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A Unified Comparison of Stimulus-Driven, Endogenous Mandatory and ‘Free Choice’ Saccades

It has been claimed that saccades arising from the three saccade triggering modes–stimulus-driven, endogenous mandatory and ‘free choice’–are driven by distinct mechanisms. We tested this claim by instructing observers to saccade from a white or black fixation disc to a same polarity (white or black) disc flashed for 100 or 200 ms presented either alone (Exo), or together with an...

Petrov type I condition and Rindler fluid in vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

Recently the Petrov type I condition is introduced to reduce the degrees of freedom of the extrinsic curvature of a timelike hypersurface to the degrees of freedom in the dual Rindler fluid in Einstein gravity. In this paper we show that the Petrov type I condition holds for the solutions of vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity up to the second order in the relativistic...

Land use/land cover changes and regional climate over the Loess Plateau during 2001–2009. Part II: interrelationship from observations

Afforestation efforts in China resulted in significant changes in vegetation coverage over the Loess Plateau during 2001–2009. While regional climate conditions dominate the distribution of major vegetation types, human activities, primarily afforestation/reforestation and the resultant land use/land cover (LULC) changes (LULCC) and their impacts, are the focus of this study. A...

Nitrogen (N) Deposition Impacts Seedling Growth of Pinus massoniana via N:P Ratio Effects and the Modulation of Adaptive Responses to Low P (Phosphorus)

Zhou 0 Qing Yang 0 Han Y.H. Chen, Lakehead University, Canada 0 Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry , Fu Yang, Zhe Jiang , P. R. China Background: In forest

Dissemination of NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Mediated by the IncX3-Type Plasmid

The emergence and spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae have resulted in a worldwide public health risk that has affected some provinces of China. China is an exceptionally large country, and there is a crucial need to investigate the epidemic of blaNDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in our province. A total of 186 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) were...

Evolutionary study of the isoflavonoid pathway based on multiple copies analysis in soybean

Background Previous studies suggest that the metabolic pathway structure influences the selection and evolution rates of involved genes. However, most of these studies have exclusively considered a single gene copy encoding each enzyme in the metabolic pathway. Considering multiple-copy encoding enzymes could provide direct evidence of gene evolution and duplication patterns in...

Metformin Treatment for the Prevention and/or Treatment of Breast/Mammary Tumorigenesis

article is part of the Topical Collection on Cancer Chemoprevention Metformin; Breast cancer; Chemoprevention; AMPK; Rodents; Humans - Michael E. Grossmann and Da-Qing Yang contributed equally to this ... Foundation (DAP) and Community Fund (DAP). Compliance with Ethics Guidelines Conflict of Interest Michael E. Grossmann, Da-Qing Yang, Zhijun Guo, David A. Potter, and Margot P. Cleary declare that they have

Blockade of Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Increases Sensitivity to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

Aberrant activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) maintenance; both processes can result in tumor progression and treatment resistance in several types of human cancer. Hh cooperates with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in embryogenesis. We...

Distinct Control of Initiation and Metrics of Memory-Guided Saccades and Vergence by the FEF: A TMS Study

Background The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF). Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS) over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye...

Biofortification of rice with the essential amino acid lysine: molecular characterization, nutritional evaluation, and field performance

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major staple crop worldwide, has limited levels of the essential amino acid lysine. We previously produced engineered rice with increased lysine content by expressing bacterial aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase and inhibiting rice lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase activity. However, the grain quality, field...

Promoter hypomethylation, especially around the E26 transformation-specific motif, and increased expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in BRCA-mutated serous ovarian cancer

Background Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) overexpression plays a critical role in ovarian cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer has advanced rapidly. However, the mechanism regulating PARP1 expression remains unknown. Alterations in gene expression mediated by promoter methylation are being increasingly...

Concomitant coronary and renal revascularization improves left ventricular hypertrophy more than coronary stenting alone in patients with ischemic heart and renal disease

HUANG, De-mou LUO, Jingguang YE, Jun-qing YANG, Guang LI, Jian-fang LUO, and Ying-ling ZHOU declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical

Reduced cortical thickness in right Heschl’s gyrus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations severity in first-episode schizophrenia

Weidan Pu Yinnan Song Tumbwene E. Mwansisya 0 Qing Yang Haihong Liu Zhening Liu 0 Baoci Shan Zhimin Xue 0 0 Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental

Significant Association of Glutathione S-Transferase T1 Null Genotype with Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 26,393 Subjects

Subjects Qing Yang 0 Jun Du 0 Xin Yao 0 Georgina L. Hold, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom 0 Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer

Quantum secure direct communication against the collective noise with polarization-entangled Bell states

We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol via a collective noise channel, exploiting polarization-entangled Bell states and the nondemolition parity analysis based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The participant Bob, who will receive the secret information, sends one of two photons in a polarization-entangled Bell state exploiting the transmission circuit...

Quantum secure direct communication against the collective noise with polarization-entangled Bell states

We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol via a collective noise channel, exploiting polarization-entangled Bell states and the nondemolition parity analysis based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The participant Bob, who will receive the secret information, sends one of two photons in a polarization-entangled Bell state exploiting the transmission circuit...

A Sperm–Plasma β-N-Acetyl-D-Hexosaminidase Interacting with a Chitinolytic β-N-Acetyl-D-Hexosaminidase in Insect Molting Fluid

Insects require molting fluids to shed the old cuticle during molting. β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, known as Hex1, together with various chitinases, is responsible for degrading the chitin component of the old cuticle. This study showed that another β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, termed OfHex3, interacted with Hex1 and functioned in the molting fluid, although the homolog of OfHex3...

CSH guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced liver injury

-xia Liu, Lun-gen Lu, Shi-wu Ma, Xiong Ma, Yue-min Nan, Hong Ren, Tao Shen, Hao Wang, Ji-yao Wang, Tai-ling Wang, Xiao-jin Wang, Lai Wei, Qing Xie, Wen Xie, Chang-qing Yang, Dong-liang Yang, Yan-yan Yu

Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden Rocket)

Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247 696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided...