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Virological and Immunological Effects of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy with Zidovudine, Lamivudine, and Indinavir during Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

Forty-seven patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were treated with zidovudine 200 mg 3 times a day, lamivudine 150 mg 2 times a day, and indinavir 800 mg 3 times a day for 1 year. From a mean pretreatment viral RNA level of 4.93 log10 copies/mL, the proportions of patients having <500 copies/mL at 24 and 52 weeks were 92.0% and 89.2%, ...

Cis requirements for alternative splicing of the cardiac troponin T pre–mRNA

The cardiac troponin T (cTNT) pre-mRNA splices 17 exons contiguously but alternatively splices (includes or excludes) the fifth exon. Because both alternative splice products are processed from the same pre-mRNA species, the cTNT pre-mRNA must contain cis-acting sequences which specify exon 5 as an alternative exon. A cTNT minigene (SM-1) transfected into cultured cells produces ...

Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Resistant to Nevirapine and Zidovudine

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistant to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine and to the nucleoside analogue zidovudine was transmitted from a homosexual man to his sex partner. The virus source patient had commenced combination zidovudine and nevirapine therapy 2.5 years prior to his partner's primary HIV infection. He received both ...

Polyclonal Proliferation and Apoptosis of CCR5+ T Lymphocytes during Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection: Regulation by Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and Bcl-2

We measured apoptosis of subsets of T lymphocytes by single-cell analysis of caspase activation, to confirm high turnover of chemokine receptor CCR5+ T cells in subjects with acute, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection (PHI). High levels of spontaneous apoptosis, consisting mainly of CD8+ T lymphocytes, were closely associated with increases in the ...

Potent Antiretroviral Therapy of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) Infection: Partial Normalization of T Lymphocyte Subsets and Limited Reduction of HIV-1 DNA Despite Clearance of Plasma Viremia

Antiretroviral therapy commenced during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection (PHI) may limit the extent of viral replication and prevent early loss of HIV-specific CD4 lymphocyte function. We studied the effect of current standard therapy (2 nucleoside analogues and a protease inhibitor) in 16 patients with symptomatic PHI. In the 13 patients who completed ...

A Sentencing Problem: How Far Is a Fall from Grace

Cleveland State Law Review H. H. A. Cooper 0 Court of Criminal Appeal Act, 1907, as modified by the Court of Criminal Appeal Act , 1964 1 Regina v. McConnach , The Times Law Report, 21st 2 Visiting Prof. of

Impact of Therapeutic Immunization on HIV-1 Viremia after Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated during Acute Infection

Habib, Georgia Theofan, David A. Cooper, and Luc Perrin, for the QUEST Study Group 2 Author affiliations and study group members are listed after the text. Royal Free Centre for HIV Medicine, Royal Free ... . Mazarin, B. Mouterde, R. El Habib. Data Safety Monitoring Board. M. Schechter (Canada), I. Weller (United Kingdom), R. Luethy (Switzerland), J. M. Molina (France). Core Group. S. Kinlochde Loes, D. A

Patterns of Viral Dynamics during Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

This study used curve-fitting techniques to detail the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and its relationship to circulating T lymphocyte changes in a cohort of 41 male patients (mean age 36 ± 7 years) infected with HIV-1. The following characteristics of viral kinetics were obtained: virus load peak, 6.35 ± 0.71 log10 RNA copies/mL at 12.2 ±7.1 days; virus load drop ...

Outpatient Continuous Intravenous Interleukin-2 or Subcutaneous, Polyethylene Glycol—Modified Interleukin-2 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus—Infected Patients: A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study

The safety and activity of outpatient-based continuous intravenous interleukin-2 (CIV IL-2) or a slow-release, polyethylene glycol (PEG)—modified IL-2 were studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)—infected persons with CD4 cell counts between 200 and 500/mm3. One hundred fifteen patients were randomized to antiretroviral therapy plus cyclical CIV IL-2 (n = 27), subcutaneous ...

A multiprocessor system for generating visual displays and controlling experiments

A laboratory is described that is based on an IMSAI 8080 microcomputer and an IMLAC graphics display system. Procedures for using the system are described and illustrated.

Estimation of the potency of ORG 9426 using two different modes of nerve stimulation

The potency of ORG 9426, a new nondepolarising muscle relaxant, has been estimated using two different modes of nerve stimulation in patients anaesthetised with thiopentone, nitrous oxide-oxygen and intravenous fentanyl. The force of contraction of adductor pollicis was measured following a single twitch (ST) at 0.1 Hz or a train-of-four (TOF) mode of stimulation at 2 Hz every ten ...

Administration of Imiquimod, an Interferon Inducer, in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus—Infected Persons to Determine Safety and Biologic Response Modification

A phase I study to determine safety, maximum tolerated dose, and biologic response during multiple once-a-week administration of oral imiquimod, an immune response modifier, was conducted in 12 adults with early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. All completed the dose-escalation phase of weekly dosing at 100-mg increments and received at least one maintenance dose, 100 ...

LAB-IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH

Epidemiological studies have highlighted associations between the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and reduced cancer risks in humans. Most NSAIDs function as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors that prevent production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and NSAIDs reduce vascular endothelial growth factor ...

Severity and Prognosis of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Illness: A Dose-Response Relationship

This study examined the relationship between the severity of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and disease progression and death. The population included 218 patients with acute HIV-1 illness and 41 asymptomatic patients who underwent HIV-1 seroconversion; the patients were followed up prospectively. We analyzed progression to Centers for Disease Control and ...

Delivery of Legal Services to the Poor in the Twenty-First Century

Michael A. Cooper , Charles J. Ogletree, Robert F. Drinan, Elaine R. Jones, Margaret Fung, Bob Herbert, Deborah L. Rhode, Beverly M. Smith, William G. Paul, Charles Halpern , Kristen B. Glen & Robert E

Meta-Analysis of the INSIG2 Association with Obesity Including 74,345 Individuals: Does Heterogeneity of Estimates Relate to Study Design?

Kronenberg Vera Adamkova Sonia S. Anand Kristin Ardlie Heike Biebermann Peter Bjerregaard Heiner Boeing Claude Bouchard Marina Ciullo Jackie A. Cooper Dolores Corella Christian Dina James C. Engert Eva Fisher

Fourier analyses: A mathematical and geometric explanation

Fourier analyses are used in electrophysiological research to reduce EEG data to an interpretable, analyzable form. This article outlines the mathematical similarities and differences between Fourier transforms and fast Fourier transforms. A geometric explanation of the application of fast Fourier transforms and a Fourier series to theta-band EEG data is also included in this ...