Comparisons of content and scientific quality indicators across peer-reviewed journal articles with more or less gender perspective: gender studies can do better
Comparisons of content and scientific quality indicators
across peer-reviewed journal articles with more or less
gender perspective: gender studies can do better
Guy Madison 0
Therese So¨ derlund 0
0 Department of Psychology, Umea ̊ University , 901 87 Umea ̊ , Sweden
The field of gender studies has faced criticism for poor scholarship and methodology, both from within and outside academia. Here, we compare indicators of scientific quality across three samples of peer-reviewed journal articles with more, less and no gender perspective, on the assumption that gender studies tend to apply a gender perspective. The statements in the articles were content-analysed with respect to subject matter, their level of support in surrounding text, and other indicators of scientific quality. The higher the level of gender perspective, the lower was the scientific quality for seven out of nine indicators. Support was higher for the no gender perspective group, but did not differ across the two higher levels. We suggest that the impact of the field can be increased by implementing established research methods employed in other disciplines, especially in terms of bringing about desired social and societal change.
Gender studies; Gender perspective; Scientific quality analysis; Bias; Quantitative assessment; Scientific publication; Content
Gender studies has established itself as an academic field over the last half century
et al. 2007; Thure´n 2002; Pavlidou 2011)
. It covers a broad range of subject matters,
including women’s studies, feminism, masculinity studies, studies of sexual minorities
(Liinason and Holm 2006; Pilcher and Whelehan 2004)
, sex/gender equality, queer studies,
social norms (Lykke et al. 2007) and intersectionality—discrimination based on e.g.
ethnicity, race, gender, age, sexual preference, disability and religion
(Kantola and Nousiainen
2009; McCall 2005)
. This field has been associated with certain ideologies and political
(Cronin et al. 1997; Curthoys 2014; Hoff Sommers 1995; Liinason 2011; Lykke et al.
and influences from post-modernism, relativism, and critical theory
Pilcher and Whelehan 2004; Thure´n 2002)
. It has rapidly established itself in academia in
Western countries, typically with considerable support from the political establishment
(So¨ derlund and Madison 2015, 2017)
. However, gender and women’s studies scholars have
experienced both their efforts and themselves as antagonized
(Thure´n 2003; Zalewski
2003; Baird 2010)
, their research area as charged
(Bergman 2000; Friedman 1997)
their concepts as controversial
(Liinason and Holm 2006; Patai 1995; Pereira 2012)
Gender studies has faced criticism on several levels. It has been accused of being
nonacademic, overly ideological
(Friedman 1997; Hoff Sommers 1995)
(Zalewski 2003), and for featuring poor methodology and scholarship. The validity of the
research methods has been questioned
, in particular the limited use and
analysis of empirical data, and the focus on abstract concepts such as ‘‘social structures’’
. For example,
found that the most recent doctoral theses
listed by the Swedish National Secretariat for Gender Research assumed the reality of the
‘‘gender power order’’ and were dominated by a post-modern perspective. The concept of
gender has itself been criticized as logically untenable on the grounds that social and
biological sex are intrinsically confounded and therefore cannot be separated
. This makes it impossible to attribute behaviour or characteristics to social factors
alone, which is common within gender studies
(Patai and Koertge 1994)
. Another recurrent
line of criticism is bias in the choice of questions and methods and interpretation of results,
on the basis of an underlying political and ideological agenda
(Popova 2005; Sokal and
Bricmont 1998; Stro¨ m 2011)
. Gender scholars tend to respond that the critics are
illinformed and ignorant concerning the focus of gender studies research, which seeks not to
obscure or misrepresent the truth, but to question discriminating conventions and open up
for new viewpoints
(see for example Anderson 2015; Harding 1986, 1991)
There has also been a lively debate outside academia, where both the concept of gender
and gender studies have been questioned and criticised, mostly in blogs and forums but
also in books and reports
(e.g. Billing 2012; Stro¨ m 2007; Tuininga 2016)
. Such criticism
from outside academia has been dismissed as journalistic and selective by gender scholars
At large, the nature of these criticisms is associated with the so-called Science Wars in
the USA in the 1990s
(Brown 2001; Gross and Levitt 1994; Ross 1996)
fundamental epistemological questions were raised. The central chasm was between the alleged
positivist stance of the natural sciences and a post-modernist nexus of influences on areas
such as Cultural studies, Literature studies, Media studies, Feminist studies, Gender
studies, and Science and Technology studies. This huge controversy is outside the scope of
the present article and will in itself not be further discussed here. However, it is
notable that the Science Wars and the bulk of criticism against Gender studies and the
whole body of post-modernist thought as it appears also in other disciplines mainly
involves academic fields distant from each other
. Indeed, the most prolific
and persistent critics are found in remote fields like philosophy
(Rothstein 2006, 2012; Brown 1997)
(Sokal 2006; Sokal and Bricmont
. The cross-disciplinary nature of this criticism may be one reason why the debate
lingers on a high abstract level, and why the Science Wars were never resolved. Without
commonly accepted quantitative indices to scrutinize it is difficult to reach any
conclusions, and this state of affairs also reduces the motivation to pursue such issues. Indeed, the
field of gender studies has only been subject to very limited systematic study, given its
comprehensiveness, pretensions, and the criticism it has faced.
Previous research on gender studies has mainly focused on its history, growth, and
(e.g. Baird 2010; Bergman 2000; Curthoys 2014; Harding et al. 2013;
Liinason 2011; Liinason and Holm 2006; Lykke 2006; Pavlidou 2011; Rantalaiho and
Bergman 2002; R o¨nnblom and Eduards 2008; Thure´n 2003)
. A few quantitative analyses
consider bibliometric measures within gender studies such as authorship, growth, subject
area, citation pattern, source of publication and international visibility
(Ali et al. 2016;
Cronin et al. 1997; Hernandez-Pozo and Fernandez-Rius 2013; Jacobsson and Wadskog
2006; Norrbin 2007; Sharma and Rana 2016; Zainab 2008)
A few studies are more directly related to the criticisms being reviewed. A gender
perspective was associated with fewer citations and being published in journals with lower
impact factor, according to a bibliometric study of about 1000 publications
(So¨ derlund and
. A content analysis concerning realms of explanation found that a gender
perspective was associated with a higher proportion of biased statements, defined as a
preference of opinion by slanted or exaggerated words or language, normative statements,
defined as the use of value words, and with a focus on societal and environmental/cultural
causes and explanations
(So¨ derlund and Madison 2017)
. Finally, a content analysis of
editorials in three gender studies journals showed that many of the editorials exhibited a
feminist political agenda
(Cronin et al. 1997)
. Other than that, there seem to be no more
studies of this literature, according to a systematic publication databases search
and Madison 2017, p. 1095)
Here, we consider some fundamental aspects of scientific quality related to the
criticisms against gender studies that have not been well addressed by previous research, such
as the possibility to draw inferences, the generalisability and validity of results, and
accounting for limitations with the authors’ own work. The rest of the introduction outlines
and motivates the general design, which combines verbal content analysis and quantitative
comparisons of frequencies of certain content across publications with more or less gender
Peer-reviewed journal articles were chosen as source of data. Being contingent upon the
influences and approval of several scholars, they should be the most representative type of
publications for the consensus in the field. The sample was limited to publications written
by scholars at Swedish institutions, for two reasons. First, the population has to be
constrained in such a way that a comprehensive and representative sample can be obtained. In
this case, our local knowledge about institutions, literature databases, and other
infrastructure is useful for obtaining information about the scholars and identifying as large a
proportion of the literature as possible. Second, the selected population should be
informative with respect to the research questions. Sweden provides a favourable environment
for gender studies compared to most other countries, which should have facilitated
productivity as well as theoretical and methodological development. There has, for example,
been extensive governmental funding for gender studies during 2001–2011
Research Council 2011a)
, which may be related to a faster increase in gender studies
publications in Sweden than in other countries (So¨ derlund and Madison 2015). This
monetary support was earmarked, and amounted to approximately one sixth of the total
funding from the Swedish Research Council for the social sciences and the humanities
(for details, see S o¨derlund and Madison 2017, p. 1094)
. Sweden also
has a feminist political party called Fi!, a government that proclaims itself as feminist
(Socialdemokraterna 2016, p. 6)
, six out of the seven remaining parties labelling
themselves as feminist, and is ranked fourth most sex egalitarian amongst 145 countries in the
2015 Global Gender Gap Report
(World Economic Forum 2015, p. 8)
. The gender studies
field has also received extra funding to so-called Centres of Excellence
. Taken together, this should render Swedish journal publications of
particularly high quality and representative of the development of the field under favourable
The statements in the articles were content-analysed with respect to subject matter, level
of support for the statements, the type of relationship between variables (e.g. causal or
correlational) and mention of other research and of limitations with the authors’ own study.
Limitations included so-called reflexivity, where the author is explicit about his or her own
viewpoints and preconceptions, which is emphasized as a particular strength of gender
(Chrisler and McCreary 2010; Do¨ lling and Hark 2000)
. We reason that the contents
of text that describe the field of study reflect how scholars think about their subject matter
on a general level
(Graziano and Raulin 2014; Simonton 2006)
However, assessing absolute levels of various indicators of scientific quality is of
limited use for evaluating grounds for criticism. No study is perfect, and different types of
questions and subject matter constrain which designs and methods can be used, and
disciplines differ in how research is reported. We need therefore to compare gender studies to
what is not gender studies, but which is nevertheless comparable in terms of questions and
subject matter. This poses a profound problem, as gender studies is neither a discipline nor
constrained to certain questions or subject matters, as mentioned above. It would not make
sense to single out what is produced in certain departments, because the ideal is that the
gender perspective should imbue each and every field of study where it is relevant
Lykke et al. 2007; Pavlidou 2011)
. Accordingly, it has even been suggested that gender
studies for this reason cannot be studied
(for a discussion see Madison and So¨ derlund
. Our solution to this problem was to postulate that a gender perspective is
characteristic of gender studies publications, and quantify the level of gender perspective for each
article. This further rests on the reasonable premise that such a perspective represents a
relatively coherent set of values and beliefs, epistemological and other. A high level of
gender perspective should therefore be associated with individuals who hold these values
and beliefs, as well as being identifiable in texts written by such individuals. According to
this conjecture, the highest level of gender perspective was assigned to articles written by
those who self-identify as gender scholars or explicitly endorse a gender perspective, the
medium level to texts that reflect these values and beliefs, and the lowest level to the
remaining articles. Our solution to the problem of comparability was to constrain the
samples to a broad subject matter, namely questions related to gender and sex, which
should cover a relatively large proportion of gender studies publications.
The review of the criticisms above indicate several specific hypotheses that could be
formulated. However, being the first study of these particular quality indicators, a less
constrained and to some extent exploratory approach seems more useful. We therefore
hypothesize that there be no difference in any quality indicator between the levels of
gender perspective, based on the premise that these publications are all, across institutions,
departments, and levels of gender perspective, produced and peer-reviewed by academics
who have acquired scientific training. We do, however, hypothesize that the subject matter
differs across levels of gender perspective, according to gender studies’ greater focus on
social and societal factors rather than factors related to individual differences. Finally, we
explore interactions between content categories and type of relationship between variables.
As argued in the Introduction, the contents of text that describe the field of study reflect
how scholars view and reason about the concepts under study and their relations. In effect,
the unit of analysis is the group of articles rather than the individual articles. This indicates
sections labelled as background, discussion, introduction, and overview, but not sections
describing the aim, material, method, or results. The latter are more idiosyncratic and
limited to the constraints of the specific study being reported. As it turned out, a fair
proportion of the articles did not even have a demarcated method or results section, and did
furthermore not comprehensively disclose such information, a tendency which increased
with the gender perspective. The alternative approach, to evaluate the design and methods
employed in each article, would therefore have provided fewer data points the more the
gender perspective, and made comparisons difficult. Less structured articles with theory
interspersed throughout larger parts of the text were analysed in their entirety. If a part of
the text was a summary of other sections, it was excluded from analysis.
Four types of analyses were performed. First, a content analysis that identified
statements to be used for the other three analyses, and for identifying themes in the articles.
Then, the statements were categorised according to the type of relationship between
variables and relations to other theories/research, and limitations with the authors’ own
The journal articles were sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List (SGSL), a
compilation of all gender studies publications and a subpopulation of publications related
to sex or gender authored by scholars active in Sweden. The SGSL includes [ 12,000
papers published in affiliation with Swedish universities between January 2000 and
November 2011. A summary of the material collection will be given below, and a detailed
account is found in S o¨derlund and Madison (2015). The journal articles were either written
by authors affiliated with gender studies departments or were found with the keyword
‘‘gender’’ The selection of gender publications was primarily based on publications listed
by the gender centres located at the Blekinge and Lulea˚ polytechnics and the universities of
Gothenburg, Karlstad, Link o¨ping, Lund, Malm o¨, Mid Sweden, Stockholm, S o¨derto¨ rn,
Umea˚, Uppsala and O¨ rebro, secondly on other databases indicated by the gender centres,
thirdly on searches in Web of Science (WoS), and fourthly on searches in the database
Assignment of level of gender perspective
As motivated in the Introduction, the categorisation of level of gender perspective into
groups of articles was based on both self-identification and subject matter, an approach
. Information about all authors of each article was obtained from
the homepages of the institutions, from other homepages, or from the articles themselves.
The highest Self-identified level was defined as having at least one author who explicitly
1 A database comprised of multi-disciplinary gender studies publications from the database of Gothenburg
either identifies as a gender studies scholar or (1) acknowledges an uneven power relation
between men and women, (2) considers sex as socially and culturally constructed, or (3)
focuses on injustices and discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality, age,
religion and disability
(Kantola and Nousiainen 2009; McCall 2005)
. If these conditions
were not fulfilled, articles were assigned to the Inferred group if their content expressed
any of those three criteria, which corresponds to the definition of gender studies in the
largest Swedish encyclopedia: (1) power relations: ‘‘The perspective of interpretation is
based on the power relationship that historically, culturally and socially have defined
women’s and men’s roles and status in society’’, (2) social construction of gender: ‘‘… the
society and culture are structured according to gender… this determines our experiences
and knowledge and how others perceive us’’ and (3) intersectionality: ‘‘…how different
power relations interact in the social construction of social differences…’’
(Nationalencyklopedin 2016, our translation). Remaining articles were assigned to the group with the
lowest level of gender perspective, called Neutral.
Twelve journal articles were randomly selected from each of the three levels of gender
perspective, according to the following procedure. Each publication in the SGSL was
assigned a unique random number, and the SGSL was sorted according to type of
publication (first) and this number (second). Starting with the lowest number, the peer-reviewed
articles were assigned a level of gender perspective, as described above. A small group of
journal articles were excluded because they related to gender in irrelevant ways, for
example in the linguistic sense. After having completed three groups with 12 articles in
each, we noticed that 10 Neutral, 2 Inferred, and 1 Self-identified articles were written by
scholars affiliated with departments within the faculty of medicine. Articles in the field of
medicine tend to differ in several aspects from the humanities and the social sciences,
which might constitute a bias for the comparison. These 10 articles in the Neutral group
were therefore replaced with non-medicine articles, the random selection of which
happened to include only the social sciences. The medicine articles in the other two groups
were however retained to reflect the interdisciplinary character of gender studies and the
many areas in which gender perspectives are employed. Table 1 below shows the
distribution across the three groups and research area of the first author.
The process consisted of identifying statements in the texts and categorising them
according to content analysis
, as further described below. This
method reduces the numerous words in a text to a smaller number of content categories
. These categories are made up of coding units which, if part of the same
content category, are all expected to have the same meaning. One typically chooses a
‘‘natural’’ unit, in this case full sentences, and defines coding units using a syntactical
distinction. As is common in content analysis, the categories were in part induced by the
content of the statements and in part influenced by our knowledge of the area
(Krippendorff 2013; Miles and Huberman 1994)
. For example, such prior knowledge indicated that
societal systems, sex differences, and theories about people in general were expected
The articles were content analysed in random order. No trend in the coded categories
could be observed as a function of the order in which they were coded. Categories were
aThe number of publications in parentheses were written in Swedish
identified after one or two articles from each group had been coded, and were few and wide
in nature, consistent with the intention to give a broad overview of the article content.
These categories were: (1) People Concrete—actual people, individuals or groups are
mentioned, typically when referring to earlier studies or own results, (2) People Abstract—
statements about non-specific people, individuals or groups, for example when mentioning
theories, policies or typical/hypothetical situations, (3) Society—for example policies,
governmental actions, occupations or societal discourses, and (4) Sex
differences—differences between men and women, both concrete and abstract. The sex difference
statements were also about people, but were nonetheless gathered in their own category because
of the specific relevance to Gender studies. Sex rather than ‘‘gender’’ was used for this
category because virtually all these statements are based on differences between males and
females, rather than some index of social sex such as masculinity/femininity. Finally, (5)
statements about theories or matters other than the above categories, for example images,
texts or measuring instruments, were categorized as Other statements. The categories were
mutually exclusive, such that a statement could only belong to one category. All in all,
2805 statements were categorized, 500 of which were coded by two independent coders in
order to assess coding reliability, as reported in the results section. Both coders were aware
of the objectives of the study, and discussed the definitions before the coding commenced,
but were ignorant about which group each article was assigned to.
The quality indicators were the number of statements coded as belonging to any of
eighteen categories, some predetermined and some emergent. Following the five broad
subject matter categories (1–5), they are consecutively numbered and consist of the level of
conceptual support for the statements (6–9), types of relationship between variables or
constructs (10–13), and relations to earlier theories, results, and limitations with one’s own
study (14–18). These variables are described in more detail below.
Support was defined as other statements providing facts or arguments for a given
statement. It was mechanically categorised by one coder into one of four levels: No support (6):
The statement is not supported at all; Low (7): It is supported by either a reference,
empirical fact, or a cohesive argument within the whole of the text; Medium (8): It is
supported within 10 sentences before or 3 sentences after, or High (9); It is supported
within 3 sentences before or 1 sentence after. Statements regarding common knowledge,
scarcity of earlier studies, and reports of own results were ignored in this analysis, retaining
1946 out of 2805 statements.
Relationship between variables
The type of relationship between variables, including constructs or dimensions, was
categorised into (10) Statement of Fact, meaning descriptive statements regardless of their
being supported or not, (11) Correlation, where it is claimed that two or more variables are
correlated, (12) Causality, where one variable affects or controls another, and (13)
Speculation/Hypothesis, which may consist of any type of relation. Specifically, Speculation/
Hypothesis was defined as clearly stating that the subject matter is unsettled and has not
reached academic consensus, but may at the same time vary from wild speculation to
sound hypotheses based on earlier research. Cross-sectional designs were coded as
correlational, because none of them address causality, but both indicate associations between
variables. Correlation and Causality were decided beforehand, and the other two categories
emerged from the content analysis. Out of the total 2805 statements, 2754 could be coded
in one of these categories, the remaining 51 stating the author’s own views or
methodological concerns, for example. The categorisation was performed by one coder, although
inter-rater reliability was assessed for 500 randomly selected statements categorised by two
coders, as reported in the results section.
Relations to other research and limitations with the authors’ own study
This dimension was assessed by coding the statements into the following five categories:
(14) Earlier theories, which includes previous research theories and reasoning, not
necessarily tested or included in the study, (15) Earlier results, which includes explicit
previous empirical findings, (16) Own results, where the present results are discussed, and (17)
Comparisons, where own results are compared or contrasted to previous results and earlier
studies generally. After excluding 97 statements that earlier studies were scarce or about
commonly known facts, 2708 out of the total 2805 statements were coded. Finally, another
174 statements concerning (18) Limitations with the authors’ own study were coded. These
limitations relate to methods used, the scope of the study, type of data, or a mention of
reflexivity. All in all, this dimension included 2882 statements, assessed by one coder only,
due to the mechanical nature of the coding.
Differences between the groups were assessed with v2-tests, comparing the actual with the
expected frequencies, based on the absolute numbers of statements for each group. A
subset of 500 statements was coded by two individuals in order to assess reliability. Nine
categories whose definitions were highly concrete and could be employed in a mechanical
fashion were coded by one individual, however, in order to strategically reduce the
workload. These were Earlier theories, Earlier results, Comparison, Own results, and
Limitations (with the authors’ own study), and the four categories of Level of support (No,
Low, Medium, and High). The reliability of the coding was estimated by Cohen’s Kappa.
The reliability of the coding for 500 statements was assessed for the content categories
(People Concrete, People Abstract, Society, Sex differences and Other) and the type of
relationship (Statement of Fact, Correlation, Causality and Speculation/Hypothesis).
Categories with three or fewer statements were excluded from this analysis, namely, the
content category Other in Correlation, Causality and Speculation/Hypothesis, and Society
and Sex differences in Speculation/Hypothesis. The mean overall Kappa for the remaining
categories was 0.77, with a range from 0.76 to 0.89 for the relationship type Statement of
Fact across the five content categories, 0.61–0.89 for Correlation, 0.66–0.94 for Causality
and 0.74–0.84 for Speculation/Hypothesis, the last three also across the five content
categories. These reliabilities are considered good (0.60–0.74) to excellent ([ 0.75)
(Chicchetti and Sparrow 1981)
In addition to the analyses described, the words in the 36 articles were counted, save for
tables, figures and reference lists. Ten of the 12 Self-identified articles ranged between
7000 and 9000 words, two had * 4100 and * 5200 words, and the average was 7371
words. Ten of the Inferred articles ranged between 4700 and 9500 words, two had * 2600
and * 3200 words, and the average was 6588 words. Nine of the Neutral articles ranged
between 4000 and 9000 words, the remaining three had * 1800, * 2500 and * 3000
words, and the average was 5552 words. The grand total was 234,130 words, and
subtracting 34,567 words of direct method descriptions left 199,563 words for the content
Figure 1 presents the results of the content analysis, the categories numbered 1–5 in the
method section. The bars represent the proportion of statements in percent of each content
category for each of the groups Self-identified, Inferred, and Neutral, in order to make
them comparable in the face of different total numbers of statements across the three
groups. The distribution of these statements was not random across the three groups,
according to a v2-test (v2 (df = 8, N = 2805) = 473.035, p \ .05). A post hoc analysis with
showed that Self-identified had a lower proportion
and Neutral had a higher proportion of People Concrete statements than expected under the
null hypothesis, and that Inferred had a higher and Self-identified a lower proportion of
People Abstract statements than expected. Self-identified contained a higher, and Inferred
and Neutral a lower proportion of Society statements than expected. Sex differences were
mentioned less than expected by Self-identified and more than expected in Neutral
articles. These significant contrasts are indicated by the labels H and L in the figures. Table A1
in the Appendix lists the number of statements for each group and content category.
Figure 2 depicts the proportions of each level of supported statements in the three
groups. A v2-test showed that the distribution of statements was significantly different
across groups (v2 (6, 1946) = 117.269, p \ .05). The same post hoc analysis as for content
category showed that Self-identified and Inferred had a higher proportion, and Neutral a
lower proportion of No support (category 6) than expected. Neutral also had a higher
proportion of High support (9) than expected. There were no differences for the Low (7) or
Medium (8) levels of support. Table A2 in the Appendix lists the number of statements for
each group and level of support.
Figure 3 shows the distribution of relationships between variables across the three
groups. Significant differences were found in (10) Statement of Fact (v2 (2,
1883) = 71.238, p \ .01), Correlation (v2 (2, 541) = 166.519, p \ .01), and (11)
Speculation/Hypothesis (v2 (2, 196) = 12.464, p \ .01), but not in (12) Causality (v2 (2,
134) = 7.923, p [ .01). The post hoc analysis showed that Self-identified had a higher
proportion and Neutral a lower proportion of Statement of Fact (10) statements than
expected. Conversely, Correlation (11) and Speculation/Hypothesis (13) statements were
more frequent than expected in the Neutral group and less than expected in the
Selfidentified group. Table A3 in the Appendix lists the number of statements for each group
and statement category.
Figure 4 shows the distribution of statements discussing relations to other research and
Limitations with the authors’ own study. Significant differences were found with v2-tests
in (14) Earlier theories (v2 (2, 1622) = 85.745, p \ .01), (15) Earlier results (v2 (2,
326) = 100.84, p \ .01), Comparisons (v2 (2, 175) = 28.359, p \ .01) and Limitations
with the authors’ own study (v2 (2, 174) = 115.373, p \ .01) but not in (16) Own results
(v2 (2, 585) = 2.733, p [ .05). The post hoc analysis showed that Self-identified had a
higher proportion and Neutral a lower proportion of Earlier theories (14) statements than
expected. Self-identified also to a lesser extent and Neutral to a greater extent than
expected mentioned Earlier results (15), Comparisons (17) and Limitations (18) with the
authors’ own study. In fact, seven of the Self-identified articles, five of the Inferred and one
of the Neutral articles contained no discussion on limitations at all, and reflexivity was
referred to only by one of the Self-identified articles. See Table A4 in the Appendix for the
number of statements for each group and category.
In summary, there were significant differences between some levels of gender
perspective for 13 of the 18 dependent variables, specifically four of the five subject matter
categories, two of the four support categories, three of the four relations between variables
categories, and four of the five relations to other research and limitations categories. A
higher level of gender perspective was associated with more content mentioning society
than individuals, more mentioning of earlier theories, a higher proportion of stated facts,
and a lower proportion of speculation/hypothesis statements. More gender perspective was
also associated with less mentioning of sex differences, results from other studies, and
limitations with the authors’ own study, as well as less supported statements. In terms of
relations between variables, all three groups showed a low occurrence of statements
mentioning causal relationships, but correlational relationships were more common the less
the gender perspective. Having reported the main effects of gender group, we now turn to
the interaction between type of content and the type of relationship between variables, for
each gender group.
Figure 5 shows that in Self-identified the largest proportions of statements, between
* 8 and 30%, are found in the relationship category Statement of Fact, and deal with all
content categories except Sex differences. Smaller proportions are also found in
Correlation and Speculation/Hypothesis regarding Society, with 3.7 and 2.7% respectively.
Figure 6 shows that the statements in the Inferred group are likewise mostly found in
the relationship category Statement of Fact, with People Abstract at * 26% having the
largest proportion, People Concrete, Society and Other all having around 12%, and Sex
differences having * 4%. People Concrete also has a relatively large proportion of
correlational statements at * 8%, and People Abstract a proportion of * 2.5–5.5% in
Correlation, Causality and Speculation/Hypothesis.
Figure 7 conveys a quite different pattern than Figs. 5 and 6 for several categories. The
largest proportions of statements within the Neutral group are found within People
Concrete and People Abstract in Statement of Fact and Correlation. Somewhat lower
proportions are also found in Causality and Speculation/Hypothesis for People Abstract with
* 3–5%, and in Statement of Fact for Society, Other and Sex differences with * 2–6%.
Society and Sex differences also had proportions of * 2 and * 4% in Correlation. There
are substantial differences in the amount of correlational statements across the groups
overall, as shown in Fig. 3, and the interaction graphs also show how these statements
move from the content categories pertaining to people and Sex differences to Society as the
gender perspective increases. While Neutral has the highest level of correlational
statements, the few correlational statements in Self-identified mostly concerns society. The
figures also show that the high occurrence of Statement of Fact in Self-identified are mostly
found in statements concerning Society, People (both) and Other statements, while the low
occurrence of Statement of Fact in Neutral concerns people in a concrete sense. Moreover,
while Self-identified statements speculates and hypothesizes on societal matters,
speculation and hypothesis statements in the Inferred and Neutral articles dwell mostly on people
in an abstract sense.
The purpose of the present study was to empirically evaluate the grounds for a range of
criticisms that has faced the field of gender studies, as well as to provide a high-level
description of the contents of the three groups of publications. The hypothesis that there are
no differences in scientific quality indicators between the levels of gender perspective must
be rejected. The alternative conclusion that more gender perspective is associated with
lower quality is buttressed by a consistent dose–response relationship for seven of the nine
quality indicators in the relationship categories. The level of support, however, was higher
for Neutral but did not differ between the other two groups. The second hypothesis
regarding subject matter seems to be supported. The focus on society in the Self-identified
articles is consistent with the emphasis on societal systems and structures in the field
and with previous results showing that gender perspective is
predominantly concerned with societal explanations
(So¨ derlund and Madison 2017)
the many statements about societal issues may be related to the political equality goal of
(Thure´n 2002; Cronin et al. 1997)
, consistent with claims that gender
studies is overly ideological
(Friedman 1997; Hoff Sommers 1995)
. The lesser focus on
actual or abstract people and sex differences, compared to the Neutral group, might be
contingent on a top-down conception of conditions for women and men, as opposed to a
bottom-up conception emerging from the actions and preferences of individuals
relevant meta-analyses and systematic reviews include Lippa 2010; Puts et al. 2008; Stoet
and Geary 2012; Su et al. 2009; Voracek et al. 2011; Voyer and Voyer 2014)
the Inferred and Neutral texts speculated and hypothesized about people in an abstract
sense, while the Self-identified texts dwelled mainly on societal speculation. The Neutral
texts also had a higher proportion of cross-sectional sex differences (included in the
Correlation category) than the other two groups. These results indicate a general
epistemological difference across disciplines, where the texts written by gender scholars are
more abstract, less empirical, and to a greater extent focus on societal matters. This
tendency for applying a birds-eye perspective is consistent with the criticism that gender
studies rarely concerns itself with empirical data (Rothstein 1999), and when it does, it
tends to consider these as group level phenomena, such as ‘‘attitudes’’, ‘‘norms’’, ‘‘values’’,
or ‘‘practices’’. It is worth noting that such constructs may just as well be the cause as the
effect of people’s actions, which makes it logically impossible to assess any causal
direction. This seems also to be reflected in a tendency toward higher proportions of causal
statements in the Inferred and Neutral groups (albeit non-significant).
In terms of relations between variables, the interaction plots exhibited a pattern where
Self-identified had many statements about society and people in an abstract sense and a
medium number of statements about people in a concrete sense. Almost all of these were
presented as statements of fact. In contrast, the Inferred and Neutral groups largely framed
their frequent mention of people in a concrete sense in the context of correlations with
other variables. This pattern is consistent with the criticism that the research methods
employed by gender studies tend not to use causal or even correlational interpretations
. Figures 5, 6 and 7 display many more interactions, which together with the
even more detailed tables in the Appendix constitute raw data for further analysis. We
refrain from attempting to interpret them further, because they were not part of our
Continuing with the dependent variables that more directly tap scientific quality, we find
that Causality and Own results (numbered 12 and 16 above) exhibited no significant
difference across the groups, and are apparently dimensions on which the groups do not
differ. This is further supported by the lack of any consistent trend related to gender
perspective. Correlation, Speculation/Hypothesis, Earlier results, Comparisons, and
Limitations with the author’s own study all garner more mention the less the gender
perspective (11, 13, 15, 17, and 18), and the level of support increases (6–9). In contrast,
Statement of Fact and statements related to Earlier theories (10, 14) were more frequent the
more the gender perspective.
Correlation includes mention of empirical relations between variables that are not
explicitly causal, such as cross-sectional designs, and exhibits substantial and highly
significant differences across all three groups. Again, this is consistent with a general
epistemological difference across disciplines, as argued by
. A smaller trend in the same direction was observed for Speculation/Hypothesis,
meaning that a higher level of gender perspective was associated with a lower proportion
of explicit hypothesis (although this did not hold for the absolute difference between
Inferred and Neutral).
The lower occurrence of Earlier results and Comparisons with earlier research within
Self-identified, and supported statements in Self-identified and Inferred, can be related to
the claim that gender studies is non-academic
(Friedman 1997; Hoff Sommers 1995)
Adding to this is the lesser mentioning of Limitations with the authors’ own study in the
Self-identified texts, and the fact that more than half of the Self-identified articles and two
fifths of the Inferred articles contained no statements about limitations at all. It is
notable that reflexivity was only found in one of the 24 articles with any level of gender
perspective, although reflexivity is claimed to be an especially strong virtue of gender
(Chrisler and McCreary 2010; Do¨ lling and Hark 2000)
. The pronouns ‘‘I’’,
‘‘we’’ ‘‘mine’’ and so on were common enough, and made the author visible in the text
rather than using passive constructions, but were rarely extended to a discussion on the
limits with the own study.
In contrast, statements related to Earlier theories were more frequent the more the
gender perspective. A scientific study is typically stronger if it is based on theory, given
that a theoretical prediction is actually tested. As seen in the Appendix, there is no dearth
of mentioning theories even in the Neutral articles, however, with a total of 285 statements
corresponding to an average of about 24 times per article. Whereas the articles with a
gender perspective mention Earlier theories 56 times per article on average, the low
frequencies of correlational statements and comparisons with earlier results indicate that
few of the theories mentioned are evaluated in the light of the empirical data, if extant,
let alone systematically tested. The difference in Earlier theories seem therefore to be
consistent with gender studies being overly theoretical, in the sense that a very small
fraction of the theoretical propositions mentioned are or even can be evaluated or tested.
Finally, the higher frequency of Statement of Fact might be a trivial consequence of
fewer Correlation and Speculation/Hypothesis statements, as this tends to function as a
default category in the content analysis and corresponds in magnitude to the lower
frequencies to these categories. On the other hand, part of this difference could be a
characteristic of gender perspective, which seems to be supported by the specific pattern
evident in Figs. 5, 6 and 7, in particular its relation to Society.
Overall, these data indicate systematically lower scientific quality across several
different indicators as the level of gender perspective increases. While claims to that effect
have been based on anecdotal evidence or observations of gender studies publications per
se, this is the first time it has been decisively assessed comparing randomly drawn samples
from an entire population
(but see S o¨derlund and Madison 2017, for a different set of
Starting with a wide perspective, the present results entails questions about the extent to
which the practices and traditions of gender studies are conducive to the purpose and goals
of the field. With less mention of relations to other studies and results, and less support for
statements and arguments, it appears to focus on communicating examples of different
experiences and viewpoints of certain groups of people, rather than comprehensive models
of the real world. If social and societal change is the goal, however, it would seem that such
models are essential for demonstrating the magnitude of both the problems to be solved
and the side-effects that their solutions entail. In contrast, gender scholars express strong
preferences for descriptive, non-experimental designs, and for qualitative data and analysis
(Eagly and Riger 2014; Grossman et al. 1997)
, and are also keen to criticize logical
positivism and ‘‘traditional’’ science in general (e.g., Magnusson 2011). These are but a
few aspects of so-called feminist epistemology, which is argued to be superior to
mainstream scientific methods and to transform traditional psychology and the very
conceptualizations of knowledge
(Grossman et al. 1997, pp. 82–83)
. This revulsion from what
could coarsely be called traditional science is expressed amongst gender scholars in
general, not only those cited here. It indicates the desire to overthrow tradition, or to
establish a competing tradition. But this also entails a risk for isolation within one’s own
field, and contains the seeds for a spiral process, as mutual criticism raises the palisade and
increases the distance to the ‘other’.
It would therefore seem convenient to attribute differences in methods and practices to
tradition, and defend them on the grounds that it is unfair to compare traditions in which
people have been trained differently. However, we maintain what we believe is a
mainstream ideal that methods shall be determined by the questions being asked. Inasmuch as
scholars address the same question, which may well happen across psychology, sociology,
economics, and political science, for example, it should be appropriate to compare them
according to the same standards. If the research question involves the relation between
hormones and behaviour, for example, there is no reason that the chemical analyses or
procedures be substandard if the study were designed by a psychologist rather than a
chemist. The logic of that argument is plain, according to which tradition is not principally
a valid reason for applying suboptimal methods or lower scientific standards. The issue
becomes more complex if we consider not merely differences in how to answer the same
questions, but differences in what questions to ask. As we have seen, social and societal
levels of explanation are favoured from a gender perspective, whereas factors related to
individual differences are not. It is reasonable that a discipline focused on biological
factors formulates questions about, for example, hormonal influences, that one focused on
social interaction formulates questions about verbal and other behaviour, and so forth. But
it is imperative that these diverse findings can be compared and jointly evaluated, lest they
remain disconnected and hence unable to advance knowledge. Therefore, the question of
fairness misses the point, which is that science can and should ultimately be evaluated on
the basis of the knowledge it generates. A hallmark of good science is that researchers
maintain an awareness and casual knowledge about the contributions from other fields to
understanding the phenomena they study.
Possible limitations with the present study should be considered. First, the SGSL cannot
be expected to contain every relevant publication. Although a population database, it is
virtually impossible to find each and every gender journal article published at Swedish
universities, partly because of the interdisciplinary nature of gender studies. This should
not constitute any problem for the present study, because it is based on differences between
groups of articles, and possible missing data would affect all groups equally.
Second, it might be argued that 12 articles in each group is too small a sample for the
reason that random factors might play a large role. However, the critical entity is the
amount of text rather than the number of articles, because the unit of analysis was the
group of articles, as representing a certain level of gender perspective. This is consistent
with the fact that the statements were drawn from the introduction and discussion and
therefore less tied to the study at hand. According to this design, each statement was
equally likely to be selected from within each group of articles, which were relatively equal
in length so that exceptionally long articles should not skew the results.
In conclusion, gender studies is consistent in both expressing and practising selective
preferences, for example concerning methods, levels of explanation, and ways to
(see also Cronin et al. 1997; S o¨derlund and Madison 2017)
. The present results
indicate that gender studies has positioned itself more distantly from the scientific method
than have the disciplines included for comparison. However, the impact of the field will be
attenuated if it employs methods and practices that decrease the strength of conclusions
and generalizability of results. Bibliometric studies seem to suggest that the peculiarities of
the field are indeed hampering its influence and reputation (So¨derlund and Madison 2015).
The preference for dependent social constructs that forbid causal conclusions, such as
‘‘attitudes’’ and ‘‘norms’’, is particularly paradoxical in light of the desire for change, as
knowing what causes a certain change is absolutely necessary to bring it about. It may
therefore be argued that gender studies could benefit from implementing established
research methods employed in other disciplines. There is no opposition, we argue, between
using qualitative data, like verbal data from talk or text, and applying the power of
quantitative analysis, as has humbly been done in the present study, for example. Likewise
there can be no opposition between analysing qualitative data and considering their
reliability, validity, and representativity, as well as causal relations amongst constructs. A
similar point can be made regarding gender studies’ criticism of established disciplines, not
the least in the way they relate to sex and sex differences. Discussion and criticism is
always welcome from a scientific point of view, but it tends to be more useful and make
greater impact if founded on a thorough understanding of that which is criticized.
Future studies should assess if the general patterns found so far generalise to other
countries and samples, should be extended to more detailed content analyses, and may also
attempt to assess the argumentative foundation of the texts. If larger samples could be
analysed, it would be feasible to compare publications on the basis of their individual
characteristics in terms of the amount of data, scientific outcome, the type of methods, and
most importantly, the correspondence between the stated research question and the
Gender studies has received exclusive funding in Sweden, with the specific goal to
increase its quality, outside competition with other fields
(Swedish Research Council
. It seems therefore particularly important to ensure that these resources attain the
desired results, and that gender studies concur with the goal to strive for the highest
possible level of scientific quality, which can be expected to increase its relatively low
impact and few citations (So¨ derlund and Madison 2015). In short, gender studies can do
Acknowledgements We thank Bo Molander, Ulrich Olofsson, and John Wallert for valuable comments on
a previous version of this manuscript.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the
source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Agresti , A. ( 2012 ). Categorical data analysis . New York, NY: Wiley.
Ali , H. , Adithya , K. H. , & Mahadevamurthy , M. ( 2016 ). India's contribution to women's studies during 1990-2015: A bibliometric analysis . Journal of Advancements in Library Sciences , 3 , 50 - 55 .
Anderson , E. ( 2015 ). Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science . In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Lab.
Baird , B. ( 2010 ). Ambivalent optimism: Women's and gender studies in Australian universities . Feminist Review , 95 , 111 - 126 .
Bergman , S. ( 2000 ). A bird's eye on women's studies in the Nordic countries . In S. Bergman (Ed.), Satsningar och samarbete: Nordisk kvinno- och ko¨nsforskning under 20 a ˚r (pp. 47 - 49 ). Oslo: NIKK.
Billing , P. ( 2012 ). Ja¨msta¨lldhetsbluffen . Malmo¨: Vulkan.
Brown , W. ( 1997 ). The impossibility of women's studies . Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies , 9 , 79 - 101 .
Brown , J. R. ( 2001 ). Who rules in science? An opinionated guide to the wars . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carlsson , A ˚. ( 2001 ). Ko¨n, kropp och konstruktion: En underso¨kning av den filosofiska grunden f o¨r distinktionen mellan ko¨n och genus. Eslo¨v: Brutus O¨ stlings Bokfo¨rlag.
Chicchetti , D. V. , & Sparrow , S. A. ( 1981 ). Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: Applications to assessment of adaptive behavior . American Journal of Mental Deficiency , 86 , 127 - 137 .
Chrisler , J. C. , & McCreary , D. R. ( 2010 ). Handbook of gender research in psychology . New York: Springer.
Cronin , B. , Davenport , E. , & Martinson , A. ( 1997 ). Women's studies: Bibliometric and content analysis of the formative years . Journal of Documentation , 53 , 123 - 138 .
Curthoys , A. ( 2014 ). Gender in the social sciences . Australian Feminist Studies , 29 , 115 - 120 .
Do ¨lling, I. , & Hark , S. ( 2000 ). She who speaks shadow speaks truth: Transdisciplinarity in women's and gender studies . Signs , 25 , 1195 - 1198 .
Eagly , A. H. , & Riger , S. ( 2014 ). Feminism and psychology: Critiques of methods and epistemology . American Psychologist , 69 , 685 - 702 .
Friedman , S. S. ( 1997 ). The future of women's studies and the threat to academic feminism . Surfaces , 7 , 3 - 10 .
Ganetz , H. ( 2005 ). Genusvetenskapliga projektanso¨kningar inom humaniora-samha¨llsvetenskap . Report No. 15:2005 . Stockholm: The Swedish Research Council.
Graziano , A. M. , & Raulin , M. L. ( 2014 ). Research methods: A process of inquiry . Harlow: Pearson.
Gross , P. R. , & Levitt , N. ( 1994 ). Higher superstition: Academic left and its quarrels with science . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Grossman , F. K. , Gilbert , L. A. , Genero , N. P. , Hawes , S. E. , Hyde , J. S. , & Marecek , J. ( 1997 ). Feminist research: Practice and problems . In J. Worell & N. G. Johnson (Eds.), Shaping the future of feminist psychology: Education, research, and practice (pp. 73 - 91 ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hacking , I. ( 2016 ). The social construction of what? . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Harding , N. , Ford , J. , & Fotaki , M. ( 2013 ). Is the 'F' -word still dirty? A past, present and future of/for feminist and gender studies in Organization . Organization, 20 , 51 - 65 .
Harding , S. ( 1986 ). The science question in feminism . London: Cornell University Press.
Harding , S. ( 1991 ). Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women's lives . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hernandez-Pozo , M. R. , & Fernandez-Rius , L. E. ( 2013 ). Scientometric analysis of research from a feminist perspective . Acta Colombiana de Psicologia , 16 , 31 - 46 .
Hoff Sommers , C. ( 1995 ). Who stole feminism? How women have betrayed women . New York: Touchstone.
Jacobsson , C. , & Wadskog , D. ( 2006 ). Indicators of scientific quality . In H. Ganetz (Ed.), Reaching for scientific excellence in gender research (pp. 53 - 63 ). Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.
Kantola , J. , & Nousiainen , K. ( 2009 ). Institutionalizing intersectionality in Europe . International Feminist Journal of Politics , 11 , 459 - 477 .
Krippendorff , K. ( 2013 ). Content analysis. An introduction to its methodology (3rd ed .). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Liinason , M. ( 2011 ). Feminism and the academy-Exploring the politics of institutionalization in Gender Studies in Sweden . Doctoral thesis , Lund University, Sweden.
Liinason , M. , & Holm , U. ( 2006 ). PhDs, women's/gender studies and interdisciplinarity . Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research , 14 , 115 - 130 .
Lippa , R. ( 2010 ). Gender differences in personality and interests: When, where , and why? Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4 , 1098 - 1110 .
Lykke , N. ( 2006 ). Gender research and excellence . In H. Ganetz (Ed.), Reaching for scientific excellence in Gender Research (pp. 64 - 75 ). Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.
Lykke , N. , Mellstro¨m, U. , & Gustavson , M. ( 2007 ). Genus som staerkt forskningsfelt . Linko¨ping: Filosofisk Fakultet, Link o¨pings Universitet.
Madison , G. , & So¨derlund, T. ( 2016 ). Can gender studies be studied? Reply to comments on So¨derlund and Madison . Scientometrics, 108 , 329 - 335 .
Magnusson , E. ( 2011 ). Women, men, and all the other categories: Psychologies for theorizing human diversity . Nordic Psychology , 63 , 88 - 114 .
McCall , L. ( 2005 ). The complexity of intersectionality . Signs , 30 , 1771 - 1800 .
Miles , M. B. , & Huberman , A. M. ( 1994 ). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed .). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nationalencyklopedin. ( 2016 ). Genusforskning. Retrieved september 14 , 2016 , from http://www.ne.se/ uppslagsverk/encyklopedi/la˚ng/genusforskning.
Norrbin , C. ( 2007 ). Svensk genusforskning i va¨rlden-En bibliometrisk studie av svenska genusforskares internationella publiceringar . Report No. 4/07. Go¨teborg: Swedish National Secretariat for Gender Research.
Patai , D. ( 1995 ). What's wrong with women's studies? Academe , 81 , 30 - 35 .
Patai , D. , & Koertge , N. ( 1994 ). Professing feminism: Cautionary tales from the strange world of women's studies . New York: Basic Books.
Pavlidou , T.-S. ( 2011 ). Open forum: The challenge of interdisciplinarity: From theoretical claims to interdisciplinary practives in gender studies . European Journal of Women's Studies , 18 , 310 - 317 .
Pereira , M. D. M. ( 2012 ). 'Feminist theory is proper knowledge, but…': The status of feminist scholarship in the academy . Feminist Theory , 13 , 283 - 303 .
Pilcher , J. , & Whelehan , I. ( 2004 ). 50 key concepts in gender studies . London: Sage.
Popova , S. ( 2005 ). Viljan att flyta medstro¨ms-En granskning av svenska genusavhandlingar 2005 . Stockholm: Timbro.
Puts , D. A. , McDaniel , M. , Jordan , C. L. , & Breedlove , S. M. ( 2008 ). Spatial ability and prenatal androgens: Meta-analyses of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and digit ratio (2D:4D) studies . Archives of Sexual Behavior , 37 , 100 - 111 .
Rantalaiho , L. , & Bergman , S. ( 2002 ). Women's studies and gender research in Finland . Helsinki, FI: Academy of Finland.
Ro ¨nnblom, M. , & Eduards , M. ( 2008 ). Genusperspektiv p a˚ statsvetenskap. Stockholm: Swedish National Agency for Higher Education .
Ross , A. ( 1996 ). Introduction. Social Text , 46 ( 47 ), 1 - 13 .
Rothstein , B. ( 1999 ). Den moderna k o¨nsmaktsordningens grundbult . Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift , 102 , 1 - 20 .
Rothstein , B. ( 2006 , November 12). Svenska genusforskare ha˚ller inte ma˚ttet . Dagens Nyheter. https://www. dn.se.
Rothstein , B. ( 2012 ). Fel av staten att sto¨tta genusforskningen . Go¨teborgs-Posten.
Sharma , A. , & Rana , M. S. ( 2016 ). Indian journal of gender studies: A citation analysis in context to women's studies literature . The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies , 4 , 80 .
Simonton , D. K. ( 2006 ). Scientific status of disciplines, individuals and ideas: Empirical analyses of the potential impact of theory . Review of General Psychology , 10 , 98 - 112 .
Socialdemokraterna. ( 2016 ). The Swedish Social Democratic Party . An introduction . Stockholm, SE: Socialdemokraterna.
So ¨derlund, T. , & Madison , G. ( 2015 ). Characteristics of gender studies publications: A bibliometric analysis based on a Swedish population database . Scientometrics , 105 , 1347 - 1387 .
So ¨derlund, T. , & Madison , G. ( 2017 ). Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: A comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences . Scientometrics , 112 , 1093 - 1109 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2407-x.
Sokal , A. D. ( 2006 ). Pseudoscience and postmodernism: Antagonists or fellow-travellers ? In G. G. Fagan (Ed.), Archaeological fantasies: How pseudoarchaeology misrepresents the past and misleads the public (pp. 286 - 361 ). New York, DC: Routledge.
Sokal , A. D. , & Bricmont , J. ( 1998 ). Fashionable nonsense: Postmodern intellectuals' abuse of science . New York, NY: Picador.
Stoet , G. , & Geary , D. C. ( 2012 ). Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement? Review of General Psychology , 16 , 93 - 102 .
Stro¨m, P. ( 2007 ). Mansfo¨rtryck och kvinnova¨lde . Stockholm: Den Nya Va¨lfa¨rden.
Stro¨m, P. ( 2011 ). Sex feministiska myte . Stockholm: Den Nya Va¨lfa¨rden.
Su , R. , Rounds , J. , & Armstrong , P. I. ( 2009 ). Men and things, women and people: A meta-analysis of sex differences in interests . Psychological Bulletin , 135 , 859 - 884 .
Swedish Research Council. (2011a) . Evaluation of ''Centres of Gender Excellence''. Report No. 5:2011 . Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.
Swedish Research Council. (2011b) . Projektbidrag genusforskning . Stockholm, SE: Swedish Research Council. Retrieved May 03, 2017 , from http://www.vr.se/forskningsfinansiering/sokabidrag/ vetenskapsradetsutlysningar/stangdautlysningar/projektbidraggenusforskning.5.e01f6fe12e29bb8aa18 000775.html.
Thure´n , B.-M. ( 2002 ). Introduction . In B.-M. Thure´n (Ed.), Genusv a¨gar: En antologi om genusforskning (pp. 5 - 24 ). Malmo¨: Liber.
Thure´n , B.-M. ( 2003 ). Genusforskning-Fra˚gor, villkor och utmaningar . Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.
Tuininga , J. M. ( 2016 ). The problem with gender studies . Public Discourse. Retrieved April 21 , 2017 , from http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/ 2016 /07/17119/.
Voracek , M. , Pietschnig , J. , Nader , I. W. , & Stieger , S. ( 2011 ). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex-role orientation: Further evidence and meta-analysis . Personality and Individual Differences , 51 , 417 - 422 .
Voyer , D. , & Voyer , S. D. ( 2014 ). Gender differences in scholastic achievement: A meta-analysis . Psychological Bulletin , 140 , 1174 - 1204 .
Weber , R. P. ( 1990 ). Basic content analysis (2nd ed .). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
World Economic Forum. ( 2015 ). The global gender gap report . Geneva: World Economic Forum.
Zainab , A. N. ( 2008 ). Growth and pattern of women's studies in Malaysia as reflected by generated literature . LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research Electronic Journal , 18 ( 1 ), 1 - 17 .
Zalewski , M. ( 2003 ). Is women's studies dead ? Journal of International Women's Studies , 4 , 117 - 133 .