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Recrystallization and grain growth of a nano/ultrafine structured austenitic stainless steel during annealing under high hydrostatic pressure

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure applied during annealing on the processes of recrystallization and grain growth in nanostructured austenitic stainless steel 316LVM. The nanostructures were obtained by profile rolling to a total strain of 3.4 and by high-pressure torsion to a total strain of 79. These processes resulted in...

The tempo and mode of the taxonomic correction process: How taxonomists have corrected and recorrected North American bird species over the last 127 years

While studies of taxonomy usually focus on species description, there is also a taxonomic correction process that retests and updates existing species circumscriptions on the basis of new evidence. These corrections may themselves be subsequently retested and recorrected. We studied this correction process by using the Check-List of North and Middle American Birds, a well-known...

Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars at the Eddington limit: a study of the 2016 outburst of SMC X-3

Aims. We study the temporal and spectral characteristics of SMC X-3 during its recent (2016) outburst to probe accretion onto highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) at the Eddington limit.Methods. We obtained XMM-Newton observations of SMC X-3 and combined them with long-term observations by Swift. We performed a detailed analysis of the temporal and spectral behavior of the...

Comprehensive long-term efficacy and safety of recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (velmanase alfa) treatment in patients with alpha-mannosidosis

IntroductionLong-term outcome data provide important insights into the clinical utility of enzyme replacement therapies. Such data are presented for velmanase alfa in the treatment of alpha-mannosidosis (AM).MethodsPatient data (n = 33; 14 adults, 19 paediatric) from the clinical development programme for velmanase alfa were integrated in this prospectively-designed analysis of...

The relevance of non-stationarities and non-Gaussianities in vibration fatigue

In classical fatigue of materials, the frequency contents of dynamic loading are well below the natural frequencies of the observed structure or test specimen. However, when dealing with vibration fatigue the frequency contents of dynamic loading and structure's dynamic response overlap, resulting in amplified stress loads of the structure. For such cases, frequency counting...

Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial

Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. Objectives This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety...

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex plays a role in the anhedonia-like phenotype after spared nerve injury

Although depressive symptoms including anhedonia (i.e., loss of pleasure) frequently accompany pain, little is known about the risk factors contributing to individual differences in pain-induced anhedonia. In this study, we examined if signaling of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) contribute to individual differences...

Effects of dietary intake patterns from 1 to 4 years on BMI z-score and body shape at age of 6 years: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

PurposeTo assess the association between dietary intake patterns from 1 to 4 years and BMI and body shape at age of 6 years.MethodsThis longitudinal study was based on 3374 Brazilian children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. We used previously described dietary patterns from 1 to 4 years as the main exposure. We defined body shape using scores for corpulence (a recently...

The potential contribution of disruptive low-carbon innovations to 1.5 °C climate mitigation

This paper investigates the potential for consumer-facing innovations to contribute emission reductions for limiting warming to 1.5 °C. First, we show that global integrated assessment models which characterise transformation pathways consistent with 1.5 °C mitigation are limited in their ability to analyse the emergence of novelty in energy end-use. Second, we introduce concepts...

Simplified path integral for supersymmetric quantum mechanics and type-A trace anomalies

AbstractParticles in a curved space are classically described by a nonlinear sigma model action that can be quantized through path integrals. The latter require a precise regularization to deal with the derivative interactions arising from the nonlinear kinetic term. Recently, for maximally symmetric spaces, simplified path integrals have been developed: they allow to trade the...

Dispersion Properties of Explicit Finite Element Methods for Wave Propagation Modelling on Tetrahedral Meshes

We analyse the dispersion properties of two types of explicit finite element methods for modelling acoustic and elastic wave propagation on tetrahedral meshes, namely mass-lumped finite element methods and symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods, both combined with a suitable Lax–Wendroff time integration scheme. The dispersion properties are obtained semi...

Comparison of software tools for kinetic evaluation of chemical degradation data

BackgroundFor evaluating the fate of xenobiotics in the environment, a variety of degradation or environmental metabolism experiments are routinely conducted. The data generated in such experiments are evaluated by optimizing the parameters of kinetic models in a way that the model simulation fits the data. No comparison of the main software tools currently in use has been...

Nickel-catalyzed multicomponent heterocyclization of 2,4-pentanedione to sulfanylmethyl-1H-pyrazoles

Open image in new windowA one-pot synthesis of new sulfanylmethyl-substituted 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazoles with fungicidal activity was based on a nickelcatalyzed four-component condensation of 2,4-pentanedione with formaldehyde, thiols, and hydrazine hydrate.

Transactional costs of the interaction between business and government as a threat to the economic security of the state

The article considers the costs of the interaction between the state and business as a threat to the development of the economy of the Russian Federation from the point of view of ensuring economic security. The authors identified significant obstacles both from the business and from the government side, which pose a threat to economic security. The study is of interest for the...

Characterization of genetic changes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus

The extensive use of daptomycin (DAP) for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the last decade has led to the emergence of DAP non-susceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus strains. A better understanding of the molecular changes underlying DAP-non-susceptibility is required for early diagnosis and intervention with alternate combination...

Flotillin proteins recruit sphingosine to membranes and maintain cellular sphingosine-1-phosphate levels

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important lipid signalling molecule. S1P is produced via intracellular phosphorylation of sphingosine (Sph). As a lipid with a single fatty alkyl chain, Sph may diffuse rapidly between cellular membranes and through the aqueous phase. Here, we show that the absence of microdomains generated by multimeric assemblies of flotillin proteins results...

HIV-1 genetic transmission networks among men who have sex with men in Kunming, China

Background Yunnan has the greatest share of reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases in China. In recent years, HIV prevalence and incidence remained stubbornly high in men who have sex with men (MSM). To follow the dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic among MSM, HIV-1 genetic characteristics and genetic transmission networks were...