The magnetic moment of the \(Z_c(3900)\) as an axialvector tetraquark state with QCD sum rules

The European Physical Journal C, Apr 2018

In this article, we assign the \(Z_c^\pm (3900)\) to be the diquark-antidiquark type axialvector tetraquark state, study its magnetic moment with the QCD sum rules in the external weak electromagnetic field by carrying out the operator product expansion up to the vacuum condensates of dimension 8. We pay special attention to matching the hadron side with the QCD side of the correlation function to obtain solid duality, the routine can be applied to study other electromagnetic properties of the exotic particles.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjc%2Fs10052-018-5794-0.pdf

The magnetic moment of the \(Z_c(3900)\) as an axialvector tetraquark state with QCD sum rules

Eur. Phys. J. C The magnetic moment of the Zc(3900) as an axialvector tetraquark state with QCD sum rules Zhi-Gang Wang 0 0 Department of Physics, North China Electric Power University , Baoding 071003 , People's Republic of China In this article, we assign the Zc±(3900) to be the diquark-antidiquark type axialvector tetraquark state, study its magnetic moment with the QCD sum rules in the external weak electromagnetic field by carrying out the operator product expansion up to the vacuum condensates of dimension 8. We pay special attention to matching the hadron side with the QCD side of the correlation function to obtain solid duality, the routine can be applied to study other electromagnetic properties of the exotic particles. 1 Introduction In 2013, the BESIII collaboration studied the process e+e− → π +π − J /ψ at a center-of-mass energy of 4.260 GeV, and observed a structure Zc(3900) in the π ± J /ψ invariant mass distribution [ 1 ]. Then the Zc(3900) was confirmed by the Belle and CLEO collaborations [ 2,3 ]. Recently, the BESIII collaboration determined the spin and parity of the Zc±(3900) state to be J P = 1+ with a statistical significance more than 7σ over other quantum numbers in a partial wave analysis of the process e+e− → π +π − J /ψ [4]. If it is really a resonance, the assignments of tetraquark state [ 5– 11 ] and molecular state [ 12–19 ] are robust according to the non-zero electric charge. The newly observed exotic states X , Y , Z , which are excellent candidates for the multiquark states, provide a good platform for studying the nonperturbative behavior of QCD and attract many interesting works of the particle physicists. The QCD sum rules is a powerful nonperturbative tool in studying the ground state hadrons, and has given many successful descriptions of the hadronic parameters on the phenomenological side [ 20–22 ]. As far as the Zc(3900) is concerned, the mass and decay width of the Zc(3900) have been studied with the QCD sum rules in details [ 10,11,18,19,23,24 ], while the magnetic moment of the Zc(3900) is only studied with the light-cone QCD sum rules [25]. The magnetic moment of the Zc(3900) is a fundamental parameter as its mass and width, which also has copious information about the underlying quark structure, can be used to distinguish the preferred configuration from various theoretical models and deepen our understanding of the underlying dynamics. For example, although the proton and neutron have degenerated mass in the isospin limit, their electromagnetic properties are quite different. If we take them as point particles, the magnetic moments are μ p = 1 and μn = 0 in unit of the nucleon magneton from Dirac’s theory of relativistic fermions. In 1933, Otto Stern measured the magnetic moment of the proton, which deviates from one significatively and indicates that the proton has under-structure. The neutron’s anomalous magnetic moment originates from the Pauli form-factor. So it is interesting to study the interaction of the Zc(3900) with the photon, which plays an important role in understanding its nature. In fact, the works on the magnetic moments of the exotic particles X , Y , Z are few, only the magnetic moments of the Zc(3900), X (5568) and Zb(10610) are studied with the light-cone QCD sum rules [ 25–27 ]. In this article, we tentatively assign the Zc(3900) to be the diquark-antidiquark type tetraquark state and study its magnetic moment with the QCD sum rules in the external weak electromagnetic field. In Ref. [ 28 ], Ioffe and Smilga (also in Ref. [ 29 ], Balitsky and Yung) introduce a static electromagnetic field which couples to the quarks and polarizes the QCD vacuum, and extract the nucleon magnetic moments from linear response to the external electromagnetic field with the QCD sum rules. This approach has been applied successfully to study the magnetic moments of the octet baryons and decuplet baryons [ 30–34 ]. Now we extend this approach to study the magnetic moment of the hidden-charm tetraquark state Zc(3900). The article is arranged as follows: we derive the QCD sum rules for the magnetic moment μ of the Zc(3900) in Sect. 2; in Sect. 3, we present the numerical results and discussions; and Sect. 4 is reserved for our conclusion. 2 The magnetic moment of the Zc(3900) as an axialvector tetraquark state In the following, we write down the two-point correlation function μν ( p, q) in the external electromagnetic field F , μν ( p, q) = i d4x ei p·x 0|T Jμ(x ) Jν†(0) |0 F , Jμ(x ) = εi jk εimn √2 u j (x )C γ5ck (x )d¯m (x )γμC c¯n(x ) −u j (x )C γμck (x )d¯m (x )γ5C c¯n(x ) , the i , j , k, m, n are color indexes, the C is the charge conjugation matrix. The correlation function μν ( p, q) can be rewritten as μν ( p, q) = i d4x ei p·x 0 T Jμ(x ) Jν†(0) 0 (1) (2) (3) + i × d4x ei p·x 0 T Jμ(x ) −i e d4 y ηα(y) Aα(y) Jν†(0) 0 + · · · , where the ηα(y) is the electromagnetic current and the Aα(y) is the electromagnetic field. We can insert a complete set of intermediate hadronic states with the same quantum numbers as the current operator Jμ(x ) into the correlation function μν ( p, q) to obtain the hadronic representation [ 20–22 ]. After isolating the ground state and the first radial excited state contributions from the pole terms, we obtain μν ( p, q) = MZ2λ−2Z p2 ζμ( p)ζν∗( p) + M2λ2Z Z − p2 ζμ( p)ζν∗( p) 1 − λ2Z e εα∗ (q) ζμ( p) ζν∗( p ) MZ2 − p2 Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) ) 1 × MZ2 − p 2 − λZ λZ e εα∗ (q) ζμ( p) ζν∗( p ) 1 Z − p2 Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) ) × M2 1 + + + = λ2Z the εα and ζμ are the polarization vectors of the photon and the axial-vector meson Zc( ), respectively. The hadronic matrix element Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) can be parameterized by three form-factors, Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) = G1(Q2) ζ ∗( p) · ζ ( p ) pα + pα −G3(Q2) +G2(Q2) ζα( p )ζ ∗( p) · q − ζα∗( p)ζ ( p ) · q 1 ζ ∗( p) · q ζ ( p ) · q pα + pα , with Q2 = −q2, p = p + q [ 35 ]. The Lorentz-invariant form-factors G1(Q2), G2(Q2) and G3(Q2) are related to the charge, magnetic and quadrupole form-factors, 2 GC = G1 + 3 ηG Q , G M = −G2, G Q = G1 + G2 + (1 + η)G3, Q2 respectively, where η = 4M2 is a kinematic factor. At zero Z momentum transfer, these form-factors are proportional to the usual static quantities of the charge e, magnetic moment μZ and quadrupole moment Q1, e GC (0) = e, e G M (0) = 2MZ μZ , e G Q (0) = MZ2 Q1 . The hadronic matrix elements Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) and Zc( p)|ηα(0)|Zc( p ) are parameterized analogously by the form-factors G1(Q2), G2(Q2) and G3(Q2). In this article, we choose the tensor structure Fμν for analysis. The current Jμ(x ) also has non-vanishing couplings with the scattering states D D∗, J /ψ π , J /ψρ, etc [ 36 ]. In the following, we study the contributions of the intermediate meson-loops to the correlation function μν ( p, q), μν ( p, q) = MZ2 + + MZ2 + λ2Z ( p) − p2 −gμν λ2Z ( p) − p2 −gμν + + + where the self-energy ( p) = D D∗ ( p) + J/ψπ ( p) + J/ψρ ( p) + · · · . The λZ/Z and MZ/Z are bare quantities to absorb the divergences in the self-energies ( p) and ( p ). The renormalized self-energies contribute a finite imaginary part to modify the dispersion relation, + + + the physical width of the ground state (MZ2 ) = Zc(3900) = (28.1 ± 2.6) MeV is small enough [ 36 ], while the effect of the large width of the first radial excited state (MZ2 ) = Z(4430) = 181 ± 31 MeV can be absorbed into the continuum states (the Z (4430) can be tentatively assigned to be the first radial excitation of the Zc(3900) based on the QCD sum rules [ 37 ]), the zero width approximation in the hadronic spectral density works, the contaminations of the intermediate meson-loops are expected to be small and can be neglected safely [ 38 ]. In fact, even the effect of the large width of the Zc(4200) ( Zc(4200) = 370 ± 70+−71032 MeV) can be safely absorbed into the pole residue [ 39 ]. For detailed discussions about this subject, one can consult Refs. [ 10,39 ]. In the following, we briefly outline the operator product expansion for the correlation function μν ( p, q) in perturbative QCD. We contract the quark fields in the correlation function μν ( p, q) with Wick theorem, obtain the result, μν ( p, q) = − i εi jk εimnεi j k εi m n 2 × d4x ei p·x Tr γ5Ckk (x )γ5CU j j T (x )C × Tr γν Cn n(−x )γμC Dm mT (−x )C + Tr γμCkk (x )γν CU j j T (x )C × Tr γ5Cn n(−x )γ5C Dm mT (−x )C − − + + × × + σ αβ x 2 − 2xλx β σ λα δi j q¯q χ σ αβ eeq Fαβ 24 δi j q¯q eeq Fαβ 288 δi j q¯q eeq Fαβ 576 i Ci j (x ) = (2π )4 d4ke−ik·x σ αβ x 2 (κ + ξ ) − 2xλx β σ λα ξ κ − 2 + · · · , (12) δi j k − mc − gs Gnαβ tinj σ αβ (k + mc) + (k + mc)σ αβ 4 (k2 − mc2)2 δi j eeq Fαβ σ αβ (k + mc) + (k + mc)σ αβ 4 (k2 − mc2)2 + · · · , and t n = λ2n , the λn is the Gell-Mann matrix [ 10,22,28, 31,33,34,40 ]. We retain the term q¯ j σμν qi originates from Fierz re-ordering of the qi q¯ j to absorb the gluons emitted from other quark lines to form q¯ j gs Gaαβ tma nσμν qi to extract the mixed condensate q¯ gs σ Gq [ 10 ]. The new condensates or vacuum susceptibilities χ , κ and ξ induced by the external electromagnetic field are defined by 0|q¯ σαβ q|0 F = e eq χ q¯q Fαβ , 0|q¯ gs Gαβ q|0 F = e eq κ q¯q Fαβ , εαβλτ 0|q¯ gs Gλτ γ5q|0 F = i e eq ξ q¯q Fαβ , with the convention ε0123 = −ε0123 = 1 [ 28,31,33,34 ]. Then we compute the integrals both in the coordinate and momentum spaces, and obtain the correlation function ( p 2, p2) Fμν therefore the spectral density at the level of quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we take into (13) (14) account contributions of the new condensates originate from the quark interacting with the external electromagnetic field as well as the vacuum gluons, 0|qi (x )q¯ j (0)Gnαβ (x )|0 F = − qq ¯ 16 tinj eeq i κ Fαβ − 4 ξ γ5 εαβλτ F λτ , see the Feynman diagrams shown in Figs. 1 and 2. We have to be cautious in matching the QCD side of the correlation function ( p 2, p2) with the hadron side of the correlation function ( p 2, p2), as there appears the variable p 2 = ( p + q)2. We rewrite the correlation function H ( p 2, p2) on the hadron side into the following form through dispersion relation, H ( p 2, p2) = s0Z 4mc2 ds sZ0 4mc2 ds ρH (s , s) (s − p 2)(s − p2) + · · · , (15) (16) where the ρH (s , s) is the hadronic spectral density, ρH (s , s) = lim lim 2→0 1→0 Ims Ims H (s + i 2, s + i 1) π 2 = λ2Z G2(0) δ s − M Z2 δ s − M Z2 +λZ λZ G2(0) δ s − M Z2 δ s − M Z2 +λZ λZ G2(0) δ s − M Z2 δ s − M Z2 + · · · , (17) the sZ0 is the continuum threshold parameter, we add the subscript H to denote the hadron side. However, on the QCD side, the QCD spectral density ρQC D (s , s) does not exist, Ims Ims QC D (s + i 2, s + i 1) π 2 (18) (19) (20) (21) ρQC D (s , s) = lim lim 2→0 1→0 = 0, because lim 2→0 Ims QC D (s + i 2, p2) π = 0, we add the subscript QC D to denote the QCD side. On the QCD side, the correlation function QC D ( p2) (the QC D ( p 2, p2) is reduced to QC D ( p2) due to lacking dependence on the variable p 2) can be written into the following form through dispersion relation, QC D ( p2) = an p2n + s0Z 4mc2 ds ρQC D (s) s − p2 + · · · , where the ρQC D (s) is the QCD spectral density, ρQC D (s) = lim 1→0 Ims QC D (s + i 1) , π which is independent on the variable p 2, the coefficients an with n = 0, 1, 2, . . . are some constants, the terms an p2n disappear after performing the Borel transform with respect to the variable P 2 = − p2, we can neglect the terms an p2n safely. We math the hadron side with the QCD side of the correlation function, and carry out the integral over ds firstly to obtain the solid duality, sZ0 4mc2 ds ρQC D (s) s − p2 = = = sZ0 4mc2 ds 1 s − p2 λ2Z G2(0) + MZ2 − p2 sZ0 ds 4mc2 1 s − p2 λ2Z G2(0) where we introduce the unknown parameter C to denote the transition between the ground state and the excited states, λ2Z C = sZ0 4mc2 ds ∞ s0Z ds ρH (s , s) s − p 2 = λZ λZ G2(0) M 2 Z − p 2 In numerical calculation, we smear dependency of the C on the momentum p 2 and take it as a free parameter, and choose the suitable value to eliminate the contaminations from the high resonances and continuum states to obtain the stable QCD sum rule with respect to the variation of the Borel parameter T 2. Now we set p 2 = p2 and perform the Borel transform with respect to the variable P2 = − p2 to obtain the following QCD sum rule: y f yi 1−y d y y f zi d y yi 2s − mc2 zi y f mc q¯q ρ3(s) = − 96π 4 ρQC D(s) = ρ0(s) + ρ3(s) + ρ5(s) + ρ6(s) + ρ8(s), (25) 1−y zi dz yz (1 − y − z) × s − mc2 2 4s − mc2 , (1 − y − z) 3s − 2mc2 (1 − y − z) − (y + z) s − mc2 , mc q¯ gsσ Gq 256π 4 − − mc q¯ gsσ Gq 1536π 4 5mc q¯ gsσ Gq 1536π 4 y f yi yi × 1 + s δ s − mc2 d y 1 + s δ s − mc2 y f yi d y y f d y dz yz + yz − − + y f yi mc2 = (y+yzz)mc2 , mc2 = y(1m−c2 y) , yyi f d y → 01 d y, z1i−y d z → 01−y d z when the δ functions δ s − mc2 and δ s − mc2 appear, we neglect the small contributions of the gluon condensate. According to Eqs. (22, 23), the non-diagonal transitions between the ground state and the excited states can be written as λ2Z C MZ2 − p2 = If we set p 2 = p2 and perform the Borel transform with respect to the variable P2 = − p2, we can obtain λZ λZ G2(0) M 2 Z − MZ2 exp MZ2 − T 2 − exp M 2 Z − T 2 In Ref. [ 37 ], we observe that the Z (4430) can be tentatively assigned to be the first radial excitation of the Zc(3900) based on the QCD sum rules. If we set Z = Z (4430), then exp exp M2 Z − T 2 M2 Z − T 2 = 0.11 ∼ 0.17, (30) ysy−mmc2 c2 , (31) (32) (33) y f for the Borel parameter T 2 = (2.2 − 2.8) GeV2. So the terms exp − MTZ22 , exp − MTZ22 , . . . can be neglected approximately, the non-diagonal transitions can be approximated as λ2Z C exp − MT2Z2 . 3 Numerical results and discussions The input parameters on the QCD side are taken to be the standard values q¯q = −(0.24 ± 0.01 GeV)3, q¯ gs σ Gq = 0 = (0.8 ± 0.1) GeV2, at the energy scale μ = m20 q¯q , m2 1 GeV [ 20–22,31,32,41 ], and mc(mc) = (1.28 ± 0.03) GeV from the Particle Data Group [36]. Furthermore, we set mu = md = 0 due to the small current quark masses. For the new condensates or vacuum susceptibilities χ , κ and ξ induced by the external electromagnetic field, we take two set parameters: (I) the old values χ = −3 GeV−2, κ = −0.75, ξ = 1.5 at the energy scale μ = 1 GeV fitted in the QCD sum rules for the magnetic moments of the p, n and [ 31,32 ]; (II) the new values χ = −(3.15 ± 0.30) GeV−2, κ = −0.2, ξ = 0.4 at the energy scale μ = 1 GeV determined in the detailed QCD sum rules analysis of the photon light-cone distribution amplitudes [42]. The existing values of the vacuum susceptibilities χ , κ and ξ are quite different from different determinations, the old values χ (1 GeV) = −(4.4 ± 0.4) GeV−2 [ 44 ] or −(5.7 ± 0.6) GeV−2 [ 45 ] determined in the QCD sum rules combined with the vector meson dominance, while the most recent value χ (1 GeV) = −(2.85 ± 0.50) GeV−2 determined in the light-cone QCD sum rules for the radiative heavy meson decays [ 43 ]. The old values χ = −6 GeV−2, κ = −0.75, ξ = 1.5 at the energy scale μ = 1 GeV determined in the QCD sum rules for the octet and decuplet baryon magnetic moments [ 33,34 ] are also different from the parameters (I) determined in analysis of the magnetic moments of the p, n and [ 31,32 ]. The most popularly used values are the parameters (II) [ 42 ], which are consistent with the most recent values determined in Ref. [ 43 ]. In the parameters (I), we choose the value χ (1 GeV) = −3 GeV−2 [ 31,32 ] instead of χ (1 GeV) = −6 GeV−2 [ 33,34 ] according to the most recent value χ (1 GeV) = −(2.85 ± 0.50) GeV−2 [ 43 ]. We take into account the energy-scale dependence of the input parameters from the renormalization group equation, αs (Q) 225 αs (μ) q¯ gs σ Gq (μ) = q¯ gs σ Gq (Q) 12 αs (Q) 25 αs (μ) , χ (μ) = χ (Q) κ(μ) = κ(Q) ξ(μ) = ξ(Q) mc(μ) = mc(mc) 1 αs (μ) = b0t 16 αs (μ) 25 αs (Q) 36 αs (μ) 25 αs (Q) 36 αs (μ) 25 αs (Q) , , + b12(log2 t − log t − 1) + b0b2 b4t2 0 2 where t = log μ2 , b0 = 331−22πn f , b1 = 1532−4π192n f , b2 = 2857− 50933 n f + 32275 n2f 128π3 , = 210 MeV, 292 MeV and 332 MeV for the flavors n f = 5, 4 and 3, respectively [ 36,42,46,47 ], and evolve all the input parameters to the optimal energy scale μ = 1.4 GeV to extract the form-factor G2(0) [ 10,24,48 ]. The hadronic parameters are taken as !sZ0 = 4.4 GeV, MZ = 3.899 GeV, λZ = 2.1 × 10−2 GeV5 [ 10,48 ]. In the scenario of tetraquark states, the QCD sum rules indicate that the Zc(3900) and Z (4430) can be tentatively assigned to be the ground state and the first radial excited state of the axialvector tetraquark states, respectively [37]. We choose the value !sZ0 = 4.4 GeV to avoid contamination of the Z (4430) and reproduce the experimental value of the mass MZ = 3.899 GeV from the QCD sum rules. The unknown parameter is fitted to be C = 0.97 GeV−2 and 0.94 GeV−2 for the parameters (I) and (II) respectively to obtain platforms in the Borel window T 2 = (2.2 − 2.8) GeV2. We take into account uncertainties of the input parameters, and obtain the value of the form-factor G2(0) therefore the magnetic moment μZ of the Zc(3900), which is shown explicitly in Fig. 3, |μZ | = G2(0) e 2MZ e = 1.46+0.98 −0.80 2MZ = 0.35+−00..2149 μN for parameters, (I), e = 1.96+1.14 −0.91 2MZ = 0.47+−00..2272 μN for parameters (II), where the μN is the nucleon magneton. The present prediction can be confronted to the experimental data in the future. As the vacuum susceptibilities κ and ξ are less well studied compared to the vacuum susceptibility χ , in Fig. 4, we plot the value of the G2(0) with variation of the parameter y = −κ(1 GeV) = ξ(1 GeV)/2 for the parameters T 2 = 2.5 GeV2, χ (1 GeV) = −3.15 GeV−2 and C = (35) (36) Fig. 4 The form-factor G2(0) with variation of the parameter y = −κ(1 GeV) = ξ(1 GeV)/2 0.94 GeV−2. From the figure, we can see that the value of the G2(0) decreases monotonously with increase of the absolute values of the κ and ξ . Once the value of the magnetic moment μZ is precisely measured, we can obtain a powerful constraint on the values of the κ and ξ . In Ref. [ 25 ], Ozdem and Azizi obtain the magnetic moment μZ = 0.67 ± 0.32 μN from the light-cone QCD sum rules, where the μZ decreases monotonously with increase of the Borel parameter, the Borel window is not flat enough. Compared to the QCD sum rules in the external electromagnetic field, the light-cone QCD sum rules have more parameters with limited precision. Furthermore, there exists no experimental data on the electromagnetic multipole moments of the exotic particles X , Y and Z , so theoretical studies play an important role, more theoretical works are still needed. For example, the magnetic moment of the Zc(3900) as a molecular state is still not studied with the QCD sum rules or light-cone QCD sum rules, a comparison of the two possible assignments is not possible at the present time. We can diagnose the nature of the Zc(3900) as a genuine resonance or anomalous triangle singularity in the photoproduction process [ 49 ]. Experimentally, the COMPASS collaboration observed the X (3872) in the subprocess γ ∗ N → N X (3872)π ± in the process μ+ N → μ+ N X (3872)π ± → μ+ N π +π −π ± [ 50 ], but have not observed the Zc±(3900) in the subprocess γ ∗ N → N Zc(3900)± in the process μ+ N → μ+ N Zc(3900)± → μ+ N J /ψ π ± yet [ 51 ]. We can study the photon associated production γ ∗ N → N Zc(3900)±γ or other processes with the final states Zc±(3900)γ to study the electromagnetic multipole moments of the Zc±(3900), although it is a difficult work. 4 Conclusion In this article, we tentatively assign the Zc±(3900) to be the diquark-antidiquark type axialvector tetraquark state, study its magnetic moment with the QCD sum rules in the external weak electromagnetic field by carrying out the operator product expansion up to the vacuum condensates of dimension 8, and neglect the tiny contributions of the gluon condensate. We pay special attention to matching the hadron side of the correlation function with the QCD side of the correlation function to obtain solid duality, the routine can be applied to study other electromagnetic properties of the exotic particles X , Y and Z directly. Finally, we obtain the magnetic moment of the Zc(3900), which can be confronted to the experimental data in the future and shed light on the nature of the Zc(3900). Acknowledgements This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation, Grant number 11775079. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecomm ons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Funded by SCOAP3. 1. M. Ablikim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett . 110 , 252001 ( 2013 ) 2. Z.Q. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett . 110 , 252002 ( 2013 ) 3. T. Xiao , S. Dobbs , A. Tomaradze , K.K. Seth , Phys. Lett. B 727 , 366 ( 2013 ) 4. M. Ablikim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett . 119 , 072001 ( 2017 ) 5. R. Faccini , L. Maiani , F. Piccinini , A. Pilloni , A.D. Polosa , V. Riquer , Phys. Rev. D 87 , 111102(R) ( 2013 ) 6. M. Karliner , S. Nussinov, JHEP 1307 , 153 ( 2013 ) 7. N. Mahajan , arXiv: 1304 . 1301 8. E. Braaten, Phys. Rev. Lett . 111 , 162003 ( 2013 ) 9. C.F. Qiao , L. Tang , Eur. Phys. J. C 74 , 3122 ( 2014 ) 10. Z.G. Wang , T. Huang, Phys. Rev. D 89 , 054019 ( 2014 ) 11. J.M. Dias , F.S. Navarra , M. Nielsen , C.M. Zanetti , Phys. Rev. D 88 , 016004 ( 2013 ) 12. F.K. Guo , C. Hidalgo-Duque , J. Nieves , M.P. Valderrama , Phys. Rev. D 88 , 054007 ( 2013 ) 13. J.R. Zhang , Phys. Rev. D 87 , 116004 ( 2013 ) 14. Y. Dong , A. Faessler , T. Gutsche , V.E. Lyubovitskij , Phys. Rev. D 88 , 014030 ( 2013 ) 15. H.W. Ke , Z.T. Wei , X.Q. Li , Eur. Phys. J. C 73 , 2561 ( 2013 ) 16. S. Prelovsek , L. Leskovec, Phys. Lett. B 727 , 172 ( 2013 ) 17. C.Y. Cui , Y.L. Liu , W.B. Chen , M.Q. Huang , J. Phys. G41 , 075003 ( 2014 ) 18. Z.G. Wang , T. Huang , Eur. Phys. J. C 74 , 2891 ( 2014 ) 19. Z.G. Wang , Eur. Phys. J. C 74 , 2963 ( 2014 ) 20. M.A. Shifman , A.I. Vainshtein , V.I. Zakharov , Nucl. Phys. B 147 , 385 ( 1979 ) 21. M.A. Shifman , A.I. Vainshtein , V.I. Zakharov , Nucl. Phys. B 147 , 448 ( 1979 ) 22. L.J. Reinders , H. Rubinstein , S. Yazaki, Phys. Rep . 127 , 1 ( 1985 ) 23. S.S. Agaev , K. Azizi , H. Sundu, Phys. Rev. D 93 , 074002 ( 2016 ) 24. Z.G. Wang , J.X. Zhang , Eur. Phys. J. C 78 , 14 ( 2018 ) 25. U. Ozdem, K. Azizi , Phys. Rev. D 96 , 074030 ( 2017 ) 26. A.K. Agamaliev , T.M. Aliev , M. Savci , Phys. Rev. D 95 , 036015 ( 2017 ) 27. U. Ozdem, K. Azizi , Phys. Rev. D 97 , 014010 ( 2018 ) 28. B.L. Ioffe , A.V. Smilga , Nucl. Phys. B 232 , 109 ( 1984 ) 29. I.I. Balitsky , A.V. Yung , Phys. Lett. 129B , 328 ( 1983 ) 30. C.B. Chiu , J. Pasupathy , S.L . Wilson, Phys. Rev. D 33 , 1961 ( 1986 ) 31. J. Pasupathy , J.P. Singh , C.B. Chiu , S.L . Wilson, Phys. Rev. D 36 , 1442 ( 1987 ) 32. C.B. Chiu , J. Pasupathy , S.L . Wilson, Phys. Rev. D 36 , 1451 ( 1987 ) 33. F.X. Lee , Phys. Rev. D 57 , 1801 ( 1998 ) 34. L. Wang , F.X. Lee , Phys. Rev. D 78 , 013003 ( 2008 ) 35. S.J. Brodsky , J.R. Hiller , Phys. Rev. D 46 , 2141 ( 1992 ) 36. C. Patrignani et al., Chin. Phys. C 40 , 100001 ( 2016 ) 37. Z.G. Wang , Commun. Theor. Phys . 63 , 325 ( 2015 ) 38. Z.G. Wang , Eur. Phys. J. C 76 , 427 ( 2016 ) 39. Z.G. Wang , Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 30 , 1550168 ( 2015 ) 40. P. Pascual , R. Tarrach , QCD: Renormalization for the practitioner (Springer, Berlin, 1984 ) 41. P. Colangelo , A. Khodjamirian , arXiv:hep-ph/0010175 42. P. Ball , V.M. Braun , N. Kivel , Nucl. Phys. B 649 , 263 ( 2003 ) 43. J. Rohrwild , JHEP 0709 , 073 ( 2007 ) 44. I.I. Balitsky , A.V. Kolesnichenko , A.V. Yung , Sov. J. Nucl. Phys . 41 , 178 ( 1985 ) 45. V.M. Belyaev , Y.I. Kogan , Yad. Fiz. 40 , 1035 ( 1984 ) 46. S. Narison , R. Tarrach , Phys. Lett . 125 B ( 1983 ) 217 47. S. Narison, QCD as a theory of hadrons from partons to confinement . Camb. Monogr. Part. Phys. Nucl. Phys. Cosmol . 17 , 1 ( 2007 ) 48. Z.G. Wang , Eur. Phys. J. C 76 , 387 ( 2016 ) 49. Q.Y. Lin , X. Liu , H.S. Xu , Phys. Rev. D 88 , 114009 ( 2013 ) 50. M. Aghasyan et al., arXiv:1707.01796 51. C. Adolph et al., Phys. Lett. B 742 , 330 ( 2015 )


This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjc%2Fs10052-018-5794-0.pdf

Zhi-Gang Wang. The magnetic moment of the \(Z_c(3900)\) as an axialvector tetraquark state with QCD sum rules, The European Physical Journal C, 2018, 297, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5794-0