Janus face-like effects of Aurora B inhibition: antitumoral mode of action versus induction of aneuploid progeny

Carcinogenesis, Oct 2016

Wiedemuth, Ralf, Klink, Barbara, Fujiwara, Mamoru, Schröck, Evelin, Tatsuka, Masaaki, Schackert, Gabriele, Temme, Achim

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:


Janus face-like effects of Aurora B inhibition: antitumoral mode of action versus induction of aneuploid progeny

Carcinogenesis Janus face-like effects of Aurora B inhibition: antitumoral mode of action versus induction of aneuploid progeny Ralf Wiedemuth 2 Barbara Klin k 0 1 Mamoru Fujiwara 3 Evelin Schröck 0 1 Masaaki Tatsuka 3 Gabriele Schacker 2 Achim Temme 0 2 0 G,erman Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) , 69121 Heidelberg , Germany an 1 I,nstitute for Clinical Genetics, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden , Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden , Germany 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Section of Experimental Neurosurgery/Tumor Immunology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden , Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden , Germany 3 dDepartment of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima , Shoubara, Hiroshima 772-0023 , Japan The mitotic Aurora B kinase is overexpressed in tumors and various inhibitors for Aurora B are currently under clinical assessments. However, when considering Aurora B kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs, their mode of action and the role of p53 status as a possible predictive factor for response still needs to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed the effects of selective Aurora B inhibition using AZD1152-HQPA/Barasertib (AZD1152) on HCT116 cells, U87-MG, corresponding isogenic p53-deficient cells and a primary glioblastoma cell line. AZD1152 treatment caused polyploidy and non-apoptotic cell death in all cell lines irrespective of p53 status and was accompanied by poly-merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments and DNA damage. In p53 wild-type cells a DNA damage response induced an inefficient pseudo-1Gcell cycle arrest, which was not able to halt ongoing endoreplication of cells. Of note, release of tumor cells from AZD1152 resulted in recovery of aneuploid progenies bearing numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations. Yet, AZD1152 treatment enhanced death receptor TRAIL-R2 levels in all tumor cell lines investigated. A concomitant increase of the activating natural killer (NK) cell ligand MIC A/B in p53-deficient cells and an induction of FAS/CD95 in cells containing p53 rendered AZD1152-treated cells more susceptible for NK-cell-mediated lysOisu.r study mechanistically explains a p53-independent mode of action of a chemical Aurora B inhibitor and suggests a potential triggering of antitumoral immune responses, following polyploidization of tumor cells, which might constrain recovery of aneuploid tumor cells. Introduction Members of the aurora kinase family are critically involved In line with this, genetic variants of Aurora A, such as F31I and in the segregation of sister chromatids and include three -ser T+91A, have been found to be associated with increased cancer ine/threonine kinases A(URKA/Aurora A, AURKB/Aurora B and susceptibility in a variety of tissues5,(6). AURKC/Aurora C) (1–3). Despite their similarity at the sequence Aurora B represents a chromosomal passenger protein level, the localization and functions of Aurora kinases are non- which assembles in a stable complex with the inner cent-ro overlapping. Aurora A  is localized at the centrosome from the meric protein (INCENP/INCENP), BIRC5/Survivin and CDCA8/ time of centrosome duplication through to mitotic exit and r-eg Borealin to build the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC)2(). ulates centrosome function. Aurora A is commonly amplified in INCENP, Survivin and Borealin act as scaffold for Aurora B and several solid tumors and has been suggested as an oncogen4e).( have regulatory and targeting functions for the CP2)C. A(urora Abbreviations to elucidate whether AZD1152-induced mitotic defects and polyploidy define a point of no return and ultimately cause c-an cer cell death. Materials and methods Cell culture and clonogenic survival The near tetraploid primary glioblastoma cell line HT7606 as well as U87MGshp53 and HCT116p53−/− cells have recently been described25( ,26 ). U87-MG and HCT116 cell lines were authenticated using single-nucleotide p-oly morphism profiling (Multiplexion GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). In add-i tion spectral karyotyping (SKY) was used for HCT116 and HT7606 cell lines. All cell lines in this study were tested negative for Aurora C- pro B kinase activity is critically involved in correcting syntelictein expression (data not shown). Long-term survival of AZD1152-treated and merotelic microtubule–kinetochore (MT–KT) connections U87-MG, HCT116, HT7606 cells and their isogenetic but p53-deficient counterparts (U87-M Gshp53, HCT116p53−/−) ( 26 ) was tested by plating dupl-i and therefore guarantees biorientation of sister chromatids to cates of 1000 cells per dish onto 1c0m dishes. After 3 weeks, cells were opposing spindle poles before onset of anaphase (7,8). Together stained with Giemsa and the number of clones was quantified. At least with its essential role in the execution of cytokinesis, Aurora B, two independent experiments were performed for each cell line. For in cooperation with its partners of the CPC, safeguards segre-ga Aurora B kinase inhibition cells were either incubated with medium c-on tion and chromosomal integrity2(). Aurora C has similar stru-c taining 500nM AZD1152-HQPA (Selleckchem) or adequate dimethyl su-l tural and functional properties as Aurora B but is restricted tofoxide (DMSO) concentrations. To release cells from Aurora B inhibition, mammalian spermatogenesis ( 9). Aurora B overexpression has cells were washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and further been reported for several solid cancer1s0(–14). It can be hypoth- cultured in appropriate standard medium. esized that upregulated Aurora B levels promote tumorigenesis through induction of tetraploidy and gradual developing a-ne Chromium release assay uploidy. In line with this notion, we recently demonstrated The ability of primary human natural killer (NK) cells to kill AZD1152that ectopic overexpression of Aurora B leads to an increase treated tumor cells was analyzed in51aCr release assay as described pr-e in the fraction of U87-MG glioblastoma cells displaying mitotic viously ( 25 ). The use of human NK cells was approved by the local ethical defects. This effect was further augmented by p53 knockdown committee (#EK242102007). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (15). A mechanism how increased Aurora B levels contribute to (wDerreesdiseonl,aGteerdmeainthy)erorfrforommbfurfefsyhcbolaotosdsoufpphleieadltbhyytdhoenoGresrmafatnerRoebdtCarinoisnsg tumor progression was recently addressed by Muñoz-Barrera oral and written consent. Target cells× 1(206) were labeled with 50 mCi et al. ( 16 ). By using yeast model systems they corroborated that of 51Cr (PerkinElmer Life Sciences) for 1h at 37°C and then washed four increased Aurora B activity led to continuous disruption of times with PBS. Labeled target cells were plated as triplicates in roundamphitelic KT–MT attachments, which ultimately caused s-is bottom 96-well plates at×3103 cells per well and incubated with NK eff-ec ter chromatin segregation defects. Accordingly, a recent study tor cells at different effector to target (E:T) ratios hf o.Trh6e released51Cr using a tetracycline-inducible system for expression of Aurora was determined in a beta counter (PerkinElmer Life Sciences). The specific B showed that induced overexpression of Aurora B resulted in cytotoxicity was calculated as described recent2l5y).(Experiments were development of aneuploid tumors in mice ( 17 ). Intriguingly, no performed at least three times with similar results. Statistical analysis Aurora B polymorphism which increases cancer susceptibility was performed with Student’st-test. has been described so far. It is consistently accepted that Aurora B inhibition using Indirect immunofluorescence analysis RNA interference, expression of a kinase-inactive, dominant- Cells were stained as described previously26(). Antibodies include mouse negative mutant of Aurora B1(8), use of soluble circular peptide anti-α-tubulin (1:1000; 1.5h; Sigma), human anti-centromere antibody IN-box fragments to relocate Aurora B from the CPC19(), and (1:500, kindly provided by K.  Conrad, TU Dresden, Germany), polyclonal chemical Aurora B inhibitors, result in defective mitosis, po-ly isshoetehpioacnytain-maoteus(eu-nCdyi3lu(t1e:1d0;03;m01inh;; ADKiaLnIDoEvSa)AaNnAd palnuts;i-Mhuemdiapnan-f)l.uSotraeisnceedin ploidy and eventually mitotic catastroph2e0(). Yet, the mecha- cells were imaged with a Leica SP5 inverse microscope (Leica, Wetzlar, nism leading to the induction of a post-mitotic cell cycle arrest Germany) using 405, 488, 543, 594nm lasers and 63× NA1.4 or 40× NA1.25 remains puzzling ( 21,22 ). Especially, when considering selective objective lenses. Image acquisition, shuttezr-,axis position, laser lines and Aurora B kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs, their mode of confocal system were all controlled by Leica LAS AF software. Series in action and the role of p53 status as a possible predictive factor z-directions z(-stacks) of single cells were obtained at 0.3  µm steps. For for response have not been fully elucidated. Mechanistically, a analysis of merotelic attachments after h72treatment with AZD1152, the proposed p53-dependent ‘tetraploidy checkpoint’ which senses acquired images were processed including background subtraction, c-on increased chromosome numbers and which prevents S-phase trast enhancement, smoothing and 3D reconstruction. A kinetochore was entry in cells experiencing defective cytokinesi2s3() might limit sspcionrdeldeafisbebresinegmamnearotitneglifcrowmhdeniffietrecnletaprollyescoinnnaze-scttaecdktowroreocromnsotrreuvcitseibdle the anticancer effectiveness of Aurora B inhibitors by keeping 3D image. tumor cells in a non-proliferative state. It is also possible that a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest is due to DNA damage or c-el Western blot analysis lular stress after tetraploidization or polyploidization. Likewise, if and how polyploid tumor cells can recover from fully Aurora B inhibition has not been investigated so far. Cells lysates were prepared, subjected to electrophoresis and blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes as described previously26(). Membranes were probed with primary antibodies [monoclonal rabbit anti By using the selective Aurora B inhibitor AZD1152 (Barasertib) p21 waf/cip (Cell Signaling), polyclonal goat anti-p53 (R&D Systems), monoc-lo ( 24 ), we aimed to mechanistically link the mode of action of nal rabbit anti-p53 S15 (Abcam), polyclonal rabbit anti-p53 S20, polyclonal Aurora B inhibitors to the p53 status of tumor cells and ind-uc rabbit anti-p53 S37 (Cell Signaling), monoclonal mouse anαt-i-tubulin tion of a post-mitotic cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we sought (Sigma), monoclonal rabbit anti-ATM S1981 (Epitomics), polyclonal rabbit anti-ATM (Merck), monoclonal rabbit anti-caspase 3 (Cell Signaling), mo-no FISH and SKY analysis clonal rabbit anti-CHK2 T68 (Cell Signaling), polyclonal rabbit anti-cyclin D1For preparation of metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, cells (Santa Cruz), monoclonal mouse antiγ-H2AX (Millipore), polyclonal rabbit were treated with colcemid for 6m0in at a concentration of 0.035 µg/ml, anti-histone H3 S10 (Cell Signaling) and monoclonal mouse anti-histone incubated in 0.075M KCl for 20min at 37°C and fixed in a freshly preH3 (Cell Signaling)] followed by anh1incubation with appropriate second- pared mixture of methanol/acetic acid (3:1) at room temperature. Cell ary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (Dako) at room suspension was dropped onto glass slides. Fluorescencein situ hybridizatemperature. Signal detection was carried out as described previous2l6y).( tion (FISH) analysis was performed using a commercial probe set targ-et ing chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, 21 (XA AneuScore Test-Kit, MetaSystems). Flow cytometry analysis and cell sorting Signals were counted in at least 150 interphase nuclei per sample and Staining was carried out in a MACSQuant flow cytometer as described proportions of aneuploid cellsn( signal ≠ 2 or ≠ 4) were compared using previously ( 25,26 ). For analysis of stress-induced surface markers, Pearson’s chi-squared test. SKY analysis was performed as described pr-e cells were processed and simultaneously stained with monoclonal viously (26). mouse anti-CD262-PE (TRAIL-R2 DR5, eBioscience), monoclonal mouse anti-CD95-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FasR, Miltenyi) and monoclonal Results mouse anti-MIC A/MIC B-APC (Miltenyi) or appropriate isotype controls (eBioscience, Miltenyi) in 0.5% bovine serum albumin in PBS + 2mM AZD1152 treatment leads to a p53-independent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid forh1at 4°C. Subsequently, cells were development of polyploid cells and causes nonwwaasshuesdedintoPBexScalunddeadneaaldyzceedl.lsP.rAolplideixupmeriiomdeindets(PwI)er(1e pµegr/fmolr,mMedilatetnlyeia)st apoptotic tumor cell death three times with similar results. Statistical analysis was performed with Treatment with the Aurora B inhibitor AZD1152-induced Student’st-test. Sorting of polyploid AZD-treated cells with karyotypes cytokinesis defects in HCT116 cells, U87-MG cells, their -iso ≥8n was accomplished using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) genic p53-negative counterparts (HCT11p653−/− and U87-MGshp53 ARIA-sorter (BD Bioscience). Prior sorting, HCT116 and HCT1p1536−/− ( 26 )) as well as in the primary glioblastoma cell line HT7606. cells were treated for 4h8 with 500nM AZD. Treated cells were stained Continuous inhibition of Aurora B was accompanied by ong-o with Hoechst 33342 (10 µg/ml) and incubated for 3m0in at 37°C. Sorted ing endoreplication of DNA F(igure  1A). The gradual developcells were continuously passaged. While splitting, an aliquot o×f1205 cells were stained with 10 µg/ml Hoechst and subjected to DNA an-aly ment of polyploidy in p53-deficient cell lines was significantly sis (MACSQuant). DNA analysis alone or with a concomitant antibody faster when compared with AZD1152-treated, wild-type staining, BrdU incorporation and Annexin V staining was performed as cells as depicted for cell fractions with DNA contentsn >fo4r described previously ( 26 ). U87-MG and >8n for HCT116 cells F(igure  1B). Whereas the increase in DNA contents in AZD1152-treated HCT1p1563−/−, AZD1152 became polyploid and simultaneously expressed sigU87-MGshp53 cells correlated with cell-line-specific doubling nificantly increased levels of cyclin D1 and pw2a1f/cip, whereas times, the HCT116 and, U87-MG wild-type cells showed less p53-deficient U87-MGshp53 cells showed increased polyploidy endoreplication F(igure  1B). Since the wild-type and isogenic yet without substantial signs of a post-mitotic cell cycle p53-deficient cells showed similar individual doubling times arrest F(igure  2C and D). Strikingly, after AZD1152 treatment (data not shown) this indicates a p53-dependent effect on cell both U87-MG and U87-MGshp53 cells incorporated BrdU even at cycle progression after chemical inhibition of Aurora B.  Yet, DNA contents of 4n, 8n and higher. Yet, the S-phase entry of clonogenic survival assays of cells after 3 weeks of cont-inu cells expressing wild-type p53 was reduced when compared ous AZD1152 treatment revealed no surviving clones in all with p53-deficient cells F(igure  2E and F). When normalcell lines irrespective of p53 statusFi(gure  1C and data not ized to the BrdU-positive cell fractions in the DMSO controls shown). However, Aurora B inhibition for 7h2 did not result in it became clear that U87-MG cells with functional p53 were immediate and massive cell death, since we observed only a attenuated to enter S phase when compared with p53-de-fi moderate rise in the fraction of dead cells compared with c-or cient cells F(igure 2E). In line with this, the absolute amount responding DMSO-treated controls as depicted iFnigure 1D. To of BrdU-positive cells was also decreased when AZD1152investigate a possible induction of apoptosis during 24, 48 and treated, p53-positive tumor cells with a DNA content of n>4 72 h AZD1152 treatments, cell lysates of HCT116 and U87-MG were compared with AZD1152-treated cells with knockdown cells were analyzed for the appearance of cleaved caspase of p53 ( Figure 2F). This indicates some inhibitory effect of p53 3.  As shown in Figure  1E, AZD1152 treatment did not induce and its effector p21waf/cip on S-phase entry, which however was a caspase-dependent apoptosis. In line with this, Annexin not sufficient to stably arrest cells to prevent endoreplication V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/PI analysis of HCT1p1563−/− cells (Figure 2C and D). Yet, it remains puzzling how chemical inh-i treated with AZD1152 for 24, 48 and 7h2 revealed a moderate bition of Aurora B triggers p53 activation. time-dependent increase in PI-positive and double positive PI/ Annexin V cell fractionsS(upplementary Figure  1, available AZD1152 treatment causes poly-merotelic at Carcinogenesis Online). Yet, the nearly complete absence kinetochore attachments and DNA breaks, which of Annexin V-positive HCT116p53−/− cell fractions, indicative activates the DNA damage response pathway of early apoptosis, suggests the induction of a preferentially Especially deregulated MT–KT attachments, which can occur necrotic-like cell death mechanisms following inhibition of randomly and are frequently established in polyploid cells, Aurora B (Supplementary Figure  1, available atCarcinogenesis can lead to chromosomal breaks during mitotic slippage27(). Online). Interestingly, AZD1152-treated HCT116 wild-type Therefore, we investigated MT–KT attachments in AZD1152cells barely show signs of apoptosis or necrotic-like cell death, treated polyploid HCT116 cells. All cells treated forh 7w2ith which is likely due to the slower development of cells with -kar AZD1152 contained multiple spindles with supernumerary yotypes >8n (see Figure  1B). That HCT116 cells were still able centrosomes and multiple spindle fibers emanating from se-v to execute apoptosis was confirmed by analysis of puromycin- eral spindle poles leading to poly-merotelic MT–KT conn-ec treated cells. Puromycin treatment resulted in the appearance tions. Such disordered MT–KT attachments were not detected in of cleaved caspase 3 (Figure 1E) and the presence of cell fra-c DMSO-treated control cellFsig(ure 3A). tions positive for Annexin V (early apoptosis) and double pos-i Since non-resolved poly-merotelic attachments can cause tive for Annexin V/PI (late apoptosis/necrosis)S(upplementary chromosomal breaks and subsequently a DNA damage response Figure 1, available atCarcinogenesis Online). (DDR) ( 28 ), we hypothesized that abolished Aurora B kinase function might be linked to the aforementioned activation of Chemical inhibition of Aurora B results in a p53 and its downstream effector p21waf/cip. In order to detect DNA p53/p21waf/cip-mediated pseudo-G1 arrest damage on the molecular level we analyzed the expression of In western blot analysis it became obvious that wild-type cells γH2AX, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks and the acti-va accumulated p53 protein at 48–72h after Aurora B inhibitor tion of sensor kinases of DDR. administration, whereas HCT116p53−/−, U87-MGshp53 and DMSO HCT116 cells exposed to Aurora B inhibitor for 7h2exhibited controls showed no p53 protein and no increase in p53 pr-o increased phosphorylation at serine 1981 oaftaxia telangiectasia tein levels, respectivelyF(igure  2A and B). Of note, analysis mutated/ATM kinase and at threonine 68 ofcheckpoint homology of the steady-state expression level of Aurora B at different kinase 2/CHK2 compared with DMSO control cells, indicating an time points after AZD1152 treatment revealed decreased p-ro activated DDR. Additionallyɣ,H2AX levels were also elevated tein levels irrespective of p53 status of the U87-MG cells. In in Aurora B-treated cells but were barely detectable in DMSO parallel, the AZD1152 concentration used for the experiments controls. ɣH2AX levels increased simultaneously with the completely abolished phosphorylation of Aurora B substrate development of polyploidy as shown in FACS-assisted anal-y histone H3 at serine 10 in U87-MG and HCT116 cells, co-n sis of AZD1152-treated HCT116 wild-type and HCT11p653−/− cells firming a switched off Aurora B kinase activity at all inve-sti (Supplementary Figure 2, available atCarcinogenesis Online). In gated time points (24, 48 and 72h) (Figure  2A). Interestingly, line with the induction of DDR, western blot analysis of p53 p53 accumulation progressively developed after the loss of phosphorylation sites in Aurora B inhibitor treated HCT116 Aurora B function. The p53 activation was accompanied with cells revealed phosphorylation of p53 at S15, S20 and at po-si an expression of its transcriptional target pw2a1f/cip in U87-MG tion S37 indicative of activated ATM, CHK2 anPdRKDC/DNA-PK and HCT116 cells but not in isogenic p53-deficient cells or kinases ( 29,30 ) (Figure  3B). That Aurora B inhibition leads to DMSO controls, respectivelyF(igure 2A and B). A concomitant activation of the DNA damage sensor kinases independently increase in the protein expression levels of cyclin D1 pointed from p53 was recapitulated in U87-MG and U87-MGshp53 cells to a potential G1 cell cycle arrest in p53 wild-type cells -fol (Figure 3C). Taken together, inhibition of Aurora B kinase act-iv lowing Aurora B inhibitionF(igure 2B). When the observed cell ity leads to erroneous KT–MT connections and DNA damage cycle arrest was investigated on the single cell level using flowwith consecutive activation of DDR sensor kinases and pho-s cytometry it became obvious that U87-MG cells treated with phorylation of p53. Tumor cells can resolve AZD1152-induced Interestingly, clonogenic survival assays demonstrated that polyploidy and recover with increased aneuploidy individual U87-MG, HCT116 as well as p53-deficient isogenic Antitumor drugs targeting the cell cycle are dose dependent cell clones survived 24 and 4h8 Aurora B inhibitor treatment and time dependent. Not only the time-concentration product (Supplementary Figure  3A and B, available atCarcinogenesis but also the exposure time is an important factor when t-ar Online). Also, clonogenic survival assays using HT7606 p-ri geting mitotic tumor cells. To investigate whether p53-positive mary glioma cells revealed survival of notable numbers of and tumor cells with loss of p53 are able to recover from c o-m cell clones after 24 and 4h8 AZD1152 treatment, respectively plete Aurora B inhibition we tested different treatment times. (Supplementary Figure  3C, available atCarcinogenesis Online). Therefore, we hypothesized that after removing the Aurora B recapitulated when analyzing cells in bright field microscopy. inhibitor, cells regained their ability to complete mitosis and All cell lines, irrespective of p53 status, showed a phenotype cytokinesis even with a karyotype of n4 or larger. In order to with typically multinucleated cells and increased cell sizhe 48 test this hypothesis we cultured HCT116, HCT1 1p563−/−, U87-MG, after AZD1152 treatment, which was progressively lost during U87-MGshp53 and HT7606 cells in presence of Aurora B inhib-i long-term cell culture (see representative images for HCT116 tor for 48h. After removing AZD1152, cells were propagated for and HCT116p53−/− in Figure 4B). In previous studies we demonseveral days to weeks and analyzed using bright field micr-os strated that polyploid cells were able to form multiple cleavage copy and FACS-assisted DNA content analysis. Forty-eight furrows in anaphase and multiple ‘propeller-like’ midbodies hours after AZD1152 treatment (day 0), all tested cell lines in telophase, suggesting that a complete segregation of po-ly showed a polyploid phenotype ranging from large fractions ploid genomes into several daughter cells is possible15( ,31 ). of 8n or 16n populations in HCT116p53−/− cells to 4n popula- Therefore, we hypothesized those AZD1152-induced polyploid tions in U87-MG or 8n in HT7606 cells F(igure  4A). Almost no cells after regaining the ability to execute cytokinesis, separate 2n cell fractions were detectable in HCT116 and U87-MG cells their chromosomes into multiple daughter cells. In turn this at this time point. Strikingly, with increasing passage nu-m should result in an increased probability of numeric chrom- o bers, the cells gradually regained their former state of ploidy. somal aberrations in the surviving cells. To prove the assu m-p For instance, after 16 and 17  days, respectively, DNA co-n tion that cells with restored ploidy are indeed progenies of tent of U87-MG, U87-MGshp53 and HT7606 cells became indis- former polyploid cells, we checked for increased aneuploidy tinguishable from the DMSO controls. This observation was in HCT116 and HT7606 cells at day 26 and passage 5 after AZD1152 release using FISH analysisF(igure 5; Supplementary DMSO-treated control cells (39.1%P ,<  0.01) (Figure  5D and E; Figure  4, available atCarcinogenesis Online). AZD1152-treated Supplementary Figure 4, available atCarcinogenesis Online). HCT116 cells, which usually have a stable near diploid kar-yo To ultimately confirm that aneuploid progeny can arise type, showed an increased fraction of cells with signals c-on from polyploid tumor cells with DNA contents ≥n8and did not sistent with tetraploidy (44.5%) as well as significant increased represent for instance outgrowing AZD1152-resistant cells we numbers of cells with aneuploidy (cells with gains or losses performed FACS of HCT116 and HCT116p53−/− cells treated for of single chromosomes) when compared with DMSO controls 48 h with AZD1152 and having DNA contents of n8 and higher (AZD: 29.7%, DMSO: 4.6%, P < 0.01) (Figure 5B; Supplementary (Supplementary Figure  5A, available atCarcinogenesis Online). Figure  4, available atCarcinogenesis Online). Importantly, this When cultivated for several weeks (passage 3 for HCT116 and significant increase in aneuploidy after AZD release was also passage 4 for HCT116p53−/− cells), we observed that significant seen if only the near diploid cell fraction (based on FISH -sig fractions of these polyploid cells regained DNA contents onf. 4 nals) was considered (AZD1152: 30.4% versus DMSO: 4.2%, We also detected the appearance of small cell fraction with P < 0.01) (Figure 5C). SKY of HCT116 treated and control cells 2n-like karyotype in both cell linesSu( pplementary Figure  5B, confirmed the FISH results and showed additional structural available atCarcinogenesis Online). Of note, FISH analysis corrob-o chromosomal aberrations indicative for chromosomal breaks rated that HCT116 and HCT11p653−/− cells have regained n2 and 4n and non-homologous end joining recombination after tre-at karyotypes after transient AZD1152 treatmenStu(pplementary ment with the Aurora B inhibitorS(upplementary Figure 4C–E, Figure 5C, available atCarcinogenesis Online). Importantly, tra-n available atCarcinogenesis Online). A similar effect of transient sient AZD1152 treatment resulted in a significant increase AZD1152 treatment was seen in HT7606 primary glioblastoma of chromosomal aberrations in 70–75% of cells when comcells, which showed a higher proportion of cells with signal pared with DMSO-treated, n4-sorted controlsS(upplementary constellations indicative of aneuploidy (56.3%) compared with Figure 5C and D, available atCarcinogenesis Online). AZD1152-induced expression of MIC A/B ligand for HT7606, which in response to AZD1152 treatment upregulated activating lectin NKG2D on NK cells renders tumor CD95, TRAIL-R2 and MIC A/B. Since it appears conceivable that cells as target for NK cells a rise in MIC A/B as well as enhanced death receptors expr-es Recently, we and others have shown, that inhibition of Aurora B sion levels increase susceptibility of AZD1152-treated tumor using AZD1152 or knockdown of Survivin increased expression cells to NK cells, we performed cytotoxicity assays. We revealed of death receptor TRAIL-R2 on glioma cells25( ,32 ). Furthermore, that allogeneiicn vitro expanded and interleukin-2-activated NK we reported that knockdown of Survivin rendered glioma cells cells showed a strong basal cytotoxic reaction against DMSOmore susceptible for NK-cell-mediated lysis2(5). In order to ana- treated HT7606 and U87-MG glioma cells, which was sign-ifi lyze the impact of AZD1152 treatment on NK cell susceptibility cantly augmented at higher effector to target ratios (1:10 to 1:25) we investigated the expression levels of death receptors CD95, when tumor cells were simultaneously treated with AZD1152 TRAIL-R2 and the activating NK cell ligand MIC A/B at incr-eas (Figure 6B). ing Aurora B inhibitor exposure times using flow cytometry Discussion (Figure 6A). Noteworthy, CD95 cell surface expression in U87-MG and HCT116 cells was strongly depended on p53 wild-type st-a Several small molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases are c-ur tus and increased at least 6-fold and 30-fold, respectively ath72 rently in clinical evaluation33(,34). Inactivation of Aurora B exposure time, whereas isogenic p53-deficient cells displayed using pan-Aurora A/B inhibitors ZM44739 and VX680 as well as only a moderate increase in CD95. In contrast, surface expr-es a recent study using the Aurora B-selective inhibitor AZD1152 sion levels of MIC A/B were significantly increased and higher leads to polyploidy and cell death35(–38). The main open ques in HCT116p53−/− and U87-MGshp53 cells at 48 and 72h when com - tions in considering Aurora B kinase inhibitors as promising pared with isogenic cells containing wild-type p53. Remarkably, anticancer drugs are the possible predictive factors for response we observed a 5-fold to 14-fold increase in TRAIL-R2 levels in and potential unwanted side effects on the tumor cell popu-la both, p53 wild-type and p53-deficient U87-MG and HCT116 cells, tion. In particular, the activation and role of p53, which has been respectively, after 72h exposure to AZD1152. We also analyzed suggested to induce a post-mitotic arrest following inhibition of Aurora B, has remained nebulous 3(8). It has been hypoth- modifications [for reviewing see ref.4(0)]. Intriguingly, a recent esized that p53 governs a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint and prevents study failed to confirm decreased steady-state protein levels of endoreplication 2( 3). Furthermore, a study reported by Gully p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts after induced expression of et al. provided evidence that overexpressed Aurora B physically Aurora B ( 17 ). Therefore, if inhibition of Aurora B leads to ac-cu interacts and inactivates p53 by phosphorylating residues S183, mulating levels of p53 is still a matter of debate. T211 and S215, which leads to enhanced proteasomal degr-a In our comprehensive analysis of AZD1152-treated cells, we dation besides the well-establishedmdm2/mdm2-mediated now mechanistically show how p53 is activated after Aurora ubiquitination and degradation pathway22(,39). Therefore, it B inhibition. We consecutively proved that inhibiting Aurora B appears conceivable that chemical inhibition of Aurora B, which results in polyploidy facilitating incorrect bipolar MT–KT -con is accompanied by its enhanced proteasomal degradation2(2), nections during mitosis, chromosome breaks and induction of in part leads to increased half-life of p53. Yet, an increased half- DNA damage sensor kinases which consecutively phosphorylate life likely does not assure full activation of p53 and concomitant tumor-suppressor p53. Of note, p53 wild-type cells and p53-def-i cell cycle arrest, which requires additional posttranslationalcient cells resolved chromosome breaks by non-homologous end joining. Yet, activation of p53 was accompanied with increased released from AZD1152 treatment can recover and give rise to levels of CDK inhibitor p21waf/cip, and a pseudo-G1 arrest not capa- aneuploid progenies. This could be of clinical relevance since ble of inhibiting an ongoing endoreplication when cells were this indicates that slow growing tumors might not fully respond constantly treated with AZD1152. to standard protocols of Aurora B inhibition and develop pr-og In contrast, a recent investigation from Kumaerti  al. failed enies with increased aneuploidy.Vice versa, selective Aurora to detect a DDR in U2OS cells treated forh24with the Aurora B inhibition might preferentially target highly proliferative A/B inhibitor ZM447439 2(1). These contradictory results are tumors. likely due to technical differences, such as incomplete Aurora A/B inhibition which avoided development of polyploid cells or Supplementary material different cell lines used for the experiments. On the other hand, the experimental data of our study are in accordance with our Supplementary Figures 1–5can be found athttp://carcin.oxfordprevious results obtained after stable knockdown of Aurora B’s journals.org/ molecular chromosomal passenger protein partner Survivin. Here, RNA-interference-mediated depletion of Survivin induced Funding similar erroneous KT–MT connections, DDR and pseudo-G1 Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung (2008.065.1 to A.T.). arrest 2(6). In addition, this study demonstrated the appearance of numeric chromosomal aberrations as well as structural c-hro mosomal alterations after knockdown of Survivin. It is therefore Acknowledgements conceivable that the pseudo-G1arrest after Aurora B inhibition We thank K.  Robel, B.  Goldberg, P.  Freitag and A.  Kaessner for represents a subordinate chromosomal passenger protein ‘loss- excellent technical assistance. The HCT1p1536−/− cell line was of-function’ phenotype. kindly provided by B.  Vogelstein (Johns Hopkins University, In line with our study, other studies using AZD1152 reported Baltimore). inhibition of cancer cells and of tumor growth in xenografted Conflict of Interest Statement: None declared. mice by induction of mitotic catastrophe 2(2,41–44). In our ienxgpeArZimDe1n1t5s2 wtreeadtidmnenott,owbhseicrhvecoancttrivaadtiicotns roefcceanstparseepo3rftoslslho--wow References ing low and modest levels of activated caspase 3 or cleaved 1. Andrews, P.D. (2005) Aurora kinases: shining lights on the therapeutic caspase substrates in human HER18, MDA-MB-231 breast ca-n horizon? Oncogene, 24, 5005–5015. cer cells and SW620 colorectal cancer xenograf2t2s,4(1). Yet, as 2. Carmena, M. et al. (2012) The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC): rbeypcoarstpeadsper-deveipoeunsdleyn,mtiatsotwicelclataassctarsoppahsee-ciannderpeesnudltenint cmeelclhda-eath 3. f7Mr8oe9rm–a8el0da3is.,yPr.iedte ralt.o(2t0h0e4g) oAdufraotrhaerkoinfamsietsosliisn.kNcaht.rRomevo.sMoomle. CseegllreBgioalt.i,o1n3, nisms ( 45). It is furthermore conceivable, that differential end-og and cell division to cancer susceptibility. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 14, enous expression levels of pro-caspases and anti-apoptotic 29–36. factors of the tumor cell lines used for the experiments might 4. Zhou, H. et  al. (1998) Tumour amplified kinase STK15/BTAK induces have influenced activation of executioner caspases. Yet, our centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and transformation. Nat. results are in line with a previous report showing mitotic ca-tas Genet., 20, 189–193. trophe and caspase-independent cell death of HCT116 wild-type 5. Ewart-Toland, A. et al. (2003) Identification of Stk6/STK15 as a ca-ndi and HCT116p53−/− cells suffering from paclitaxel-induced pol-y date low-penetrance tumor-susceptibility gene in mouse and human. ploidy (46) and with our previous results obtained in different Nat. Genet., 34, 403–412. cell lines suffering polyploidy after RNA interference of Aurora 6. Ewart-Toland, A. et al. (2005) Aurora-A/STK15 T+91A is a general low penetrance cancer susceptibility gene: a meta-analysis of multiple B’s molecular partner Survivin2(6). cancer types. Carcinogenesis, 26, 1368–1373. Interestingly, our study revealed an increased p53-depen-d 7. Salimian, K.J. et  al. (2011) Feedback control in sensing chromosome ent differential expression of death receptor CD95 and of the biorientation by the Aurora B kinase. Curr. Biol., 21, 1158–1165. stress protein MIC A/B in AZD1152-treated cells. We suggest 8. Liu, D. et al. (2009) Sensing chromosome bi-orientation by spatial sep-a that increase in death receptors and MIC A/B following Aurora ration of aurora B kinase from kinetochore substrates. Science, 323, B inhibition might induce antitumoral immune responses, 1350–1353. in particular of activated NK cells. Hence, it appears conc-eiv 9. Dieterich, K. et al. (2007) Homozygous mutation of AURKC yields largeable to accelerate antitumoral activity of NK cells by applying headed polyploid spermatozoa and causes male infertility. Nat. Genet., supportive cytokines or soluble NKG2D-Fc fusion proteins47(). 39, 661–665. Furthermore, a necrotic-like cell death of AZD1152-treated 10. Amridabkoi,dKy.-aests aolc.ia(2t0e0d4)pHroigtheinex(pArIeMss-i1o)ninofaAsutrroocryat-Bo/mAausr.oJr.aNaenurdoIopnllc-ollik.,e tumor cells might provide ‘danger associated molecular p-at 67, 53–64. terns’ (48) capable of inducing antigen-presenting cells even-tu 11. Gibson, S.E. et al. (2008) Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal ne-o ally resulting in antitumoral responses of the adaptive immune plasms. Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol., 16, 274–278. system. Likewise, the potential immunogenic effects caused by 12. Zeng, W.F. et al. (2007) Aurora B expression correlates with aggressive Aurora B inhibition can be exploited therapeutically by app-ly behaviour in glioblastoma multiforme. J. Clin. Pathol., 60, 218–221. ing immune checkpoint blockade (49), which furthermore could 13. Smith, S.L. et al. (2005) Overexpression of aurora B kinase (AURKB) in constrain the development of aneuploid tumor progenies. primary non-small cell lung carcinoma is frequent, generally driven In conclusion, interference with the CPC by using inhibitors from one allele, and correlates with the level of genetic instability. Br. for Aurora kinases is a promising avenue to treat cancers. Since 14. JZ. hCaanngc,eYr,. 9e3t, 7a1l9.–7(22091.5) Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to loss of functional Aurora B cannot be compensated, tumor cells chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Exp. succumb to mitotic catastrophe and cell death. Intriguingly, Pathol., 8, 751–757. our results indicate that p53 status is not a predictive factor for15. Temme, A. et  al. (2010) Giant cell glioblastoma is associated with response when applying sufficient exposure times of Aurora B altered Aurora b expression and concomitant p53 mutation. J. Neu-ro inhibitors. We furthermore provide evidence that polyploid cells pathol. Exp. Neurol., 69, 632–642. 16. Muñoz-Barrera , M. et al. ( 2014 ) Increased Aurora B activity causes c-on 34 . Boss , D.S. et al. ( 2009 ) Clinical experience with aurora kinase inhibitors: tinuous disruption of kinetochore-microtubule attachments and sp-in a review . Oncologist , 14 , 780 - 793 . dle instability . Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA , 111 , E3996 - E4005 . 35 . Ditchfield , C. et  al. ( 2003 ) Aurora B couples chromosome alignment 17. González-Loyola , A. et al. ( 2015 ) Aurora B overexpression causes a-ne with anaphase by targeting BubR1, Mad2, and Cenp-E to kinetochores. uploidy and p21Cip1 repression during tumor development . Mol. Cell. J. Cell Biol ., 161 , 267 - 280 . Biol., 35 , 3566 - 3578 . 36 . Hauf , S. et al. ( 2003 ) The small molecule Hesperadin reveals a role for 18. Murata-Hori , M. et al. ( 2002 ) The kinase activity of aurora B is required Aurora B in correcting kinetochore-microtubule attachment and in for kinetochore-microtubule interactions during mitosis . Curr. Biol ., 12 , maintaining the spindle assembly checkpoint . J. Cell Biol ., 161 , 281 - 294 . 894 - 899 . 37 . Gizatullin , F. et al. ( 2006 ) The Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 induces 19. Gohard , F.H. et al. ( 2014 ) Targeting the INCENP IN-box-Aurora B inte-rac endoreduplication and apoptosis preferentially in cells with comp-ro tion to inhibit CPC activitiyn vivo . Open Biol ., 4 , 140163. mised p53 -dependent postmitotic checkpoint function . Cancer Res ., 20. Kumari , G. et al. ( 2013 ) A role for p38 in transcriptional elongation of 66 , 7668 - 7677 . p21 ( CIP1) in response to Aurora B inhibition . Cell Cycle , 12 , 2051 - 2060 . 38. Nair , J.S. et al. ( 2009 ) Aurora B kinase regulates the postmitotic end-ore 21. Kumari , G. et  al. ( 2014 ) Induction of p21CIP1 protein and cell cycle duplication checkpoint via phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma p-ro arrest after inhibition of Aurora B kinase is attributed to aneuploidy tein at serine 780 . Mol. Biol. Cell , 20 , 2218 - 2228 . and reactive oxygen species . J. Biol. Chem ., 289 , 16072 - 16084 . 39 . Momand , J. et al. ( 2000 ) MDM2-master regulator of the p53 tumor su-p 22. Gully , C.P. et al. ( 2012 ) Aurora B kinase phosphorylates and instigates pressor protein . Gene , 242 , 15 - 29 . degradation of p53 . Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA , 109 , E1513 - E1522 . 40. Xu , Y. ( 2003 ) Regulation of p53 responses by post-translational mod-ifi 23. Margolis , R.L. et al. ( 2003 ) G1 tetraploidy checkpoint and the suppr-es cations . Cell Death Differ. , 10 , 400 - 403 . sion of tumorigenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. , 88 , 673 - 683 . 41 . Wilkinson , R.W. et al. ( 2007 ) AZD1152, a selective inhibitor of Aurora B 24. Mortlock , A.A. et al. ( 2007 ) Discovery, synthesis, anind vivo activity of kinase, inhibits human tumor xenograft growth by inducing apoptosis. a new class of pyrazoloquinazolines as selective inhibitors of aurora B Clin . Cancer Res. , 13 , 3682 - 3688 . kinase. J. Med . Chem., 50 , 2213 - 2224 . 42 . Ghanizadeh-Vesali , S. et al. ( 2016 ) Significance of AZD1152 as a pote-n 25. Hendruschk , S. et al. ( 2011 ) RNA interference targeting survivin exerts tial treatment against Aurora B overexpression in acute promyelocytic antitumoral effectsin vitro and in established glioma xenograftisn vivo . leukemia. Ann. Hematol., 95 , 1031 - 1042 . Neuro Oncol., 13 , 1074 - 1089 . 43 . Tao , Y. et al. ( 2008 ) Enhancement of radiation response in p53-deficient 26. Wiedemuth , R. et al. ( 2014 ) Survivin safeguards chromosome numbers and cancer cells by the Aurora-B kinase inhibitor AZD1152. Oncogene, 27, protects from aneuploidy independently from p53 . Mol. Cancer , 13 , 107 . 3244 - 3255 . 27. Ganem , N.J. et al. ( 2012 ) Linking abnormal mitosis to the acquisition of 44 . Tao , Y. et  al. ( 2009 ) The aurora B kinase inhibitor AZD1152 sensitizes DNA damage . J. Cell Biol ., 199 , 871 - 881 . cancer cells to fractionated irradiation and induces mitotic cata-stro 28. Guerrero , A.A. et al. ( 2010 ) Merotelic attachments and non-homologous phe . Cell Cycle , 8 , 3172 - 3181 . end joining are the basis of chromosomal instability . Cell Div ., 5 , 13 . 45. Mansilla , S. et al. ( 2006 ) Mitotic catastrophe results in cell death b-y cas 29. Hirao , A. et  al. ( 2000 ) DNA damage-induced activation of p53 by the pase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms . Cell Cycle , 5 , checkpoint kinase Chk2. Science , 287 , 1824 - 1827 . 53 - 60 . 30. Lees-Miller , S.P. et  al. ( 1992 ) Human DNA-activated protein kinase 46 . Llovera , L. et al. ( 2012 ) Apoptotic-like death occurs through a caspasephosphorylates serines 15 and 37 in the amino-terminal transacti-va independent route in colon carcinoma cells undergoing mitotic ca-tas tion domain of human p53 . Mol. Cell . Biol., 12 , 5041 - 5049 . trophe. Cancer Lett. , 326 , 114 - 121 . 31. Tatsuka , M. et al. ( 1998 ) Multinuclearity and increased ploidy caused by 47 . Raab , S. et al. ( 2014 ) Fc-optimized NKG2D-Fc constructs induce NK cell overexpression of the aurora- and Ipl1-like midbody-associated pr-o antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells tein mitotic kinase in human cancer cells . Cancer Res. , 58 , 4811 - 4816 . independently of HER2/neu expression status . J. Immunol. , 193 , 4261 - 32. Li , J. et  al. ( 2009 ) Inhibition of Aurora B kinase sensitizes a subset of 4272. human glioma cells to TRAIL concomitant with induction of TRAIL-R2 . 48 . Töpfer , K. et al. ( 2011 ) Tumor evasion from T cell surveillance . J. Biomed. Cell Death Differ. , 16 , 498 - 511 . Biotechnol., 2011 , 918471 . 33. Gavriilidis , P. et al. ( 2015 ) Aurora kinases and potential medical appl-ica 49 . Mahoney , K.M. et al. ( 2015 ) Combination cancer immunotherapy and tions of aurora kinase inhibitors: a review . J. Clin. Med . Res., 7 , 742 - 751 . new immunomodulatory targets . Nat. Rev. Drug Discov ., 14 , 561 - 584 .

This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://academic.oup.com/carcin/article-pdf/37/10/993/19256250/bgw083.pdf

Wiedemuth, Ralf, Klink, Barbara, Fujiwara, Mamoru, Schröck, Evelin, Tatsuka, Masaaki, Schackert, Gabriele, Temme, Achim. Janus face-like effects of Aurora B inhibition: antitumoral mode of action versus induction of aneuploid progeny, Carcinogenesis, 2016, 993-1003, DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgw083