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Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

Background Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to...

Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting...

Characterization of whole-genome autosomal differences of DNA methylation between men and women

ShemT‑ov Simone Wahl 0 Harald Grallert 0 Giovanni Fiorito SoY‑oun Shin Katharina Schramm Petra Wolf Sonja Kunze 0 Yael Baran Simonetta Guarrera Paolo Vineis Vittorio Krogh Salvatore Panico Rosario Tumino

Causal models in epidemiology: past inheritance and genetic future

The eruption of genetic research presents a tremendous opportunity to epidemiologists to improve our ability to identify causes of ill health. Epidemiologists have enthusiastically embraced the new tools of genomics and proteomics to investigate gene-environment interactions. We argue that neither the full import nor limitations of such studies can be appreciated without...

Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe: results from the EPIC cohort study

Background Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk of premature death. Methods We analysed data from 264,906 European adults from the...

Cancer as an evolutionary process at the cell level: an epidemiological perspective

Germ-line mutations (present in all cells) in genes that are crucial for the cell cycle cause cancer only in specific cell lines (e.g. mismatch repair genes in the colon; BRCA1-2 in breast and ovary; other cancers in Bloom syndrome, neurofibromatosis and xeroderma pigmentosum). The mutation rate of genes other than mismatch repair or p53 is the same in colon cancer and in normal...

Quantifying the Dose-Response Relationship Between Circulating Folate Concentrations and Colorectal Cancer in Cohort Studies: A Meta-Analysis Based on a Flexible Meta-Regression Model

Most epidemiologic studies on folate intake suggest that folate may be protective against colorectal cancer, but the results on circulating (plasma or serum) folate are mostly inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies nested within prospective studies on circulating folate and colorectal cancer risk by using flexible meta-regression models to test the...

Assessing causal relationships in genomics: From Bradford-Hill criteria to complex gene-environment interactions and directed acyclic graphs

European Union 6th Framework Program, Priority 5: “Food Quality and Safety” (Contract No 513943). Paolo Vineis would like to acknowledge the European Union grant HEALTH-2007-201550 HyperGenes. Sara Geneletti

Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

European Community (5th Framework Programme) to Prof. Paolo Vineis (Grant QLK4CT199900927); and a grant of the Compagnia di San Paolo to the ISI Foundation. All authors are independent form founders ... , Paolo Vineis. Analysis and interpretation of data: Valentina Gallo, Nicola Vanacore, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Roel Vermeulen, Carol Brayne, Petra A. Wark, Heather A Ward, Pietro Ferrari, Mazda Jenab

The impact of new research technologies on our understanding of environmental causes of disease: the concept of clinical vulnerability

In spite of decades of epidemiological research, the etiology and causal patterns for many common diseases, such as breast and colon cancer or neurodegenerative diseases, are still largely unknown. Such chronic diseases are likely to have an environmental origin. However, "environmental" risks have been often elusive in epidemiological studies. This is a conundrum for current...

Air pollution and cancer: biomarker studies in human populations†

the open access publication charges for this article was provided by the European Commission (QLK4-CT-1999-00927) to Paolo Vineis. Conflict of Interest Statement: None declared. References

Epigenome-wide association study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Turin) identifies novel genetic loci associated with smoking

A single cytosine–guanine dinucleotide (CpG) site within coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3) was recently found to be hypomethylated in peripheral blood genomic DNA from smokers compared with former and non-smokers. We performed two epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) nested in a prospective healthy cohort using the Illumina 450K Methylation Beadchip...

Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study

BackgroundCadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma...

Metabolomic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma in a European prospective cohort

Heiner Boeing Pagona Lagiou Christina Bamia Dimitrios Trichopoulos Domenico Palli Valeria Pala Salvatore Panico Rosario Tumino Paolo Vineis H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita Petra H. Peeters Elisabete Weiderpass

Autoantibodies to Ezrin are an early sign of pancreatic cancer in humans and in genetically engineered mouse models

4 Alessio Naccarati 6 Carlotta Sacerdote 5 6 Stefania Beghelli 10 Samantha Bersani 9 Stefano Barbi 9 Claudio Bassi 3 Aldo Scarpa 9 10 Paola Nistic 12 Mirella Giovarelli 0 1 4 Paolo Vineis 6 13 Michele

The mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Greek-Cypriot women: a case-control study

Background Diet has long been suspected to impact on breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated whether the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern modifies breast cancer risk amongst Greek-Cypriot women. Methods Subjects included 935 cases and 817 controls, all participating in the MASTOS case-control study in Cyprus. The study was approved by the Cyprus National...

Association Between Total Number of Deaths, Diabetes Mellitus, Incident Cancers, and Haplotypes in Chromosomal Region 8q24 in a Prospective Study

, Silvia Polidoro, Alessandra Allione, Fabio Rosa, Floriana Voglino, Rossana Critelli, Alessia Russo, Paolo Vineis, Giuseppe Matullo); Department of Genetics, Biology, and Biochemistry, University of Torino ... Environment and Health, St. Marys Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom (Paolo Vineis). This work was supported by grants from the Associazione Italiana per le Ricerche sul Cancro, Italy (to

Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

 Sánchez Soledad Sánchez Signe Borgquist Salma Butt Beatrice Melin Florentin Späth Sabina Rinaldi Paul Brennan Rachel S.Kelly Elio Riboli Paolo Vineis Rudolf Kaaks © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

Response Re: Markers of DNA Repair and Susceptibility to Cancer in Humans: an Epidemiologic Review

. We hope that other eminent scientists will join their efforts to develop appropriate assays for DNA repair. MARIANNE BERWICK PAOLO VINEIS (1) Berwick M, Vineis P. Markers of DNA repair and

Compliance with clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer treatment: a population-based study of quality-of-care indicators in Italy

Background It has been documented that variations exist in breast cancer treatment despite wide dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of regional guidelines (Piedmont guidelines, PGL) for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment on quality-of-care indicators in the Northwestern Italian region of Piedmont...