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An in vitro screening assay for dental stain cleaning

Background The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model for stain removal from natural enamel for the assessment and comparison of oral hygiene products. Methods Bovine teeth (n = 8 per group) were ground/polished to provide flat enamel specimens and ferric-tannate deposits were precipitated onto the enamel surfaces. The ferric-tannate stained enamel specimens were brushed ...

Identifying a new particle with jet substructures

We investigate a potential of determining properties of a new heavy resonance of mass \( \mathcal{O}(1) \) TeV which decays to collimated jets via heavy Standard Model intermediary states, exploiting jet substructure techniques. Employing the Z gauge boson as a concrete example for the intermediary state, we utilize a “merged jet” defined by a large jet size to capture the two ...

A Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blinded Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With or Without Alum Adjuvant

Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost preexisting immune responses, providing passive protection to newborns through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. Methods. In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV ...

Translational bioinformatics in the era of real-time biomedical, health care and wellness data streams

Monitoring and modeling biomedical, health care and wellness data from individuals and converging data on a population scale have tremendous potential to improve understanding of the transition to the healthy state of human physiology to disease setting. Wellness monitoring devices and companion software applications capable of generating alerts and sharing data with health care ...

End-tidal capnographic monitoring to detect apnea episodes during flexible bronchoscopy under sedation

Background Apnea developing as a result of oversedation is a potential clinical problem in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FB) under sedation. However, there are no reports of evaluation using a standardized method of the frequency of occurrence of apnea episodes during FB under sedation. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of apnea episodes during FB ...

Alignment-free $d_2^*$ oligonucleotide frequency dissimilarity measure improves prediction of hosts from metagenomically-derived viral sequences

Viruses and their host genomes often share similar oligonucleotide frequency (ONF) patterns, which can be used to predict the host of a given virus by finding the host with the greatest ONF similarity. We comprehensively compared 11 ONF metrics using several k-mer lengths for predicting host taxonomy from among ∼32 000 prokaryotic genomes for 1427 virus isolate genomes whose true ...

Decreased physical activity is a predictor for a complicated recovery post cardiac surgery

Background Physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and physically active survivors of a cardiac event are at lower risk of recurrent events. We hypothesized that patients with a decreased PA, undergoing cardiac surgery, are at higher risk for a postoperative complicated recovery (PCR). Methods Three thousand three hundred eighty two patients undergoing ...

Methods and design of a 10-week multi-component family meals intervention: a two group quasi-experimental effectiveness trial

Background Given the ongoing childhood obesity public health crisis and potential protective effect of family meals, there is need for additional family meals research, specifically experimental studies with expanded health outcomes that focus on the at-risk populations in highest need of intervention. Future research, specifically intervention work, would also benefit from an ...

Nanoparticle exposure reactivates latent herpesvirus and restores a signature of acute infection

Background Inhalation of environmental (nano) particles (NP) as well as persistent herpesvirus-infection are potentially associated with chronic lung disease and as both are omnipresent in human society a coincidence of these two factors is highly likely. We hypothesized that NP-exposure of persistently herpesvirus-infected cells as a second hit might disrupt immune control of ...

The BioC-BioGRID corpus: full text articles annotated for curation of protein–protein and genetic interactions

A great deal of information on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of model organisms has been reported in the scientific literature. However, this data is typically described in free text form and is not readily amenable to computational analyses. To this end, the BioGRID database systematically curates the biomedical literature for genetic and protein interaction data. This ...

D = 3 unification of curious supergravities

We consider the dimensional reduction to D = 3 of four maximal-rank super-gravities which preserve minimal supersymmetry in D = 11, 7, 5 and 4. Such “curious” theories were investigated some time ago, and the four-dimensional one corresponds to an \( \mathcal{N}=1 \) supergravity with 7 chiral multiplets spanning the seven-disk manifold. Recently, this latter theory provided ...

Effect of handrubbing using locally-manufactured alcohol-based handrubs in paediatric wards in Harare, Zimbabwe

We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 ...

Detection of West Nile virus in six mosquito species in synchrony with seroconversion among sentinel chickens in India

Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus maintained in mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Although humans are accidental hosts, fatal outcomes following WNV infection have been reported from India. Studies have identified WNV as an important etiological agent causing acute encephalitis syndrome in Assam, Northeast India. While circulation of WNV is evident, the role ...

Redeploying β-Lactam Antibiotics as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Innovative approaches to the use of existing antibiotics is an important strategy in efforts to address the escalating antimicrobial resistance crisis. We report a new approach to the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections by demonstrating that oxacillin can be used to significantly attenuate the virulence of MRSA despite the pathogen being ...

Accuracy of echocardiographic area-length method in chronic myocardial infarction: comparison with cardiac CT in pigs

Background We evaluated echocardiographic area-length methods to measure left ventricle (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) in parasternal short axis views in comparison with cardiac computed tomography (CT) in pigs with chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male farm pigs with surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n = 9) or sham operation ...

The Politics of Global Public Health in Fragile States and Ungoverned Territories

The reasons for global health crises and how the world responds to them have dramatically changed over the last half century. Increasingly, natural disasters result in failure of public health and security systems leading to preventable conflict, unconventional war and unprecedented population migration. While scientific expertise exists to mitigate these failures in fragile states ...

Prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives: a cross-sectional survey

Background The health and wellbeing of midwives are important considerations for workforce retention and quality care. The occurrence and relationships among mental health conditions such as burnout and depression have received little attention. We investigated the prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives. Methods An online survey was conducted ...

Existence of positive solutions of singular fractional differential equations with infinite-point boundary conditions

Using height functions of the nonlinear term on some bounded sets and considering integrations of these height functions, we obtain the existence of positive solutions for a class of singular fractional differential equations with infinite-point boundary value conditions.

Men’s Experiences with the Hockey Fans in Training Physical Activity and Healthy Living Program

Background: Increasing rates of chronic disease, especially in men, have led to an increased effort to implement lifestyle interventions focusing on healthy eating and physical activity. Men are underrepresented in lifestyle programs and some studies have observed that males prefer men-only programs that occur in the context of sports. This paper reviews men’s feedback regarding ...

Risk factors for mortality in TB patients: a 10-year electronic record review in a South African province

Background Since 1990, reduction of tuberculosis (TB) mortality has been lower in South Africa than in other high-burden countries in Africa. This research investigated the influence of routinely captured demographic and clinical or programme variables on death in TB patients in the Free State Province. Methods A retrospective review of case information captured in the Electronic ...

Amoebic liver abscess in northern Sri Lanka: first report of immunological and molecular confirmation of aetiology

Background Since 1985, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) has been a public health problem in northern Sri Lanka. Clinicians arrive at a diagnosis based on clinical and ultrasonographic findings, which cannot differentiate pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) from ALA. As the treatment and outcome of the ALA and PLA differs, determining the etiological agent is crucial. Methods All clinically ...

Perspectives, preferences and needs regarding early prediction of preeclampsia in Dutch pregnant women: a qualitative study

Background To improve early risk-identification in pregnancy, research on prediction models for common pregnancy complications is ongoing. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to explore pregnant women’s perceptions, preferences and needs regarding prediction models for first trimester screening for common pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, to support future ...

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis care among health workers in Southern Mozambique

Background Tuberculosis (TB) control is more likely to be achieved if the level of knowledge regarding TB is increased among health workers managing high-risk groups. No formal assessments regarding knowledge, attitudes and practises of health workers about TB have been published for Mozambique, a country facing challenges in the fight against TB, with a fragile health system and ...

The predictive value of 18 F-FDG PET-CT for assessing the clinical outcomes in locally advanced NSCLC patients after a new induction treatment: low-dose fractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy

Background Patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) have poor prognosis despite several multimodal approaches. Recently, low-dose fractionated radiotherapy concurrent to the induction chemotherapy (IC-LDRT) has been proposed to further improve the effects of chemotherapy and prognosis. Until now, the predictive value of metabolic response after IC-LDRT ...

Corneal hysteresis in patients with glaucoma-like optic discs, ocular hypertension and glaucoma

Background To compare corneal hysteresis (CH) measurements between patients with glaucoma, ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma-like optic discs (GLD)- defined as a cup to disc ratio greater than or equal to 0.6 with normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual fields. The secondary aim was to investigate whether corneal resistance factor (CRF) and central corneal thickness (CCT) ...