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Individual differences in eye blink rate predict both transient and tonic pupil responses during reversal learning

The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil ...

Evaluation of the Compatibility of Repair Materials for Concrete Structures

This study evaluates the compatibility of repair materials for concrete bridge decks. A new compatibility test set-up was designed and tested based on the concrete bridge deck cracking and delamination mechanism theory. The repair materials used in this study include lab formulated inorganic nano-aluminum silicates and commercially available organic two-part epoxy systems. Two ...

Closing Corn Yield Gaps via Improved Management: A Systems Approach

Three corn research trials were conducted during the 2016 growing season. Two studies were conducted at Scandia, KS, (dryland and irrigated) and one at Topeka, KS (dryland). The objective of these trials was to investigate the contribution of different farming systems for closing corn yield gaps. Each experiment consisted of five treatments: common practices (CP), comprehensive ...

Trade Union Trade-Offs: Unions, Voters, and the Rise of Right-Wing Populism

Trade union membership in European Union member states has been in decline for decades, which has many concerned about the future of workers’ rights. While existing work examines the reasons for this decline, my research shifts the focus from union density to the functions unions serve and how these functions affect and are affected by changing electoral behavior. I examine the ...

Tagmarks

Hashtags are trending, and not just on social media. By 2016, producers had federally registered hundreds of hashtags as trademarks and asserted exclusive rights in thousands of others. But by failing to pay close attention to context and consumer perception, the USPTO may have overlooked issues that render many hashtag trademarks (“tagmarks”) unregistrable. This article provides a ...

Vulnerability of specialty crops to short-term climatic variability and adaptation strategies in the Midwestern USA

While the Midwestern USA ranks among the world’s most important corn-soybean production regions, the area also produces a variety of high-value specialty crops. These crops are an important component of the region’s rural economy with an estimated value of $1.8 billion in 2012. More profitable per-acre than many row crops, specialty crops also have higher production-related risks. ...

Imperial Cryptonomy: Colonial Specters and Portuguese Exceptionalism in Isabela Figueiredo's "Caderno de Memórias Coloniais"

This essay proposes a reading of Isabela Figueiredo’s Caderno de Memórias Coloniais, namely its relation to Portugal’s contemporary exceptionalist narrative concerning its imperial past, part of what Miguel Vale de Almeida has called “right-wing multiculturalism.” As Figueiredo has stated in interviews, her memoires aim to confront and interrupt how Portuguese colonialism is ...

Universal detection of phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. by TaqMan singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR with dual priming oligonucleotides

Phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. are bacteria that cause many economically important plant diseases worldwide. TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays have been utilized to universally detect phytoplasmas or Xylella fastidiosa. To develop a superior universal qPCR method, we used a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) with two annealing sites as ...

Sex Wars Revisited: A Rhetorical Economy of Sex Industry Opposition

This paper attempts to sketch a ‘rhetorical economy’ of feminist opposition to the sex industry, via the case study of debates around Amnesty International’s 2016 policy supporting decriminalisation as the best way to ensure sex workers’ human rights and safety. Drawing on Ahmed’s concept of ‘affective economies’ in which emotions circulate as capital, I explore an emotionally ...

Customized microscale approach for optimizing two-phase bio-oxidations of alkanes with high reproducibility

Numerous challenges remain to achieve industrially competitive space–time yields for bio-oxidations. The ability to rapidly screen bioconversion reactions for characterization and optimization is of major importance in bioprocess development and biocatalyst selection; studies at conventional lab scale are time consuming and labor intensive with low experimental throughput. The ...

Does Estuary Restoration Design Alter the Fine Scale Movements of Grey Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) in Southern California?

Restored estuaries in southern California are limited in size and shape by fragmentation from human development, which can in turn restrict habitat use. Thus, it is important to assess how habitat design affects how fish use restored estuaries. Acoustic telemetry tracking from prior studies revealed that Grey Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) used primarily the eelgrass ecotone ...

The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats

We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure ...

Interpretation of Offshore Crustal Movements Following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by the Combined Effect of Afterslip and Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation

On the 11th March 2011, a megathrust event, called the Tohoku-oki earthquake, occurred at the North American-Pacific plate interface off northeast Japan. Transient crustal movements following this earthquake were clearly observed by a dense GPS network (GEONET) on land and a sparse GPS/Acoustic positioning network on seafloor. The observed crustal movements are in accordance with ...

Developmental expression of membrane type 4-matrix metalloproteinase (Mt4-mmp/Mmp17) in the mouse embryo

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a ...

Topological organization and dynamic regulation of human tRNA genes during macrophage differentiation

The human genome is hierarchically organized into local and long-range structures that help shape cell-type-specific transcription patterns. Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (tDNAs), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) and encode RNA molecules responsible for translation, are dispersed throughout the genome and, in many cases, linearly organized into genomic clusters ...

Assessment of personal care and medical robots from older adults’ perspective

Demographic reports indicate that population of older adults is growing significantly over the world and in particular in developed nations. Consequently, there are a noticeable number of demands for certain services such as health-care systems and assistive medical robots and devices. In today’s world, different types of robots play substantial roles specifically in medical sector ...

A single Danio rerio hars gene encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetases

Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS) is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility ...

Optimal design and management of chlorination in drinking water networks: a multi-objective approach using Genetic Algorithms and the Pareto optimality concept

This paper presents the development of multi-objective Genetic Algorithms to optimize chlorination design and management in drinking water networks (DWN). Three objectives have been considered: the improvement of the chlorination uniformity (healthy objective), the minimization of chlorine booster stations number, and the injected chlorine mass (economic objectives). The problem ...

Comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy using simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB-VMAT) of 45 Gy/55 Gy in 25 fractions with conventional radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancers: a propensity score case-matched analysis

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy using simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB-VMAT) of 45 Gy/55 Gy in 25 fractions with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D–CRT) in preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancers. In the propensity score-matching analysis of 1:2, we selected 60 patients from the SIB-VMAT group and 120patients ...

A nice surprise? Predictive processing and the active pursuit of novelty

Recent work in cognitive and computational neuroscience depicts human brains as devices that minimize prediction error signals: signals that encode the difference between actual and expected sensory stimulations. This raises a series of puzzles whose common theme concerns a potential misfit between this bedrock informationtheoretic vision and familiar facts about the attractions of ...