Scalar dark matter search from the extended νTHDM

Journal of High Energy Physics, May 2018

Abstract We consider a neutrino Two Higgs Doublet Model (νTHDM) in which neutrinos obtain naturally small Dirac masses from the soft symmetry breaking of a global U(1) X symmetry. We extended the model so the soft term is generated by the spontaneous breaking of U(1) X by a new scalar field. The symmetry breaking pattern can also stabilize a scalar dark matter candidate. After constructing the model, we study the phenomenology of the dark matter: relic density, direct and indirect detection.

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Scalar dark matter search from the extended νTHDM

Revised: May Scalar dark matter search from the extended THDM Seungwon Baek 0 1 2 3 Arindam Das 0 1 3 Takaaki Nomura 0 1 3 0 Seoul 02841 , Korea 1 Seoul 02455 , Korea 2 Department of Physics , Korea University 3 School of Physics , KIAS We consider a neutrino Two Higgs Doublet Model ( THDM) in which neutrinos obtain naturally small Dirac masses from the soft symmetry breaking of a global U(1)X symmetry. We extended the model so the soft term is generated by the spontaneous breaking of U(1)X by a new scalar eld. The symmetry breaking pattern can also stabilize a scalar dark matter candidate. After constructing the model, we study the phenomenology of the dark matter: relic density, direct and indirect detection. Beyond Standard Model; Higgs Physics; Neutrino Physics 1 Introduction 2 The Model 3 DM phenomenology 4 Conclusion 1 Introduction tively there is a simple model, neutrino Two Higgs Doublet Model ( THDM) [8, 9], which can generate the Dirac mass term for the light neutrinos as well as for the other fermions in the SM. In this model we have two Higgs doublets; one is the same as the SM-like Higgs doublet and the other one is having a small VEV (O( 1 )) eV to explain the tiny neutrino mass correctly. Due to this fact, the neutrino Dirac Yukawa coupling could be order 1. It has been discussed in [8] that a global softly broken U( 1 )X symmetry can forbid the Majorana mass terms of the RHNs; a hidden U( 1 ) gauge symmetry can be also applied to realize THDM as in ref. [10]. In this model all the SM fermions obtain Dirac mass terms via Yukawa interactions with the SM-like Higgs doublet ( 2) whereas only the neutrinos get Dirac masses through the Yukawa coupling with the other Higgs doublet ( 1 ). Another scenario of the generation of Dirac neutrino mass through a dimension ve operator has been studied in [11]. The corresponding Yukawa interactions of the Lagrangian can be written as LY = QLY u e2uR QLY d 2dR LLY e 2eR LLY e1 R + H:c: (1.1) where ei = i 2 i (i = 1; 2), QL is the SM quark doublet, LL is the SM lepton doublet, eR is the right handed charged lepton, uR is the right handed up-quark, dR is the right handed down-quark and R are the RHNs. The 1 and R are assigned with the global charge 3 under the U( 1 )X group. The global symmetry forbids the Majorana mass term between the RHNs. In the original model [8], the global symmetry is softly broken by the mixed mass term between 1 and 2 (m212 y1 2) such that a small VEV is obtained by seesaw-like formulas mM212A2v2 ; SU(2)L U( 1 )Y U( 1 )X 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 0 S 1 0 3 X 1 0 1 R 1 0 3 where MA is the pseudo-scalar mass in [8]. If MA 100 GeV and m12 scalar S which breaks the U( 1 )X symmetry. The soft term m212 is identi ed with v1 can be obtained as O( 1 ) eV. In the paper [12], the model is extended to include singlet hSi where is the Higgs mixing term, y1 2S + h:c:. It has been studied in [12] that an SM singlet fermion being charged under U( 1 )X could be a potential DM candidate. O(100) keV then In this paper we extend the model with a natural scalar Dark Matter (DM) candidate (X). In this model the global U( 1 )X symmetry is spontaneously broken down to Z2 symmetry by VEV of a new singlet scalar S. The remnant of the Z2 symmetry makes the DM candidate stable. The Z2 symmetry would be broken by quantum gravity e ect and DM would decay via e ective interaction [13]. This can be avoided if the U( 1 )X is a remnant of local symmetry at a high energy scale and we assume the Z2 symmetry is not broken. A CP odd component of S becomes the Goldstone boson and hence we study the DM annihilation from this model and compare with the current experimental sensitivity. The papers is organized as follows. In section 2 we describe the model. In section 3 we discuss the DM phenomenology and nally in section 4 we conclude. 2 The Model We discuss the extended version of the model in [8] with a scalar eld (X). We write the scalar and the RHN sectors of the particle content in table 1 The gauge singlet Yukawa interaction between the lepton doublet (LL), the doublet scalars ( 1; 2) and the RHNs ( R) can be written as L YiejLLi 2eRj Yij LLi ~ 1 Rj + H:c: We assume that the Yukawa coupling constants Yiej and Yij are real. The scalar potential can be written by V ( 1; 2; S) = m121 y1 1 m222 y2 2 m2SSyS + M X2 XyX ( y1 2S + h:c:) + 1( y1 1)2 + 2( y2 2)2 + 3( y1 1)( y2 2) + 4( y1 2)( y2 1) + S(SyS)2 + 1S y1 1SyS + 2S y2 2SyS + X (XyX)2 + 1X y1 1XyX + 2X y2 2XyX + SX SySXyX ( 3X SyXXX + H:c:): (2.1) (2.2) The Dirac mass terms of the neutrinos are generated by the small VEV of 1. According to [8, 9] we assume that the VEV of 1 is much smaller than the electroweak scale. The { 2 { vacuum stability analysis of a general scalar potential has been studied in [14]. Additionally, a remaining Z3 symmetry is also involved when U( 1 )X is broken by non-zero VEV of S. Here X is the only Z3 charged stable (scalar) particle and as a result X could be considered as a potential Dark Matter (DM) candidate. The mass term MX of X in eq. (2.2) is positive de nite which forbids X to get VEV and as a result the Z3 symmetry promotes the stability of X as a DM candidate. It has already been discussed in [12] that a CP-odd component in S becomes massless Goldstone boson. Then we write scalar elds as follows + vS. We assume X does not develop a VEV while the VEVs of 1 , 2 and 2m121v1 + 2 1v13 + v1( 1SvS2 + 3v22 + 4v2) 2 2m222v2 + 2 2v23 + v2( 2SvS2 + 3v12 + 4v1) 2 2m2SvS + 2 SvS3 + vS( 1Sv12 + 2Sv22) p p p 2 v2vS = 0; 2 v1vS = 0; 2 v1v2 = 0: We then nd that these conditions can be satis ed with v1 ' fv2; vSg and SM Higgs VEV is given as v ' v2 ' 246 GeV. From the rst one of the eq. (2.5) we nd that v1 is proportional to and of the same order with such that v1 ' p 2 v2vS 1SvS2 + ( 3 + 4)v22 2m211 : The small order of v1( ) is required to keep v2 and vS in the electroweak scale. Considering the neutrino mass scale as m 0:1 eV, the value of =v2 should be small such as =v2 O(10 12) ensuring Y as O( 1 ) such that me=v2 O(10 6). Hence v1 is considered to be smaller than the other VEVs. It also interesting to notice that = 0 restores the symmetry of the Lagrangian hence a technically natural small value of is acceptable [15, 16]. It is also interesting to notice that = 0 enhances the symmetry of the Lagrangian in the sense that we can assign arbitrary U( 1 )X charge to 1, which ensures the radiative generation of the -term is proportional to itself. Hence a small value of is technically natural [15, 16]. Now we identify mass spectra in the scalar sector. Charged scalar: in this case we calculate the mass matrix in the basis ( 1 ; 2 ) where 1 is approximately physical charged scalar while 2 is approximately NG boson absorbed by W boson. In the following we write physical charged scalar eld as H charged scalar mass matrix can be written as The charged Higgs mass can be written as m2H ' p v2( 2 vS 2v1 4v1v2) : { 3 { (2.3) (2.4) (2.5) (2.6) ical. Hence the mass matrix can be written in the basis of (h1; h2; ) as 0 pv22vv1S 0 0 1Sv1vS 0 p v2 2 p 2 0 We nd that all the masses of the mass eigenstates, Hi(i = 1; 2; 3), are at the electroweak scale and the mixings between h1 and other components are negligibly small while the h2 and can have sizable mixing. The mass eigenvalues and the mixing angle for h2 and system can be given by m2H2;H3 = 0 sin 0 cos Here H2 is the SM-like Higgs, h, and mH2 ' mh where the mixing angle between H2 and H3 is constrained as sin 0:2 by the LHC Higgs data [17{19] using the numerical analyses on the Higgs decay followed by [20, 21]. CP-odd neutral scalar: calculating the mass matrix of the pseudo-scalars in a basis (a1; a2; aS) we get the mass matrix as MA2 = p 0 v2vS v1 B vS vS v21 v2 v1 0 pv22vv1S 0 01 0 0 0 0C ; A nd three mass eigenstates, vS+p+iaS . In the last step we used the approximation, v1( ) v2; vS. We tan 2 = 1 2 from the interaction ae 5e, etc., because it interacts with the SM particles only via highlysuppressed ( v1=v2;S) mixing with the SM Higgs. Note that, in our analysis below, we approximate pseudo-scalars as A ' a1, G0 ' a2 and a ' aS since we assume v1 v2; vS in realizing small neutrino mass. Here we also discuss decoupling of the physical Goldstone boson from thermal bath where we assume it is thermalized via Higgs portal interaction. e ective interaction among the Goldstone boson a and the SM fermions HJEP05(218) where mf is the mass of the SM fermion f , and we used as ' a. The temperature, Ta, at which a decouples from thermal bath is roughly estimated by [22] (2.16) (2.17) (2.18) (2.19) collision rate expansion rate ' 22Smf2 Ta5mP L m4H2 m4H3 1; 2S where mP L denotes the Planck mass and mf should be smaller than Ta so that f is in thermal bath. The decoupling temperature is then calculated by Ta 2 GeV mH3 decoupling and does not contribute to the e ective number of active neutrinos1 [23]. Note that the Goldstone boson should be in thermal bath at temperature below that of freeze-out of DM when we consider the relic density of DM, X, is explained by the process, XX ! aa, in our analysis below. Taking minimum DM mass as 100 GeV freeze-out temperature Tf is larger than 100=xf GeV 4 GeV where xf = mDM=Tf 25. Therefore we can get Tf > Ta even with small 2S(= 0:01) as long as mH3 is not much heavier than the electroweak scale. As the phenomenology of the Higgs sector has been discussed in [8, 12, 24, 25], we concentrate on the DM phenomenology in the following analysis. 1If mH3 500 MeV and 2S 0:005, then a can make sizable contribution: Ne = 4=7 [22]. { 5 { Dark matter interaction. Firstly masses of dark matter candidates X is given by [27] 1 4vS2 2 1SH3 { 6 { m2X = M X2 + 2 1X v12 + 2 2X v22 + 2 SX 2 v S where the real and imaginary part of X has the same mass and X is taken as a complex scalar eld; this is due to remnant Z3 symmetry. The interactions relevant to DM physics are given by L 1 vS + + 1X 2 4 SSH33 + 1 vS where we ignored terms proportional to v1 since the value of VEV is tiny, SS 1S sin 1SvS, 2S 2SvS, and omitted scalar mixing sin (cos ) assuming cos 1. Thus relevant free parameters to describe DM physics are summarized as; m2H3 =(2vS), ' 1 and fmX ; mH1 ; mH3 ; mA; mH ; vS; 1X ; 2X ; SX ; 3X ; 1S; 2Sg; (3.1) (3.2) (3.3) 2000 1500 D V e G VS 1000 500 200 300 400 500 where we choose 1S;2S as free parameter instead of 1S;2S and we use SS = m2H3 =(2vS). In our analysis, we focus on several speci c scenarios for DM physics by making assumptions for model parameters to illustrate some particular processes of DM annihilations. These scenarios are given as follows: Scenario-I: 100 GeV < vS < 2000 GeV, f 1X ; 2X ; SX ; 3X ; 1S=vg through contact interaction with coupling 1X as shown gure 1-(III). Finally scenarioIV represents semi-annihilation processes XX ! XH3 as shown in gure 1-(IV). In our analysis, we assumed 2S O( 1 ) so that we can neglect the case of DM annihilation via the SM Higgs portal interaction since it is well known and constraints from direct detection experiments are strong. Relic density. Here we estimate the thermal relic density of DM for each scenario given above. The relic density is calculated numerically with micrOMEGAs 4.3.5 [30] to solve the Boltzmann equation by implementing relevant interactions. In numerical calculations we apply randomly produced parameter sets in the following parameter ranges. For all { 7 { HJEP05(218) 1.000 0.500 Scenario-III 200 400 600 800 1000 Scenario-IV in Scenario-III. Right: that for parameters on mX - 12X in Scenario-IV. scenarios we apply parameter settings as mX 2 [50; 500] GeV; 2S = 1 GeV; MH1 = MA = MH 2 [100; 1000] GeV; 2X 1; where the setting for 2X is to suppress the SM Higgs portal interactions and small value of 2S is to suppress scalar mixing. Then we set parameter region for each scenarios as follows: Scenraio I : vS 2 [100; 2000] GeV; 1S 2 [0:001; 0:1] GeV; SX;1X;3X 2 [10 8; 10 4]; MH3 2 [10; 30] GeV; (3.4) (3.5) { 8 { Then we search for the parameter sets which can accommodate with observed relic density. Here we apply an approximated region [31] In gure 2, we show parameter points on mX -vS plane which can explain the observed relic density of DM in Scenario-I. In this scenario, relic density is mostly determined by the cross section of XX ! aSaS process which depends on mX =vS via second term of the Lagrangian in eq. (3.2). Thus preferred value of vS becomes larger when DM mass increases as seen in gure 2. In left and right panel of gure 3, we respectively show parameter points on mX - SX and 1S- SX planes satisfying correct relic density in Scenario-II. In this scenario, the region mX . 100 GeV requires relatively larger SX coupling since scalar boson modes fH3H3; H1H1; AA; H H g are forbidden by our assumption for scalar boson masses. On the other hand the region mX > 100 GeV allow wider range of SX around 0:01 . SX . 1:0 since DM can annihilate into other scalar bosons if kinematically allowed. In left (right) panel of gure 4, we show parameter region on mX - 1X ( 3X ) satisfying the relic density in Scenario-III(IV). In scenario-III, DM mass should be larger than to annihilate into scalar bosons from 1 and required value of the coupling is 0:2 . 1X . 1:0 for mX 500 GeV. In scenario-IV, the required value of the coupling 3X has similar behavior as 1X in the scenario-III for mX > 100 GeV but slightly larger value. This is due to the fact that semi-annihilation process require larger cross section than that of annihilation process. Direct detection. Here we brie y discuss constraints from direct detection experiments estimating DM-nucleon scattering cross section in our model. Then we focus on our scenario-III since DM can have sizable interaction with nucleon via H2 and H3 exchange and investigate upper limit of mixing sin . The relevant interaction Lagrangian with mixing e ect is given by (3.6) (3.7) (3.8) (3.9) L 2 SX vS X X(c H3 s H2) + X mq qq(s H3 + c H2); (3.10) q v where q denote the SM quarks with mass mq, and we assumed X SX vS as in the relic density calculation. We thus obtain the following e ective Lagrangian for DM-quark interaction by integrating out H2 and H3; mq hN jqqjN i: X q=c;b;t fqN = X mN q=c;b;t hN j 12 s G a G a N i; where mN is nucleon mass and fN is the e ective coupling constant given by The heavy quark contribution is replaced by the gluon contributions such that HJEP05(218) where mH2 ' mh = 125 GeV is used. The e ective interaction can be rewritten in terms of nucleon N instead of quarks such that (3.12) (3.13) (3.14) (3.15) (3.16) (3.17) (3.18) which is obtained by calculating the triangle diagram for heavy quarks inside a loop. Then we write the trace of the stress energy tensor as follows by considering the scale anomaly; Combining eqs. (3.14) and (3.15), we get which leads = mN N N = X mqqq q 8 7 s a G G a : X q=c;b;t fqN = 0 2 X q=u;d;s 1 f N q A ; fN = + 2 9 7 9 X q=u;d;s fqN : Finally we obtain the spin independent X-N scattering cross section as follows; SI(XN ! XN ) = 1 8 2 NX f N2 m2N 2SX vS2s2c2 v2m2X 1 m2 h 1 m2H3 !2 ; where NX = mN mX =(mN + mX ) is the reduced mass of nucleon and DM. Here we consider DM-neutron scattering cross section for simplicity where that of DM-proton case gives almost similar result. In this case, we adopt the e ective coupling fn ' 0:287 (with fun = 0:0110, fdn = 0:0273, fsb = 0:0447) in estimating the cross section. In gure 5, we show DM-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of sin we take mX = 300 GeV, mH3 = 300 GeV, vS = 5000 GeV, and SX = 0:5(0:01) for red(blue) line as reference values. We nd that some parameter region is constrained by direct detection when SX is relatively large and sin > 0:01. More parameter region will be tested in future direct detection experiments. The Higgs portal interaction can be also tested by collider experiments. The interaction can be tested via searches for invisible decay of the SM Higgs for 2mX < mh 10-43 2 D 10-45 m MXR = 300 GeV MH3 = 300 GeV reference values. The current bounds from XENON1T [32] and PandaX-II [33]. while collider constraint is less signi cant compared with direct detection constraints for 2mX > mh [34{36]. Furthermore DM can be produced via heavier Higgs boson H3 if 2mX < mH3 and the possible signature will be mono-jet with missing transverse momentum as pp ! H3j ! XXj. However the production cross section will be small when the mixing e ect sin is small as we assumed in our analysis. Such a process would be tested in future LHC with su ciently large integrated luminosity while detailed analysis is beyond the scope of this paper. Indirect detection. Here we discuss possibility of indirect detection in our model by estimating thermally averaged cross section in current Universe with micrOMEGAs 4.3.5 using allowed parameter sets from relic density calculations. Since aSaS nal state is dominant in scenario-I, we focus on the other scenarios in the following. where left and right panels correspond to Scenario-II and Scenario-III/IV. In Scenario II, the cross section is mostly O(10 26)cm 3=s while some points give smaller(larger) values corresponding to the region with 2mX & (.)MH3 as a consequence of resonant e ect. The annihilation processes in the scenario provide the SM nal state via decay of H3 and fH1; H ; Ag where H3 decay gives mainly bb via mixing with the SM Higgs and the scalar bosons from second doublet gives leptons. This cross section would be tested via -ray observation like Fermi-LAT [37] as well as high energy neutrino search such as IceCube [38, 39], especially when the cross section is enhanced. In Scenario-III, the cross section is mostly O(10 26)cm 3=s and the nal states from DM annihilation include Scenario-II 10-25 D 3sm10-26 v Σ <10-27 10-28 10-25 3sD 10-26 m Right: that for Scenario-III and IV represented by red and blue points. components of 1 that are fH1; H ; Ag. Thus DM mainly annihilate into neutrinos via the decay these scalar bosons while little amount of charged lepton appear from H . Therefore constraints from indirect detection is weaker in this scenario. In Scenario-IV, the values of cross section is relatively larger due to the nature of semi-annihilation scenario. In this case nal states from DM annihilation give mostly bb via decays of H3 in the nal state. Then it would be tested by -ray search and neutrino observation as in the scenario-II. 4 Conclusion We consider a neutrino Two Higgs Doublet Model ( THDM) in which small Dirac neutrino masses are explained by small VEV, v1 O( 1 ) eV, of Higgs H1 associated with neutrino Yukawa interaction. A global U( 1 )X symmetry is introduced to forbid seesaw mechanism. The smallness of v1 proportional to soft U( 1 )X -breaking parameter m212 is technically natural. We extend the model to introduce a scalar dark matter candidate X and scalar S breaking U( 1 )X symmetry down to discrete Z2 symmetry. Both are charged under U( 1 )X . The lighter state of X is stable since it is the lightest particle with Z2 odd parity. The soft parameter m212 is replaced by hSi. The physical Goldstone boson whose dominant component is pseudoscalar part of S is shown to be phenomenologically viable due to small ratio ( O(10 9)) of v1 compared to electroweak scale VEVs of the SM Higgs and S. We study four scenarios depending on dark matter annihilation channels in the early Universe to simplify the analysis of dark matter phenomenology. In Scenario I, Goldstone modes are important. Scenario II is H3 portal. In Scenario III, the dark matter makes use of the portal interaction with 1 which generates Dirac neutrino masses. In Scenario IV the dominant interaction is 3X SyXXX + h:c: which induces semi-annihilation process of our dark matter candidate. In Scenario II, the dark matter scattering cross section with neucleons can be sizable and detected at next generation direct detection experiments. We calculated indirect detection cross section in Scenarios II, III, and IV, which can be tested by observing cosmic -ray and/or neutrinos. Acknowledgments This work is supported in part by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Research Grant NRF-2015R1A2A1A05001869 (SB). Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. ! e at a Rate of One Out of 109 Muon Decays?, Phys. Lett. B 67 (1977) Proc. 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Seungwon Baek, Arindam Das, Takaaki Nomura. Scalar dark matter search from the extended νTHDM, Journal of High Energy Physics, 2018, 205, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2018)205