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Effects of forest conversion on soil microbial communities depend on soil layer on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China

Forest land-use changes have long been suggested to profoundly affect soil microbial communities. However, how forest type conversion influences soil microbial properties remains unclear in Tibetan boreal forests. The aim of this study was to explore variations of soil microbial profiles in the surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil among three contrasting forests ...

What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey

It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their ...

The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats

We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure ...

A multicenter, randomized study of decitabine as epigenetic priming with induction chemotherapy in children with AML

Background Decitabine is a deoxycytidine nucleoside derivative inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferases, which has been studied extensively and is approved for myelodysplastic syndrome in adults but with less focus in children. Accordingly, we conducted a phase 1 multicenter, randomized, open-label study to evaluate decitabine pre-treatment before standard induction therapy in children ...

On the existence of solutions for some infinite coefficient-symmetric Caputo-Fabrizio fractional integro-differential equations

By mixing the idea of 2-arrays, continued fractions, and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative, we introduce a new operator entitled the infinite coefficient-symmetric Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative. We investigate the approximate solutions for two infinite coefficient-symmetric Caputo-Fabrizio fractional integro-differential problems. Finally, we analyze two examples to ...

Incidence of DAA failure and the clinical impact of retreatment in real-life patients treated in the advanced stage of liver disease: Interim evaluations from the PITER network

Background Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure. Aim To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage. Methods Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were ...

Observational study of potential risk factors of immersion pulmonary edema in healthy divers: exercise intensity is the main contributor

Background The risk factors of pulmonary edema induced by diving in healthy subjects are not well known. The aim of the present study was to assess the parameters contributing to the increase in extravascular lung water after diving. Methods This study was carried out in a professional diving institute. All divers participating in the teaching program from June 2012 to June 2014 ...

Optimization of phenolics and flavonoids extraction conditions of Curcuma Zedoaria leaves using response surface methodology

This study focused on maximizing the extraction yield of total phenolics and flavonoids from Curcuma Zedoaria leaves as a function of time (80–120 min), temperature (60–80 °C) and ethanol concentration (70–90 v/v%). The data were subjected to response surface methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of ...

Correction to: A Connection Between Sports and Matroids: How Many Teams Can We Beat?

The authors regret the following error in their article “A connection between sports and matroids: How many teams can we beat?” (Algorithmica, doi: 10.1007/s00453-016-0256-2), considering the computational complexity of the problem MinStanding(S). In Theorem 3 of our paper [4], we erroneously claimed a \(\mathsf {W}[1]\)-hardness result to hold even for the case where the ...

A Topological Representation of Branching Neuronal Morphologies

Many biological systems consist of branching structures that exhibit a wide variety of shapes. Our understanding of their systematic roles is hampered from the start by the lack of a fundamental means of standardizing the description of complex branching patterns, such as those of neuronal trees. To solve this problem, we have invented the Topological Morphology Descriptor (TMD), a ...

Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modelling

Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better ...

Sinking towards destiny: High throughput measurement of phytoplankton sinking rates through time-resolved fluorescence plate spectroscopy

Diatoms are marine primary producers that sink in part due to the density of their silica frustules. Sinking of these phytoplankters is crucial for both the biological pump that sequesters carbon to the deep ocean and for the life strategy of the organism. Sinking rates have been previously measured through settling columns, or with fluorimeters or video microscopy arranged ...

Usefulness of axonal tract-dependent OCT macular sectors for evaluating structural change in normal-tension glaucoma

Purpose To identify sectors of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular map that could be used to effectively assess structural progression in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods This study examined 117 eyes of 117 NTG patients to establish axonal tract-dependent macular sectors, and also examined a separate group of 122 eyes of 81 NTG patients to evaluate ...

The impact of digital start-up founders’ higher education on reaching equity investment milestones

This paper builds on human capital theory to assess the importance of formal education among graduate entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 4953 digital start-ups the paper evaluates the impact of start-up founding teams’ higher education on the probability of securing equity investment and subsequent exit for investors. The main findings are: (1), teams with a founder that has a ...

In roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1 is a stronger elicitor of immune signalling than flg22 or the chitin heptamer

Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored ...

Effectiveness of two web-based cognitive bias modification interventions targeting approach and attentional bias in gambling problems: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully ...