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187 papers found.
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Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibits the Motility of Pathogenic Salmonella by Affecting the Driving Forces of Motility and the Chemotactic Response

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key pattern recognition molecule in the lectin pathway of the complement system, an important component of innate immunity. MBL functions as an opsonin which enhances the sequential immune process such as phagocytosis. We here report an inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of pathogenic bacteria, which occurs by affecting the energy source...

Endothelial microparticles are increased in congenital heart diseases and contribute to endothelial dysfunction

Background We previously demonstrated that endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are increased in mitral valve diseases and impair valvular endothelial cell function. Perioperative systemic inflammation is an important risk factor and complication of cardiac surgery. In this study, we investigate whether EMPs increase in congenital heart diseases to promote inflammation and...

De novo transcriptomic analysis of the female and male adults of the blood fluke Schistosoma turkestanicum

Background Schistosoma turkestanicum is a parasite of considerable veterinary importance as an agent of animal schistosomiasis in many countries, including China. The S. turkestanicum cercariae can also infect humans, causing cercarial dermatitis in many countries and regions of the world. In spite of its significance as a pathogen of animals and humans, there is little...

Enhancing HIV Testing and Treatment among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Pilot Model with Two-Rapid Tests, Single Blood Draw Session, and Intensified Case Management in Six Cities in 2013

Objectives To explore models to improve HIV testing, linkage to care and treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in cooperation with community-based organizations (CBOs) in China. Methods We introduced a new model for HIV testing services targeting MSM in six cities in 2013.These models introduced provision of rapid HIV testing by CBO staff and streamlined processes for...

Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells in treating human autoimmune disease-associated lung fibrosis

Background Interstitial pneumonia in connective tissue diseases (CTD-IP) featuring inflammation and fibrosis is a leading cause of death in CTD-IP patients. The related autoimmune lung injury and disturbed self-healing process make conventional anti-inflammatory drugs ineffective. Equipped with unique immunoregulatory and regenerative properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may...

Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell

We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and...

Combinational Therapy Enhances the Effects of Anti-IGF-1R mAb Figitumumab to Target Small Cell Lung Cancer

Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with distinct biologic properties. Antibody targeting therapy has been actively investigated as a new drug modality. Methods We tested the expression of IGF-1R and calculated the survival in 61 SCLC patients. We also evaluated the anti-tumor effects of anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody Figitumumab (CP) on SCLC...

Milk consumption in relation to incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 48 countries/regions

Background Decreasing trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) incidence have been consistently reported in endemic populations but the etiology of NPC remains unclear. The objective of our study was to assess the international and local (Hong Kong) correlations of milk and dairy products per capita consumption with NPC incidence. Methods We conducted an ecological study in 48...

Influence of Chest Compressions on Circulation during the Peri-Cardiac Arrest Period in Porcine Models

Objective Starting chest compressions immediately after a defibrillation shock might be harmful, if the victim already had a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and yet was still being subjected to external compressions at the same time. The objective of this study was to study the influence of chest compressions on circulation during the peri-cardiac arrest period. Design...

Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology

In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same...

Controllable photoluminescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots thin films incorporation with Au nanoparticles

Au nanoparticles (Au NPs)/CdTe/CdS QDs nanocomposite films were fabricated by deposition of Au NPs and layer-by-layer self-assembly of colloidal CdTe/CdS QDs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that Au NPs incorporation resulted in an increase of PL intensity about 16-fold compared with that of the samples without Au NPs. PL enhancement of Au NPs/CdTe/CdS QDs nanocomposite...

CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells play a role in tuberculous hydrothorax rather than malignant hydrothorax

Background Foxp3 + T cells regulate inflammation and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of Foxp3 + T cells in malignant or tuberculous hydrothorax. Methods The numbers of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + , CD4 + CD25 − Foxp3 + T cells and the levels of some inflammatory cytokines in patients with tuberculous hydrothorax, malignant hydrothorax, and...

On the Utility of Short Echo Time (TE) Single Voxel 1H–MRS in Non–Invasive Detection of 2–Hydroxyglutarate (2HG); Challenges and Potential Improvement Illustrated with Animal Models Using MRUI and LCModel

Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are frequently found in brain tumors, and the resulting onco–metabolite, 2–hydroxyglutarate (2HG), has been suggested to be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of the diseases. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of non–invasively detecting 2HG by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

Nanosphere-in-a-nanoegg: damping the high-order modes induced by symmetry breaking

We study the optical properties of the nanosphere-in-a-nanoegg structure (NSNE) by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. We demonstrate the suppression of the high-order plasmon modes in NSNE, which is induced by the plasmon interaction between the inner nanosphere and the outer nanoegg shell. A two-layer plasmon hybridization model is presented to explain...

In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, and Ammonia Volatilization in Maize Field Fertilized with Urea in Huanghuaihai Region of Northern China

Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha-1) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha-1 has been routinely applied to soil...

Predicting Changes in Macrophyte Community Structure from Functional Traits in a Freshwater Lake: A Test of Maximum Entropy Model

Trait-based approaches have been widely applied to investigate how community dynamics respond to environmental gradients. In this study, we applied a series of maximum entropy (maxent) models incorporating functional traits to unravel the processes governing macrophyte community structure along water depth gradient in a freshwater lake. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual...