Evaluation of the practicability and virological performance of finger-stick whole-blood HIV self-testing in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa

Background Opportunities for HIV testing could be enhanced by offering HIV self-testing (HIVST) in populations that fear stigma and discrimination when accessing conventional HIV counselling and testing in health care facilities. Field experience with HIVST has not yet been reported in French-speaking African countries. Methods The practicability of HIVST was assessed using the ...

Gastrointestinal safety of etoricoxib in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis

Objective To ascertain if etoricoxib increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events (GAEs) compared with placebo, diclofenac, and naproxen in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Studies were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to August 2017. Randomized Clinical Trials ...

Natural convection heat transfer in an oscillating vertical cylinder

This paper studies the heat transfer analysis caused due to free convection in a vertically oscillating cylinder. Exact solutions are determined by applying the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. Expressions for temperature distribution and velocity field corresponding to cosine and sine oscillations are obtained. The solutions that have been obtained for velocity are presented ...

Quality of life in mucopolysaccharidoses: construction of a specific measure using the focus group technique

Objective To describe the perceptions of patients, their caregivers, and their healthcare providers to the development of a new specific instrument for assessment of the quality of life (QoL) in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) using a qualitative focus group (FG) design. FGs were held in two Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro). Results Three versions ...

Predicting effective pro-apoptotic anti-leukaemic drug combinations using co-operative dynamic BH3 profiling

The BH3-only apoptosis agonists BAD and NOXA target BCL-2 and MCL-1 respectively and co-operate to induce apoptosis. On this basis, therapeutic drugs targeting BCL-2 and MCL-1 might have enhanced activity if used in combination. We identified anti-leukaemic drugs sensitising to BCL-2 antagonism and drugs sensitising to MCL-1 antagonism using the technique of dynamic BH3 profiling, ...

Multiple enhancer regions govern the transcription of CCN2 during embryonic development

CCN2 is a critical matricellular protein that is expressed in several cells with major implications in physiology and different pathologies. However, the transcriptional regulation of this gene remains obscure. We used the Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements browser (ENCODE) to visualise the region spanning from 300 kb upstream to the CCN2 start site in silico in order to identify ...

Screening for latent and active tuberculosis infection in the elderly at admission to residential care homes: A cost-effectiveness analysis in an intermediate disease burden area

Background Tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly remains a challenge in intermediate disease burden areas like Hong Kong. Given a higher TB burden in the elderly and limited impact of current case-finding strategy by patient-initiated pathway, proactive screening approaches for the high-risk group could be optimal and increasingly need targeted economic evaluations. In this study, we ...

Using Hidden Markov Models to characterise intermittent social behaviour in fish shoals

The movement of animals in groups is widespread in nature. Understanding this phenomenon presents an important problem in ecology with many applications that range from conservation to robotics. Underlying all group movements are interactions between individual animals and it is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms of this social behaviour. To date, despite promising ...

Off-hours presentation is associated with short-term mortality but not with long-term mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis

Background The association between off-hours presentation and mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of off-hours presentation on short- and long-term mortality among STEMI patients. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to 10 July ...

Loss of TLR4 in mouse Müller cells inhibits both MyD88-dependent and –independent signaling

Müller cells are key to metabolic and ionic regulation in the retina. They also produce a number of inflammatory mediators and are significantly affected in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in retinal Müller cells, we crossed TLR4 floxed with PDGFRα-Cre mice to eliminate TLR4 in retinal Müller cells. We performed Western blotting and ...

Chemical reaction network designs for asynchronous logic circuits

Chemical reaction networks (CRNs) are a versatile language for describing the dynamical behaviour of chemical kinetics, capable of modelling a variety of digital and analogue processes. While CRN designs for synchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed and their implementation in DNA demonstrated, a physical realisation of these devices is difficult because of their ...

Charmonia production from b-hadron decays at LHC with $k_T$ -factorization: $J/\psi$ , $\psi (2S)$ and $J/\psi + Z$

We consider the production of $J/\psi$ and $\psi (2S)$ mesons originating from the decays of b-flavored hadrons at the LHC using the $k_T$-factorization approach. Our analysis covers both inclusive charmonia production and production of $J/\psi$ mesons in association with Z bosons. We apply the transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon density in a proton ...

An empirical comparison of the measurement properties of the EQ-5D-5L, DEMQOL-U and DEMQOL-Proxy-U for older people in residential care

Purpose This study aimed to empirically compare the measurement properties of self-reported and proxy-reported (in cases of severe cognitive impairment) generic (EQ-5D-5L) and condition-specific (DEMQOL-U and DEMQOL-Proxy-U) preference-based HRQoL instruments in residential care, where the population is characterised by older people with high rates of cognitive impairment, dementia ...

The LRRK2 signalling system

The LRRK2 gene is a major contributor to genetic risk for Parkinson’s disease and understanding the biology of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, the protein product of this gene) is an important goal in Parkinson’s research. LRRK2 is a multi-domain, multi-activity enzyme and has been implicated in a wide range of signalling events within the cell. Because of the complexities ...

Immunocontraceptive target repertoire defined by systematic identification of sperm membrane alloantigens in a single species

Sperm competence in animal fertilization requires the collective activities of numerous sperm-specific proteins that are typically alloimmunogenic in females. Consequently, sperm membrane alloantigens are potential targets for contraceptives that act by blocking the proteins’ functions in gamete interactions. Here we used a targeted proteomics approach to identify the major ...

The relationship between observational scale and explained variance in benthic communities

This study addresses the impact of spatial scale on explaining variance in benthic communities. In particular, the analysis estimated the fraction of community variation that occurred at a spatial scale smaller than the sampling interval (i.e., the geographic distance between samples). This estimate is important because it sets a limit on the amount of community variation that can ...

Injury mechanisms, patterns and outcomes of older polytrauma patients—An analysis of the Dutch Trauma Registry

Background Polytrauma patients nowadays tend to be older due to the growth of the elderly population and its improved mobility. The aim of this study was to compare demographics, injury patterns, injury mechanisms and outcomes between younger and older polytrauma patients. Methods Data from polytrauma (ISS≥16) patients between 2009 and 2014 were extracted from the Dutch trauma ...

Correction to: Parametric Imaging of [11C]Flumazenil Binding in the Rat Brain

The name of the second author was incorrectly cited and is corrected now, as displayed here.

The effects of lasers on bond strength to ceramic materials: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Lasers have recently been introduced as an alternative means of conditioning dental ceramic surfaces in order to enhance their adhesive strength to cements and other materials. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to review and quantitatively analyze the available literature in order to determine which bond protocols and laser types are the most effective. A search ...

Analysis of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Learning Curve and Its Influence on Procedure Safety and Perioperative Complications

Purpose Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become an attractive bariatric procedure with promising treatment effects yet amount of data regarding institutional learning process is limited. Materials and Methods Retrospective study included patients submitted to LSG at academic teaching hospital. Patients were divided into groups every 100 consecutive patients. LSG ...

The performance of stroke survivors in turning-while-walking while carrying out a concurrent cognitive task compared with controls

Background Turning-while-walking is one of the commonest causes of falls in stroke survivors. It involves cognitive processing and may be challenging when performed concurrently with a cognitive task. Previous studies of dual-tasking involving turning-while-walking in stroke survivors show that the performance of physical tasks is compromised. However, the design of those studies ...

Mouse decellularised liver scaffold improves human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells

Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment of liver failure but donor organ shortage limits its availability. Stem cells are highly expandable and have the potential to differentiate into any specialist cell. Use of patient-derived induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) has the additional advantage for organ regeneration therapies by removing the need for immunosuppression. ...