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84 papers found.
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Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Armenian Children

Background. The Republic of Armenia was 1 of the 2 earliest countries in the Newly Independent States to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program to reduce the burden of rotavirus disease (documented to cause 38% of acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations [AGE] among children aged <5 years). In November 2012, RV1 (Rotarix) was introduced for Armenian...

Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine After Programmatic Implementation in Botswana: A Multisite Prospective Case-Control Study

Background. Botswana introduced monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in July 2012, providing one of the first opportunities to assess the effectiveness of routine RV1 vaccination in a high-burden setting in Africa. We sought to determine the effectiveness of RV1 against rotavirus diarrhea hospitalization using a case-control evaluation. Methods. Vaccine age-eligible children...

Population Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Urban Malawian Children 3 Years After Vaccine Introduction: Ecological and Case-Control Analyses

Background. Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in many low-income African countries including Malawi in 2012. Despite early evidence of vaccine impact, determining persistence of protection beyond infancy, the utility of the vaccine against specific rotavirus genotypes, and effectiveness in vulnerable subgroups is important. Methods. We compared rotavirus prevalence in...

Cost-Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination of Infants in Malawi: A Postintroduction Analysis Using Individual Patient–Level Costing Data

Background. Rotavirus vaccination reduces childhood hospitalization in Africa, but cost-effectiveness has not been determined using real-world effectiveness and costing data. We sought to determine monovalent rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness in Malawi, one of Africa's poorest countries and the first Gavi-eligible country to report disease reduction following introduction in...

Reply to Anderson et al

content of the manuscript have been disclosed. Ben A. Lopman and Umesh D. Parashar Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and

The Rotavirus Experience in Mexico: Discovery to Control

The recent introduction of a rotavirus vaccine program in Mexico to control rotavirus disease, a common killer of children worldwide, has dramatically reduced the number of Mexican children dying and being hospitalized because of diarrhea. The successful introduction of a rotavirus vaccine program was preceded by several decades of focused research efforts to document the burden...

Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008–2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

Objective To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. Methods We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD...

Correction: Impact of Withholding Breastfeeding at the Time of Vaccination on the Immunogenicity of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine—A Randomized Trial

Jessica A. Fleming SungSil Moon Umesh D. Parashar Baoming Jiang Monica M. McNeal Duncan Steele Zulfiqar Bhutta Anita K. M. Zaidi Supporting Information There are errors in S1 Fig. Please view the correct

Impact of Different Dosing Schedules on the Immunogenicity of the Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants in Pakistan: A Randomized Trial

Background. Current oral rotavirus vaccines perform suboptimally in resource-poor settings. We investigated the effect of an additional dose and later schedule on the immunogenicity of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in a developing country. Methods. Infants received RV1 at 6 and 10, 10 and 14, or 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. The primary objective was to compare antirotavirus...

Impact of Withholding Breastfeeding at the Time of Vaccination on the Immunogenicity of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine—A Randomized Trial

Background Breast milk contains anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies and other innate immune factors that inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro. These factors could diminish the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccines, particularly if breastfeeding occurs close to the time of vaccine administration. Methods Between April 2011 and November 2012, we conducted an open label, randomized...

Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis in the Ambulatory Setting—United States, 2001–2009

Background. Gastroenteritis remains an important cause of morbidity in the United States. The burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in ambulatory US patients is not well understood. Methods. Cause-specified and cause-unspecified gastroenteritis emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits during July 2001–June 2009 were extracted from MarketScan insurance claim databases. By...

Assessing the Effectiveness and Public Health Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines after Introduction in Immunization Programs

Two new vaccines against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis that have high efficacy in middle- and high-income countries have recently been licensed in many countries worldwide. Clinical trials in low-income countries in Africa and Asia are ongoing. Experience gained through studies of natural rotavirus infection and the clinical trials for the current and previous rotavirus...

Removing the Age Restrictions for Rotavirus Vaccination: A Benefit-Risk Modeling Analysis

A modeling analysis conducted by Manish Patel and colleagues predicts the possible number of rotavirus deaths prevented, and number of intussusception deaths caused, by use of an unrestricted rotavirus schedule in low- and middle-income countries.

The Roles of Clostridium difficile and Norovirus Among Gastroenteritis-Associated Deaths in the United States, 1999–2007

Background. Globally, gastroenteritis is recognized as an important contributor to mortality among children, but population-based data on gastroenteritis deaths among adults and the contributions of specific pathogens are limited. We aimed to describe trends in gastroenteritis deaths across all ages in the United States and specifically estimate the contributions of Clostridium...

Protective Association Between Rotavirus Vaccination and Childhood Seizures in the Year Following Vaccination in US Children

Background. Rotavirus illness has been linked to childhood seizures. We investigated whether a protective association exists between receipt of rotavirus vaccine and being hospitalized or visiting the emergency department for seizures in the year after vaccination. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children born after 28 February 2006 (when rotavirus vaccine was...

Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in the United States

Google-based Internet query share (IQS) for rotavirus search terms correlated well with US rotavirus laboratory detections from 2004 to 2010 (r = 0.88; P < .001), capturing the reduction observed during postvaccine years (2008–2010). IQS analysis could become an inexpensive and reliable supplement for monitoring the impact of rotavirus vaccination in the United States.

Infant Rotavirus Vaccination May Provide Indirect Protection to Older Children and Adults in the United States

Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011. 0022-1899 (print)/1537-6613 (online)/2011/2047-0003$14.00 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir492 1 Ben A. Lopman, Aaron T. Curns, Catherine Yen, and Umesh D. Parashar Division

All-Cause Gastroenteritis and Rotavirus-Coded Hospitalizations Among US Children, 2000–2009

Background. Rotavirus vaccine was recommended for US infants in 2006. We estimated baseline prevaccine burden and monitored postvaccine trends in gastroenteritis-coded and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations among US children. Methods. We analyzed data from the State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 29–44 US states over a 10-year period (2000–2009) to calculate gastroenteritis and...

Impact of an Emergent Norovirus Variant in 2009 on Norovirus Outbreak Activity in the United States

In October 2009, a new genogroup II, type 4 (GII.4) norovirus variant was identified in the United States. We collected norovirus outbreak data from 30 states to assess whether this new strain was associated with increased acute gastroenteritis activity. No increase in norovirus outbreaks was observed during the 2009–2010 winter.

Trends in Intussusception Hospitalizations Among US Infants Before and After Implementation of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program, 2000–2009

Background. Although US data have not documented an intussusception risk with current rotavirus vaccines, international data indicate a possible low risk, primarily after the first dose. Methods. Among infants in 26 US states comprising 75% of the birth cohort, we examined age-specific trends in population-level intussusception hospitalization rates before (2000–2005) and after...