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A mixture of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles induces histamine secretion in mast cells

Background Histamine released from mast cells, through complex interactions involving the binding of IgE to FcεRI receptors and the subsequent intracellular Ca2+ signaling, can mediate many allergic/inflammatory responses. The possibility of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a nanomaterial pervasively used in nanotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, to directly...

TP53 mutations, tetraploidy and homologous recombination repair defects in early stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer

To determine early somatic changes in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), we performed whole genome sequencing on a rare collection of 16 low stage HGSOCs. The majority showed extensive structural alterations (one had an ultramutated profile), exhibited high levels of p53 immunoreactivity, and harboured a TP53 mutation, deletion or inactivation. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations...

Overexpression of the Wheat Aquaporin Gene, TaAQP7, Enhances Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

Aquaporin (AQP) proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from...

Crucial Involvement of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils in the Regulation of Chronic Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of chronic inflammation that can frequently progress to colon cancer. Several studies have demonstrated massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lamina propria and submucosa in the progression of UC-associated colon carcinogenesis. Macrophages contribute to the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC...

Functionalized Positive Nanoparticles Reduce Mucin Swelling and Dispersion

Multi-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively investigated for their potential in household and commercial products, and biomedical applications. Previous reports have confirmed the cellular nanotoxicity and adverse inflammatory effects on pulmonary systems induced by NPs. However, possible health hazards resulting from mucus rheological disturbances induced by...

Biochemical characterization of a novel laccase from the basidiomycete fungus Cerrena sp. WR1†

This study reports a new white-rot fungus Cerrena sp. WR1, identified based on an 18S rDNA sequence, which can secrete extracellular forms of laccase with a maximal activity reaching 202 000 U l−1 in a 5-l fermenter. A laccase protein, designated Lcc3, was purified and shown to be N-linked glycosylated by PNGase F and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The...

Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag...

Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata)

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated...

MiR-RACE, a New Efficient Approach to Determine the Precise Sequences of Computationally Identified Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata) MicroRNAs

Background Among the hundreds of genes encoding miRNAs in plants reported, much more were predicted by numerous computational methods. However, unlike protein-coding genes defined by start and stop codons, the ends of miRNA molecules do not have characteristics that can be used to define the mature miRNAs exactly, which made computational miRNA prediction methods often cannot...

Investigation of the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

; Chia-Te Kung and Chih-Min Su are physicians from the Department of Emergency Medicine; Hung-Chen Wang and Yu-Jun Lin are surgeons from the Department of Neurosurgery; and Wei-Che Lin is a radiologist

Predictors and long-term outcome of seizures in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis

Background Seizures are one of the most important neurologic complications of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis. A better understanding of the risk associated factors can help predict those who will require treatment. Methods This 22-year retrospective study enrolled 180 patients. Prognostic variables independently associated with seizures or...

Mitochondrial Ubiquitin Ligase MARCH5 Promotes TLR7 Signaling by Attenuating TANK Action

The signaling of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is the host's first line of defense against microbial invasion. The mitochondrion is emerging as a critical platform for antiviral signal transduction. The regulatory role of mitochondria for TLR signaling remains to be explored. Here, we show that the mitochondrial outer-membrane protein MARCH5 positively regulates TLR7 signaling...

Knowledge-guided gene ranking by coordinative component analysis

Chen Wang 0 Jianhua Xuan 0 Huai Li Yue Wang 0 Ming Zhan Eric P Hoffman Robert Clarke 0 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Prognostic and Therapeutic Relevance of Molecular Subtypes in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

Molecular classification of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) using transcriptional profiling has proven to be complex and difficult to validate across studies. We determined gene expression profiles of 174 well-annotated HGSOCs and demonstrate prognostic significance of the prespecified TCGA Network gene signatures. Furthermore, we confirm the presence of four HGSOC...

Pretreatment with intrathecal amitriptyline potentiates anti-hyperalgesic effects of post-injury intra-peritoneal amitriptyline following spinal nerve ligation

Background Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant and potent use-dependent blocker of sodium channels, has been shown to attenuate acute and chronic pain in several preclinical modes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intrathecal pretreatment with amitriptyline combined with post-injury intra-peritoneal amitriptyline is more effective than post-injury...

Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein Increases C-Reactive Protein Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells through the LOX-1 Receptor

Objectives Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the...

PatternCNV: a versatile tool for detecting copy number changes from exome sequencing data

Motivation: Exome sequencing (exome-seq) data, which are typically used for calling exonic mutations, have also been utilized in detecting DNA copy number variations (CNVs). Despite the existence of several CNV detection tools, there is still a great need for a sensitive and an accurate CNV-calling algorithm with built-in QC steps, and does not require a paired reference for each...

Fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala Polymorphism Specifically Contributes to Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension by Increasing Fibrin Resistance

Background Polymorphisms are associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), but no polymorphism specific to CTEPH but not PTE has yet been reported. Fibrin resistance is associated with CTEPH, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. Methods Polymorphisms were analyzed in 101 CTEPH subjects, 102 PTE subjects and 108...

The diagnostic value of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients

Background To compare the value of ultrasonography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Eighty non-DM and 40 DM patients with electromyography-confirmed CTS were assessed and underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the wrists. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) of the median nerve were...

Mechanistic Insights Revealed by the Crystal Structure of a Histidine Kinase with Signal Transducer and Sensor Domains

A crystal structure reveals an elegant mechanistic switch whereby helical bending and catalytic domain rotation allow self-activation of a histidine kinase during a bacterial stress response.