#### Threshold corrections in heterotic flux compactifications

We compute the one-loop threshold corrections to the gauge and gravitational couplings for a large class of $\mathcal{N}=2$ non-Kähler heterotic compactifications with three-form flux, consisting in principal two-torus bundles over K3 surfaces. We obtain the results as sums of BPS-states contributions, depending on the topological data of the bundle. We analyse also the ...

#### Applying artificial intelligence to disease staging: Deep learning for improved staging of diabetic retinopathy

Purpose Disease staging involves the assessment of disease severity or progression and is used for treatment selection. In diabetic retinopathy, disease staging using a wide area is more desirable than that using a limited area. We investigated if deep learning artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to grade diabetic retinopathy and determine treatment and prognosis. Methods ...

#### Longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescence: Migrations towards different weight cluster

This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescents, specifically their migrations towards a different weight cluster. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year study. A clustering Self-Organized Maps Analysis was performed to visualize changes in subjects’ characteristics between the first and second ...

#### Water immersion decreases sympathetic skin response during color–word Stroop test

Water immersion alters the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response in humans. The effect of water immersion on executive function and ANS responses related to executive function tasks was unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether water immersion alters ANS response during executive tasks. Fourteen healthy participants performed color–word-matching Stroop tasks ...

#### Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-986142 in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis enhances efficacy of agents representing clinical standard-of-care

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren’s syndrome. In the present ...

#### A novel surveillance approach for disaster mental health

Background Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1) identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to ...

#### MRI-based patient-specific human carotid atherosclerotic vessel material property variations in patients, vessel location and long-term follow up

Background Image-based computational models are widely used to determine atherosclerotic plaque stress/strain conditions and investigate their association with plaque progression and rupture. However, patient-specific vessel material properties are in general lacking in those models, limiting the accuracy of their stress/strain measurements. A noninvasive approach of combining in ...

#### Atrophy of gluteus maximus among women with a history of chronic low back pain

Background Although the relationship between low back pain (LBP) and the size of certain trunk muscles has been extensively studied, the relationship between gluteus maximus (GM) size and LBP has been only minimally examined. Determining whether such a relationship exists would help improve our understanding of the etiology of LBP, and possibly provide a rationale for the use of ...

#### Attitudes and perceptions towards novel objective measures of ARV-based vaginal ring use: Results from a global stakeholder survey

Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM) and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the ...

#### Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of mortality in relation to malaria incidence in Western Kenya

Introduction The effect of malaria exposure on mortality using health facility incidence data as a measure of transmission has not been well investigated. Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) routinely capture data on mortality, interventions and other household related indicators, offering a unique platform for estimating and monitoring the incidence-mortality ...

#### Complications after hip fracture surgery: are they preventable?

Purpose Surgery for hip fractures is frequently followed by complications that hinder the rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence rate and type of complications, including mortality, after hip fracture surgery, and to identify the risk factors of these complications that may be amenable to prevention. Methods Prospective cohort study of all ...

#### Ultrasound diagnosis of transverse sinus hypoplasia using flow profiles of the internal jugular vein

Accurate diagnosis of subtypes of transverse sinus (TS) hypoplasia requires more expensive methods like magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We hypothesized ultrasound findings of the internal jugular vein (IJV) can be surrogate indicators for diagnosis of TS hypoplasia. MR images were reviewed in 131 subjects to evaluate TS diameter and the location and degree of venous flow stenosis ...

#### A new analysis of heart rate variability in the assessment of fetal parasympathetic activity: An experimental study in a fetal sheep model

Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a recognized tool in the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Indeed, both time and spectral analysis techniques enable us to obtain indexes that are related to the way the ANS regulates the heart rate. However, these techniques are limited in terms of the lack of thresholds of the numerical indexes, which is primarily ...

#### Direct medical cost associated with diabetic retinopathy severity in type 2 diabetes in Singapore

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision-loss globally among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Information on the economic burden of DR in Singapore is limited. We aim to identify the total annual direct medical costs of DR at different stages, and to examine factors influencing the costs. Four hundreds and seventy T2DM patients who attended the Diabetes Centre in a ...

#### Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders

Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight ...

#### Prognostic score in patients with recurrent or metastatic carcinoma of the head and neck treated with cetuximab and chemotherapy

Despite modern treatment approaches, survival of patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains low and it is difficult to identify patients who derive optimal benefit from treatment. We therefore analyzed which commonly available laboratory and clinical parameters may help improve the prognostication in this patient group. This ...

#### The rural pipeline to longer-term rural practice: General practitioners and specialists

Background Rural medical workforce shortage contributes to health disadvantage experienced by rural communities worldwide. This study aimed to determine the regional results of an Australian Government sponsored national program to enhance the Australian rural medical workforce by recruiting rural background students and establishing rural clinical schools (RCS). In particular, we ...

#### Spike patterning in oxytocin neurons: Capturing physiological behaviour with Hodgkin-Huxley and integrate-and-fire models

Integrate-and-fire (IF) models can provide close matches to the discharge activity of neurons, but do they oversimplify the biophysical properties of the neurons? A single compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of the oxytocin neuron has previously been developed, incorporating biophysical measurements of channel properties obtained in vitro. A simpler modified integrate-and-fire ...

#### A neural model of hierarchical reinforcement learning

We develop a novel, biologically detailed neural model of reinforcement learning (RL) processes in the brain. This model incorporates a broad range of biological features that pose challenges to neural RL, such as temporally extended action sequences, continuous environments involving unknown time delays, and noisy/imprecise computations. Most significantly, we expand the model ...

#### Expression patterns of key Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway components in the developing and adult mouse midbrain and in the MN9D cell line

The temporal dynamic expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and signaling during early midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development is one of the key players in establishing mDA progenitor diversity. However, whether SHH signaling is also required during later developmental stages and in mature mDA neurons is less understood. We study the expression of SHH receptors Ptch1 and Gas1 ...

#### Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation ...

#### Synthesis and evaluation of L-arabinose-based cationic glycolipids as effective vectors for pDNA and siRNA in vitro

Glycolipids might become a new type of promising non-viral gene delivery systems because of their low cytotoxicity, structural diversity, controllable aqua- and lipo-solubility, appropriate density and distribution of positive charges, high transfer efficiency and potential targeting function. In this study, four kinds of L-arabinose-based cationic glycolipids (Ara-DiC12MA, ...