"Griechische Papyri der Hamburger Staats- und Universitäts-Bibliothek mit einigen Stücken aus der Sammlung Hugo Ibscher", eingeleitet von Bruno Snell, Hamburg 1954 : [recenzja]
JOURNAL OF JURISTIC PAPYROLOGY
ving attained some official opinion of an expert about the costs of
the repair and after hav'ng the prests assertions verified (as he
did in No. 202).
This series is the continuation of the one published in Chronique
d'Egypte X X V I I I No. 55 (1953) 109—120. Miss P r é a u x publishes
here O. Cairo 9524 (138/137 B. C), the receipts issued by the
tax-farmers of the tax imposed on thick garments makers. This document
represents a strict analogy with W.O. 1616, the receipts given by
the same farmers, in the same year and in the month of Pharinouthi
to a κασοποιός called Aristide; as writers used to deform the names
he could easily be Aristodemos mentioned in our document.
We are not aware of the basis for the monthly taxation here
discussed; whether it was, a kind of tax of the type of τετάρτη οτ a
licence tax. 0 . Cairo 9644 (136—135 B.C.); O. Cairo 9505 (136—5
B.C.); O. Cairo 9501 = W O J08b (136—5 B.C.); O. Cairo 9682
(June, 26th, 132 B.C.) are similar receipts. O. Cairo 9654 (144 B.C. ?)
is a receipt of grain for Memnonia; O. Cairo 9657 (125 B.C.) — a
receipt of grain for Pathyris.
T. B o n n e and P. M. F r a s e r , A Hadra-Vase in the Ashmolean
Museum (Journ. Amer. Arch. 39  84 ff.).
Those vases of the Hadra-group which we are concerned in
contain the ashes of persons designated simply by their name and
ethnic, or by their name and ethnic in which is added a title:
πρεσβευτής or θεωρός (or twice) άρχιθέωρος. The urns contain the ashes
of various envoys and theoroi who died while on visits to
Alexandria. It appears that the state appointed the main
Hadra-Necropolis to receive the remains of these distinguished foreigners. The
majority of the vases should be assigned to the reign of Philopator.
Griechische Papyri der Hamburger Staats- und
Universitäts-Bibliothek mit einigen Stücken aus der Sammlung Hugo Ibscher hg. vom
Seminar für klassische Philologie der Universität Hamburg,
eingeleitet von B r u n o Snell (Ha
Besides the literary papyri Nos 118—168 this edition
comprises legal papyri published by H. Y o c k e . No. 168 (III cent. B.C.)
contains the regulations about the introduction of a lawsuit and
particularly about the submitting of complaints. The forms of the
intJoduction of a lawsuit were different for different Ptolemaic courts
corresponding to the kind of the court and to its competence. In
our text the regulations concerning Alexandrian courts of the
diaitetai and the κριτήρια are contrasted with those for the courts of
the χώρα (v. 1—16). Strictly spoken in the preserved column it is
the question only of a particular lawsuit-form before the κριτήρια,
the lawsuits ανευ έπιδεκάτου ή έπιπεντεκαιδεκάτου i.e. without law-costs
amounting from one to five tenth of the claimed value. It is not
clear in what cases such a cost-free lawsuit could take place. Our
text reads: "Persons addressing the diaitetes or submitting
costfree claims before the κριτήρια should present their bill of complaint
to the official nominated by the νομοφύλαξ (v. 1—4)". Then follow
the personal particulars which the plaintiff should give in a written
form when submitting his έγκλημα; soldiers, citizens, citizens being
soldiers and non-citizens are differentiated. The population of
Alexandria is therefere concerned as it is also confirmed b y the
contrast of the regulations given in (v. 1—16) with the ones given in
(v. 17—20) concerning the κατά τήν χώραν κρινόμενοι.
Soldiers (στρατιώται) were required to declare their personal
particulars, which were also customary demanded in the cleruchic
contracts, such as the name, the πατρίς, the regiment and the
έπιφορά (the feudal benefice of the king to the soldiers); citizens had
to give (cf. on πολϊται my Law2 582 ff.) the name, the father's
name as well as the deme; in case they served in the army — also the
regiment and the έπιφορά; non-citizens (οί δέ άλλοι) were required
to give the πατρίς and the γένος to which they belonged.
To these particulars all the plaintiffs had to add particulars
concerning the diaitetai or the kritai before whom they wanted toi
conduct a case, made out after the same scheme. The personal
particulars of the judges were then entered into the register of
claims by the official appointed b y the νομοφύλαξ; on the copies
of the summons the personal particulars of the plaintiffs and the
judges were probably registered again (v. 14 ff.) και προς τάντίγραφα
[των άποδεδο]μένων κλήσεων προσγραφέτωσαν εΐκονο[γραφίας; on
εικονογραφία cf. J. H a s e b r o e k , Das Signalement in den
Papyrusurkunden 85 ff.; see also Ent. 17s (217 B.C.); Oxy 234923 (70 A.D.).
The end of the section shows the provision that the plaintiff must
pay the copying or writing fees of one drachme (when presenting
The last three lines of the column (v. 17—20) referring to the
lawsuits in the χώρα are mutilated; remarkable is only the mention
of the διαιτηταί in (v. 18); so far was the judicial activity of the
diaitetes in the χώρα not yet mentioned.
Nos 169—181 (from the time of Euergetes) inform us about the
commercial relations of the βασιλική τράπεζα in Oxyrhynchos (cf.
my Law2 677). The documents contain: receipts for the money paid
off b y the bank (cf. Law2 394), orders for payment and commercial
letters addressed to a certain Nicanor who in the first years of the
reign of Euergetes was the trapezites of the bank in Oxyrhynchos.
The trapezites Nicanor is subordinate to the district ch;ef Am·
monios and therefore his recomendations to Nicanor seemed to be
like short orders.
No. 169 (241 B.C.) is an official letter of the tax-farmer
Menodoros to Nicanor, trapezites of the βασιλική τράπεζα in
Oxyrhynchos. No. 170 (241 B.C.) is a receipt for 15 talents in copper which
were paid b y the intermediary of the trapezites Nicanor to the
consignee Diodoros according to the payment-order of a certain
Pasikrates of the βασιλική τράπεζα in Oxyrhynchos. No. 170 (246 B.C.)
is a receipt of the monthly salary of a doctor (cf. on doctors Law2
633 ff.). No. 172 (246 B.C.) is an order for payment of an
archiphylakites' salaiy. Just as the salaries of doctors were paid out of the
ίατρικόν, the ones of the archiphylakitai were paid out of the income
of a particular tax φυλακιτικόν. In the document in question
Apollodoros the επιστάτης φυλακιτικών of Oxyrhynchos advises the
trapezite Nicanor to pay the three month salary due to archiphylakitai to
Theophilos, the commissioner of Apollodotes with money which
came in the bank the past year. In No. 173 (241 B.C.) Ammonios,
the οικονόμος advises the trapezite Nicanor to pay 540 drachmae
out of his account at the bank of Oxyrhynchos on behalf of a
certain Appolonios. These 540 drachmas are the price for two white
calves bought b y Ammonios very likely for his farm. No. 174 (240 B.C.)
is a fragment of a payment order. This fragment mentions a
payment in advance paid b y the state bank (Nicanor) on behalf of
flaxcookers to enable them buying the raw flax. In No. 175 (241 B.C.)
it seems to be the question of a payment order on behalf of the
λινεψοί in Oxyrhynchos. In No. 176 (241 B.C.) Ammonios orders
to the trapezites Nicanor to deliver papyrus for his office (i.e. the
one of Ammonios) to his commissioner. No. 177 (241 B.C.) a letter
of Ammonios to Nicanor, speaks also about the deliver)' of
papyrus b y the royal bank (cf. on papyrus production my Law2 673).
No. 178 (241 B.C.) deals -with the preparations for the collection of
the d y k e - t a x (λογεία τοϋ χωματικοϋ) which should be arranged by
Nicanor for the toparches of the south toparchy of the district.
No. 179 (241 B.C.) is a fragment of a payment order. No. 181 (240
B.C.) and 182 (240 B.C.) are fragments of letters. The
interpretation of the letter in No. 182 — probably of the οικονόμος to his
subordinates — must take as a starting point Kev. L. col 483_4.
According to the oil which had been required b y oil merchants of the
single villages for the certain month, it was distributed to the
merchants under the supervision of the οικονόμος. The money for the
oil should be delivered by the οικονόμος to the βασιλική τράπεζα
possibly on the same day or at least within five days. However we
learn now that the έλαϊκή has been collected from the oil merchants
and was not delivered immediately—but somewhat later to the
οικονόμος; and then we learn that the amount of money received
corresponded to the quantity of the oil. The έλαϊκή was then an
indirect tax which — however separately — had been paid
additionally to the oil price fixed b y the state.
No. 183 (251 B.C.) is a loan of hay made by Polemon, a simple
soldier of the Zoilos troop who confirms that he obtained a parcel
of hay from Zenodoros, the οικονόμος of the lower toparchy of
Oxyrhynchos. He engages himself to restore him one and a half of hay
in nine months (i.e. after the new harvest). The form used in the
documtnt is yet not found in the papyri cf. the seed - receipts edited
b y S c h u b a r t BGU VI 1226—1230, see G r a d e n w i t z 71 = SB
III, 1, 6280 and Hib. I 85; on πράξις ώς προς τά βασιλικά cf. my
In Nos 184-—186 (III cent. B.C.) the receiver quits his purchase
of a certain number of arurae of Arakos Olyra out of the royal land
and engages himself to pay the price to the βασιλική τράπεζα. This
is a sale on credit (cf. Law2 338 ff.). The object of the sale was the
land revenue of the arurae. No. 187 (265—4 B.C.) is a bond of
surety. The shoemakers Pais and Petroseiris were sued as it seems
for debts. Theodoros guaranteed that they will not leave their
village during the coming year being always at the disposal to their
creditor. In the event they should run away, Theodoros undertakes
to pay within five days the sum which the defendants were sued
for (cf. Law2 498).
No. 188 (218 B.C.) is a contract of lease in which the cleruch
Theophilos acts as a lessor and Aristochos, Stratios son — as a
lessee. No. 189 (215 B.C.) is a receipt for a rent paid in advance (cf.
Law2 35815, 36126)· It refers to a lease contract already concluded
in which the term of the lease, the amount of the rent as well as
other particulars were established. As payment of the rent takes
place for many years in advance, the lessees try to secure
themselves b y special clauses against neglecting the payment by the
lessor. This security clause says: " I f the lessor disregards the
payments in advance or if a βασιλικόν κώλυμα takes place (cf. Law2 3612e)
he shall pay a fixed sum for every artaba of wheat of the έκφόρια
already delivered, and the lessees shall have the right to execute
immediately this sum from the lessor".
No. 190 (from the period of Philopator) has been already
published b y F. Z i e b a r t h , Aegyptus X I I I (1933) 358—9 and again
in SB Y, 1, 7560 cf. W i l c k e n , Arch.f. Pap. X I (1935) 295. Whilst —
according to Z i e b a r t h — this papyrus refers to a syngraphe over
an enoikion concluded between Diodoros as proprietor and
Daimachos as the lessee or the tenant and — according to W i l c k e n
to an antichretic loan, the new editor admits that the question is
of a contract of μίσθωσις of a land-lease, or a lease of a house. In
this contract only the βεβαίωσις-clause is preserved. In this
βεβαίωσις Daimachos warrants Diodoros his rights for the period of
the μίσθωσις, the term of which must have been fixed in the
beginning of the document which Avas lost. Should Daimachos „ e x p e l "
Diodoros within this term or should he "force him out" before
Daimachos would receive 500 drachmae as the rent (ένοίκιον) and
the reimboursement of expenses then the legal claim of Daimachos
was void and he was obliged to pay 500 drachmae of rent the,
άναλώματα and the contractual penalty of 500 drachmae. Daimachos
is then undoubtedly the lessor and Diodoros the lessee. The
designation ένοίκιον and the mention of the compensation agreed upon
the expenses makes us believe that the lease of a house was at stake.
According to the editor's supposition in the lost part of the
document there was the question of the sub-lease of the house by
Diodoros and Daimachos had to guarantee Diodoros that the
sub-lessee would pay him the rent as well as the compensation of his
expenses. Until getting this money Diodoros was entitled to retain the
rights resulting from the lease contract even beyond the term agreed
upon the lease.
In No. 191, a draft of a letter (III cent. B.C.) is referred to the
execution of a mandate. The same holds good for a private letter
No. 192 (III cent. B.C.) -which is designated as an έντόλιον (εντολή).
Noteworthy is that in these papyri the term πρόστιμον ha« the
meaning of an "additional amount".
Vol. У of the Sammelbuch comprises four parts; the first two
appeared in the years 1934 and 1938 and the third one in the year
1950. Part I V published now contains the index to the whole
volume У. To the last part of this volume is annexed an additional
special volume containing a new edition of the Papyrus Revenue
Law b y J. B i n g e n . Besides the word-indices and general list of
words, particularly valuable is the section III (p. 400) with the
contents of the documents. It comprises: A. Government
activities, State and municipal legislation, Jurisdiction, Administration,
Taxation, Public dedications, B. Law of Associations, C. Civil
Law (Law of Persons, Law of Property, Law of Obligations,
The article contains a re-edition of Petr. III 26 with a
commentary. The papyrus refers as we know to the responsibility of the
proprietor of a beast for damage done b y the latter.
The columns 1,2 and 3 of the recto of P. Petrie III, 20 bring
respectively, an enteuxis to the king concerning the usurpation of
a stathmos, a hypomnema to the chrematists submitted by the same
plaintiff and a record referring to the continuation of the
proceedings and to the sentence passed in the case. The text of these three
E. K i e s s l i n g , Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Aegypten (vol . V, part I V , 1955 ).
M. T. L e n g e r , Le fragment de loi ptolemaïque P. Petrie III 26 (Bodl . Ms. Gr. Class. D 27 [Ρ]) (estr. dagli Studi in on . di U.E. Paoli [ 1955 ] 460 -- t67 ).
M. Th . L e n g e r , Une nouvelle édition de P. Petrie III 20, Recto coll. 1-3 (Chronique d'Egypte 57 [ 1954 ] 124 - 136 ).