"New Light on Maritime Loans", L. Casson, "Eos", 48, 1957, 2 : [recenzja]
sons who formed a religious society under a president. Among
these persons there are: one Greco-Macedonian, Lysias, son of
Nicophon, and a Lysimachus whose father has a Semitic name.
The rest of the persons bear theophoric names. The names indicate
that they belonged to the non-citizen inhabitants of the city.
Interesting is also the pottery inscription 0 . Yale Inv. 45 (early 3d cent.
B.C.; p. 168—170) of a very archaic character, very similar to
P. Eleph. 3 The text is that of an oath, found at all periods in the
Egyptian papyri, supporting the terms of a transaction or
settlement involving land.
The author publishes four inscriptions, three of them being
from the Ptolemaic and one from the Roman period. They have
been found in the amethyst mines at Abu Diyeiba. The
inscriptions show that these mines were worked in the Ptolemaic epoch.
It would be, however, unwise to conclude from inscription No. 4 that
the amethyst mines in this area were worked also in Roman times.
The authors publish three documents of the last millenium B.C.:
P. Cairo 50129; B.M. 10607 and 10609.
These three documents have in common three distinguished
clauses: (1) The man acknowledges the receipt of a stated amount
of copper money from the woman, "your money of becoming my
wife"; (2) he promises to return this amount within thirty days on
demand; (3) he contracts to provide a stated amount of grain and
copper money as a yearly sustenance allowance (cf. my Law2 125).
The author edits the text of P. Gr. Yindob. 19792 (II cent.
B.C.) concerning a ναυτικον δάνειον (cf. my Law2 344). Four
Ascalonites had jointly borrowed, through a Roman banker, from two
SURVEY OF PAPYRI
Roman moneylenders, resident in Egypt, a sum just short of eight
talents. Apparently a small portion had been paid in cash
immediately (1. 10), probably upon signing the contract to bind the
transaction, and in the present document the banker informs the
debtors that the balance of the proceeds of the loan had been credited
to their account and is now available for them to draw upon. All
the four borrowers have jointly guaranteed repayment. Moreover,
as security they pledged not only a vessel with all its equipment
which they owned in common, but also the proceeds from 'the
last freight charges'. The latter provision has an exact parallel in
one of Demosthenes' private orations which supplies the key to its
interpretation. In Dem. 35, 32 a certain Antipater lends money
for a voyage from Athens to the Pontus επί τω ναύλω τω εις τον
Πόντον και έπ αύτω τω πλοίω. By analogy, then, the 'last freight'
is collected by the four owners in Alexandria for the voyage
out from there, presumably to Ascalon. The inclusion of these
charges as part of the security afforded at least some protection of
the creditors' claims. In the event of the breach of the contract b y
the Ascalonites, in case they absconded with their money and the
ship, the lenders could at any rate foreclose on what had been
collected for freight and no doubt left in escrow in Egypt.
This posthumous edition, accomplished by Wilhelm S c h u b a r t ,
contains in Nos. 198—229 the acts of the royal bank in Thebes
arranged in five groups. I — Nos. 198—203 concerns temple affairs,
II — Nos. 204—217 military affairs, III — Nos. 218—223 auction
of royal immovables, I V — Nos. 218—226 auction of tax-leases,
У — Nos. 227—229 non military άντισύμβολα (counter-receipts.).
Group I. No. 198 (133 B.C.) is an order of payment to
Apollonios, the trapezite of the Theban bank, of 1 talent and 1020
drachmae, as σύνταξις to the priests of Amonrasonther, the great god
from Karnak. Nos. 199—201 (131—130 B.C.) have in common that
they suppose, the priests of Amonrasonther bought the γέρας
πτεροφορίας from the King and paid the price of 250 talents of copper
to the Theban bank. All the three texts deal with the further fate
of these 250 talents. Nos. 202—203 have already been published
in Arch. f. Pap. X V , 46—60, cf. my JJP 9—10, 529 ff.