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Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review

Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important ...

Transparency to curb corruption? Concepts, measures and empirical merit

Policymakers and researchers often cite the importance of government transparency for strengthening accountability, reducing corruption, and enhancing good governance. Yet despite the prevalence of such claims, definitional precision is lacking. As a consequence, approaches to measurement have often cast a wide net, in many cases tapping into the capacity of government institutions ...

Performance improvement via bagging in probabilistic prediction of chaotic time series using similarity of attractors and LOOCV predictable horizon

Recently, we have presented a method of probabilistic prediction of chaotic time series. The method employs learning machines involving strong learners capable of making predictions with desirably long predictable horizons, where, however, usual ensemble mean for making representative prediction is not effective when there are predictions with shorter predictable horizons. Thus, ...

Pediatric out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by helicopter emergency medical service, does it has added value compared to regular emergency medical service?

Purpose To determine the outcome of out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the advanced life support (ALS) procedures provided in pediatrics by the Rotterdam Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) Methods Retrospective evaluation of all pediatric (0–17 years) OOH cardiopulmonary arrests within a 6-year period and attended by the Rotterdam HEMS team. ...

Branching morphology, vascular bundle arrangement and ontogenetic development in leaf insertion zones and ramifications of three arborescent Araliaceae species

Key message A conspicuous ‘finger-like’ branching morphology is described for three arborescent Araliaceae species with a focus on the three-dimensional vascular bundle arrangement in leaf insertion and stem–branch attachment regions during ontogenetic development. Abstract The central aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the structure and development in leaf ...

Side-to-side asymmetries in landing mechanics from a drop vertical jump test are not related to asymmetries in knee joint laxity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Purpose Asymmetries in knee joint biomechanics and increased knee joint laxity in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are considered risk factors for re-tear or early onset of osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the relationship between these factors has not been established. The aim of the study was to compare knee mechanics during landing from a ...

Unraveling the Competence Development of Corporate Social Responsibility Leaders: The Importance of Peer Learning, Learning Goal Orientation, and Learning Climate

The implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) objectives within companies is often managed by a CSR leader or a small team of CSR leaders. The effectiveness of these CSR leaders depends to a large extent on their competencies. Previous studies have identified the competencies these professionals need, yet it remains unclear how these competencies can be developed. ...

Online Price Discrimination and EU Data Privacy Law

Online shops could offer each website customer a different price. Such personalized pricing can lead to advanced forms of price discrimination based on individual characteristics of consumers, which may be provided, obtained, or assumed. An online shop can recognize customers, for instance through cookies, and categorize them as price-sensitive or price-insensitive. Subsequently, ...

Palaeo-ecological and archaeological analysis of two Dutch Celtic fields (Zeijen-Noordse Veld and Wekerom-Lunteren): solving the puzzle of local Celtic field bank formation

Celtic fields are the best preserved and most widely distributed type of prehistoric agricultural landscape in the Netherlands, and occur throughout north-western Europe. In this contribution, data from two excavated Dutch Celtic fields are used to explain the process of bank formation and to unravel the agricultural regime of Celtic fields. To this end, traditional archaeological ...

Efficacy and Safety of SHP465 Mixed Amphetamine Salts in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Forced-Dose Clinical Study

Objective The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Eligible adults [aged 18–55 years; meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ADHD criteria; baseline ADHD ...

A technological framework for running and analyzing animal head turning experiments

Head turning experiments are widely used to test the cognition of both human infants and non-human animal species. Monitoring head turns allows researchers to non-invasively assess attention to acoustic or visual stimuli. In the majority of head turning experiments, the head direction analyses have been accomplished manually, which is extremely labor intensive and can be affected ...

About the right to be ill

The article raises the issue of ‘the right to be ill’, formulated by Tadeusz Kielanowski, a Polish physician and humanist. According to him, the right to health should be supplemented by the principle which would serve the protection of people with diseases or disabilities. One-sided interpretation of ‘the right to health’ may result in various forms of intolerance and ...

Favorable Impact on Stress-Related Behaviors by Modulating Plasma Butyrylcholinesterase

In the last decade, it has become clear that the neuropeptide “ghrelin” and its principal receptor have a large impact on anxiety and stress. Our recent studies have uncovered a link between plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and ghrelin. BChE actually turns out to be the key regulator of this peptide. This article reviews our recent work on manipulating ghrelin levels in mouse ...

First molecular characterization of canine parvovirus strains in Sardinia, Italy

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is responsible of acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in young dogs. CPV-2 emerged in 1978 in the USA, but new antigenic types, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, have completely replaced the original type. In this study, we analyzed 81 animals collected in Sardinia, Italy. The VP2 sequence analysis of 27 positive samples showed that all antigenic CPV-2 types are ...

Surgical reconstruction is a cost-efficient treatment option for isolated PCL injuries

Purpose and hypothesis The main purpose of the study is to put focus on the costs related to treating posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries and the possible implications of chosen treatment strategy to the respective institutions and society. Methods Costs of treating PCL injuries nonoperatively and for both single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) reconstruction were ...

Fractional Er:YAG laser assisting topical betamethasone solution in combination with NB-UVB for resistant non-segmental vitiligo

Resistant non-segmental vitiligo is difficult to be treated. Ablative erbium-YAG (Er:YAG) laser has been used in the treatment of vitiligo, but the ablation of entire epidermis frustrated the compliance of patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fractional Er:YAG laser followed by topical betamethasone and narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy in ...

Nightmares in the general population: identifying potential causal factors

Background Nightmares are inherently distressing, prevent restorative sleep, and are associated with a number of psychiatric problems, but have rarely been the subject of empirical study. Negative affect, linked to stressful events, is generally considered the key trigger of nightmares; hence nightmares have most often been considered in the context of post-traumatic stress ...

Association between chronic conditions and health-related quality of life: differences by level of urbanization in Peru

Purpose To evaluate the role of urbanization as an effect modifier for the association between specific chronic conditions and number of conditions with health-related quality of life (QOL). Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from the CRONICAS Cohort Study conducted in Lima (highly urbanized), Tumbes (semi-urban), as well as rural and urban sites in Puno. Exposures of ...