Retraction

Carcinogenesis, May 2018

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Retraction

- another paper (Singh, T. and S.K. KatiyarG,reen tea catechins reduce retractions invasive potential of human melanoma cells by targeting COX-2, PGE2 receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PLOS ONE, 2011. Carcinogenesis is retracting the following paper following a joint-re 6(10): p.  e25224 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.002522)4; search misconduct investigation by the Birmingham VA Medical however, the PLOS ONE image is of control Hs294t cells recei-v Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA. ing 0 µM berberine. Examination of the two panels at high ma-g Vayalil, P.K. et al. (2003) Treatment of green tea polyphenols in nification indicated that the same micrograph was used in each hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and figure but labeled as belonging to different experimental groups. proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation The lack of available original data and records preclude an u-n of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.Carcinogenesis, ambiguous identification of the cell type and the experimental 24(5), 927–936 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgg025 treatment in either paper. In this paper, splice marks are visible in western blots pr-e This retraction is based on the unavailability of original data sented in Figures 3C and 4C. In Figure 3C, a splice line is appa-r and records, the lack of replicate experiments that validate the ent between the samples from control lanes of skin from published findings, and the ambiguous identification of many of UVB-irradiated mice that were treated with and without ECGC. the samples, treatments and controls. Quantitative data based on these western blots are also p-re sented. There are no original data or records available with doi:10.1093/carcin/bgy029 which to confirm the experiment or the conclusions that were Advance Access publication April 20, 2018 stated related to these experiments. Thus, the conclusions of this paper could not be substantiated by the available data. This retraction is based on the unavailability of original data and records, the lack of replicate experiments that validate the published findings, and the ambiguous identification of many of the samples, treatments and controls. Carcinogenesis is retracting the following paper following a joint research misconduct investigation by the Birmingham VA Medical doi:10.1093/carcin/bgy027 Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA. Advance Access publication April 20, 2018 Nandakumar, V. et  al. (2011) Aberrant DNA hypermethyl-a tion patterns lead to transcriptional silencing of tumor supp-res sor genes in UVB-exposed skin and UVB-induced skin tumors of mice. Carcinogenesis, 32(4), 597–604 https://doi.org/10.1093/ carcin/bgq282 Carcinogenesis is retracting the following paper following a In Figure  5, there are several instances in which bands are joint research misconduct investigation by the Birmingham VA replicated but labelled to represent different experimental c-on Medical Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, ditions. For example, the bands labeled P16INK4a ‘Ac-Histone AL, USA. H3’ and ‘MBD1’ are the same; the bands labeled P16INK4a Singh, T.  et  al. (2011) Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, ‘Ac-Histone H4 Input’ and ‘MBD1 Input’ and ‘HDAC1 Input’ and inhibits melanoma cancer cell migration by reducing the expr-es RASSF1A ‘HDAC1 Input’ appear to be identical. sions of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin In some cases, the bands are flipped (compare MeCp2 and E2 receptors.Carcinogenesis, 32(1), 86–92 https://doi.org/10.1093/ HDAC1 in Panel A). While the Input bands for Panel A are all the carcin/bgq215 same, the Input is identical for the image shown at the bottom There are two main concerns. First, thβe-actin controls for of Panel B—which is a different promoter region. There are no experimental data displayed in Figures 3E and 5B are identical. original data or records with which to clarify the identities of However, the experimental treatment for data shown in Figure 3 the input controls or experimental samples that are shown, or (increasing concentrations of berberine with or without TPA with which to validate the findings and conclusions drawn from (Figure 3E) or PGE2 (Figure 5B) are different. Thus, there is an a m- this experiment. biguous identification of the control conditions for both exp-eri This retraction is based on the unavailability of original data ments.There are no original data or records available with which and records, the lack of replicate experiments that validate the to confirm the experimental results. Thus, the conclusions of published findings, and the ambiguous identification of many of the paper could not be substantiated by the available data. the samples, treatments and controls. Second, Figure 1B of this paper contains a photomicrograph of Hs294 cells treated with 10 µg/ml of epigallo-catchin-3-gallate, doi:10.1093/carcin/bgy030 an extract of green tea. This image is identical to Figure  2A of Advance Access publication April 20, 2018


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Retraction, Carcinogenesis, 2018, 738, DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgy027