broken by additional complex scalar eld T . The couplings between DM and lepton
pairs will be induced through kinetic mixing between U(1)X and U(1)0. Given the gauge
interaction U(1)X is universal for all kinds of leptons, we can anticipate that the decay
products will lead to equal nal states lepton species. This approach is similar to
vectorportal DM scenario. Since the DM is vectorlike, there will be no additional anomaly in
the model. New scalar T or vectorlike fermion F , which transform nontrivially under
both U(1)X and U(1)0, will induce nontrivial mixing between the two new U(1) gauge
symmetry through the following interactions,
L
jD Sj2 + jD T j2
3jSj2jT j2 + iF
m2SjSj2
D F
m2T jT j2
mF F F ;
1jSj4
2jT j4
with
iQFX gX AX
iQSX gX AX )S ;
iQ0T g0A0 )T:
iQ0F g0A0 )F ;
{ 8 {
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
As mentioned above, an odd Z2 parity is imposed for the Dirac fermion
to act as a viable
DM candidate. The masses of the scalar T are assumed to be heavier than the DM mass
so that the DM will not annihilate into them. We should note that in the scalar potential,
possible terms involving standard model Higgs elds H as (T yT )(HyH); (SyS)(HyH) etc
could appear. Such terms could contribute to the DM direct detection at two loop level.
The kinetic mixing between two gauge bosons can be parameterized as
L
1
4
F
F
F 0 F 0
m12A A
after integrating out heavy fermion loops, or
after integrating out possible heavy scalar loops.
The matrix to remove the mixing is given as
1
4
=
2
F 0 F
gX g0
12 2 QFX Q0F log
=
4g81g22 QF Q0F log
1
2
m2F
2
m2S
2
;
;
A
~ !
A~0
=
with the Lagrangian involving the mass mixing
L =
4
1 ~ F
F ~
4
Assuming identical masses for the scalars m21 = m22, we obtain
(
) L
L
=m22 :
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
HJEP02(18)7
we can choose m2 ' 3 TeV and the mixing parameter
obtained by requiring g1 = g2
0:3 with Q1 = Q2 = 1.
5
Conclusion
To explain the DAMPE excess without con icting with direct detection experiments,
1:0
10 2. Such values can be
In this work, we explained the recent DAMPE cosmic e++e excess in simpli ed leptophilic
Dirac fermion dark matter (LDM) framework with a scalar ( 0) or vector ( 1) mediator.
We found that the couplings P
S, P
P , V
A and V
V can t the DAMPE data
under the constraints from gammarays and cosmicrays. However, for the V
V coupling,
due to the stringent constraints from the PandaXII data, the surviving samples only exist
in the resonance region, m 1 ' 2m . But for other couplings, the direct detection bounds
can easily be evaded. We also studied the possible collider signatures of LDM, such as the
DrellYan process pp !
1 ! `+` , and the muon g
U(1) extension of the SM to realize our simpli ed LDM model.
2. In the end, we constructed an
{ 9 {
Acknowledgments
G. Duan was supported by a visitor program of Nanjing Normal University, during which
this work was nished. This work was supported by the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NNSFC) under grant No. 11705093, 11675242 and 11773075, by the CAS
Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), by the CAS Key Research Program of
Frontier Sciences and by a Key R&D Program of Ministry of Science and Technology of
China under number 2017YFA040220004. FL is also supported by the Youth Innovation
Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016288).
Open Access.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CCBY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
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